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Long and Short Term Periodic Activity at Karymsky Volcano (1999)
Ozerov A., Lees J., Ispolatov J. Long and Short Term Periodic Activity at Karymsky Volcano // AGU Spring Meeting 1999. Eos Trans. AGU, xx (xx), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract. Boston, Massachusetts: AGU. 1999. P. V11D-09.
Long-lived Volcanic Centers of Kamchatka Geothermal Areas (2020)
Belousov Vladimir, Belousova Irina, Khubaeva Olga Long-lived Volcanic Centers of Kamchatka Geothermal Areas // World Geothermal Congress 2020+1. Reykjavik, Iceland: 2020. С. 1-8.    Annotation
The current problems of hydrothermal processes and ore-forming systems are volcanic heat sources and mechanisms of heat
transfer. In Pauzhetsky, Semyachik and Mutnovsky geothermal areas in Kamchatka, active long-lived volcanic centers have been
studied, with which high-temperature hydrothermal systems are associated. In the Banno-Paratunsky geothermal area the Paleogene
and Neogene long-lived volcanic centers were identified, with which low-temperature hydrothermal systems are associated. The
geological history of the long-lived volcanic centers development is characterized by changes in their structure as a result of
hydrothermal-magmatic activity. These changes are manifested in the generation and evolution of magma chambers in the mantle
and in the Earth’s crust. Basalt melts of the mantle chambers transport the deep heat to the Earth’s surface through plane magmatic
channels without significant losses. The heat flow of these volcanic centers is short-lived and is characterized by a significant
capacity of ~8,000 kcal/km2s. The long-lived volcanic centers are characterized by the presence of magma chambers in the Earth's
crust. They shield the part of the mantle heat flow. Their thermal capacity on the Earth's surface is estimated from 1000 kcal/km2s
to 5000 kcal/km2s. It is assumed that a significant amount of thermal energy is retained in the long-lived volcanic centers. It is
spent on formation and activity of the chambers as well as the convective hydrothermal ore-forming systems. The evolution of such
centers is accompanied by the formation of complexes of metamorphic rocks which interaction with high-temperature mantle melts
is accompanied by redox reactions like combustion. As a result of these reactions, thermal energy is produced in such magma
chambers. A long-lived jet magmatic system is formed, and it provides the transfer of mantle heat. Heat transfer in the system is
accompanied by minimization of heat losses, accumulation of heat and its additional generation which is necessary for the heat
transfer in the structures with low thermal conductivity. The formation, evolution and extinction of magma chambers and reservoirs
in such heat-conducting structures are controlled by the thermophysical properties of the rocks, their geological structure and redox processes in them.



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