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Вулкан: Расширенный поиск

Количество записей: 1899
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Салтыков В.А., Воропаев П.В., Кугаенко Ю.А., Чебров Д.В. Удинская сейсмическая активизация 2017–2018 гг. // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 37. № 1. С. 5-7.    Аннотация
Обсуждается активизация сейсмичности под Удинскими вулканами, свидетельствующая о возможном возобновлении их вулканической активности. Значимость активизации проанализирована по методике статистической оценки уровня сейсмичности СОУС’09, применяющейся для мониторинга сейсмичности Камчатки.
Салтыков В.А., Кугаенко Ю.А., Воропаев П.В. ПЕРВОЕ ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ В РЕЖИМЕ РЕАЛЬНОГО ВРЕМЕНИ МЕТОДИКИ ВЕРОЯТНОСТНОГО ПРОГНОЗА ИЗВЕРЖЕНИЙ ВУЛКАНА БЕЗЫМЯННЫЙ // Геофизические исследования. 2018. Т. 19. № 1. С. 49-54. doi:10.21455/gr2018.1-4.    Аннотация
В конце 2016 г. начался очередной эпизод эруптивной активности вулкана Безымянный на Камчатке. Рассматриваются предвестниковые ситуации, выявленные по возрастанию уровня сейсмичности и проанализированные в реальном времени перед тремя извержениями вулкана в ноябре 2016 г. – марте 2017 г.
Применение формализованной методики вероятностного прогноза, разработанной для вулкана Безымянный В.А. Салтыковым по сейсмическим данным 1999–2014 гг., позволило сформулировать вероятностные прогнозы извержений в режиме реального времени, которые были переданы Камчатскому филиалу Российского экспертного совета по прогнозу землетрясений, оценке сейсмической опасности и риска (КФ РЭС) и признаны оправдавшимися.
Belousov A., Belousova M., Kozlov D. The distribution of tephra deposits and reconstructing the parameters of 1973 eruption on Tyatya volcano, Kunashir, Kurile Islands // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2017. V. 11. № 4. P. 285-294.
Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Nakagawa Mitsuhiro, Kuritani Takeshi, Muravyev Yaroslav, Malik Nataliya, Klimenko Elena, Amma-Miyasaka Mizuho, Matsumoto Akiko, Shimada Shunjiro A petrological and geochemical study on time-series samples from Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka arc // Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2017. V. 172. № 5. doi:10.1007/s00410-017-1347-z.
Churikova Tatiana, Gordeychik Boris, Wörner Gerhard, Flerov Gleb, Hartmann Gerald, Simon Klaus Geochemical evolution of Bolshaya Udina, Malaya Udina, and Gorny Zub volcanoes, Klyuchevskaya Group (Kamchatka) // Geophysical Research Abstracts. 2017. V. 19. P. EGU2017-10691.    Аннотация
The Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) located in the northern part of Kamchatka has the highest magma production rate for any arc worldwide and several of its volcanoes have been studied in considerable detail [e.g. Kersting & Arculus, 1995; Pineau et al., 1999; Dorendorf et al., 2000; Ozerov, 2000; Churikova et al., 2001, 2012, 2015; Mironov et al., 2001; Portnyagin et al., 2007, 2015; Turner et al., 2007]. However, some volcanoes of the KGV including Late-Pleistocene volcanoes Bolshaya Udina, Malaya Udina, Ostraya Zimina, Ovalnaya Zimina, and Gorny Zub were studied only on a reconnaissance basis [Timerbaeva, 1967; Ermakov, 1977] and the modern geochemical studies have not been carried out at all. Among the volcanoes of KGV these volcanoes are closest to the arc trench and may hold information on geochemical zonation with respect to across arc source variations. We present the first major and trace element data on rocks from these volcanoes as well as on their basement. All rocks are medium-calc-alkaline basaltic andesites to dacites except few low-Mg basalts from Malaya Udina volcano. Phenocrysts are mainly olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite, Hb-bearing andesites and dacites are rarely found only in subvolcanic intrusions at Bolshaya Udina volcano. Lavas are geochemically similar to the active Bezymianny volcano, however, individual variations for each volcano exist in both major and trace elements. Trace element geochemistry is typical of island arc volcanism. Compared to KGV lavas all studied rocks form very narrow trends in all major element diagrams, which almost do not overlap with the fields of other KGV volcanoes. The lavas are relatively poor in alkalis, TiO2, P2O5, FeO, Ni, Zr, and enriched in SiO2 compared to other KGV volcanics and show greater geochemical and petrological evidence of magmatic differentiation during shallow crustal processing. Basement samples of the Udinskoe plateau lavas to the east of Bolshaya Udina volcano have similar geochemical composition (trace element enriched high-K basaltic andesites and andesites) and similar eruption age of 274 ka [Calkins et al., 2004] as typical plateau lavas below the northern KGV. This research was supported by RFBR-DFG grant # 16-55-12040.
Flerov G.B., Churikova T.G., Anan'ev V.V. The Ploskie Sopki volcanic massif: Geology, petrochemistry, mineralogy, and petrogenesis (Klyuchevskoi Volcanic Cluster, Kamchatka) // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2017. V. 11. V. 4. P. 266-284. doi: 10.1134/S0742046317040030.    Аннотация
This paper is concerned with the geological history and petrology of a major polygenic volcanic edifice dating back to Upper Pleistocene to Holocene time. This long-lived volcanic center is remarkable in that it combines basaltic and trachybasaltic magmas which are found in basaltic andesite and trachybasaltic– trachyandesite series. The inference is that the coexisting parent magmas are genetically independent and are generated at different sources at depth in an upper mantle volume. The associated volcanic rocks have diverse compositions, stemming from a multi-stage spatio–temporal crystallization differentiation of the magmas and mixing of these in intermediate chas.
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E. Kamchatka and North Kurile Volcano Explosive Eruptions in 2016 and Danger to Aviation // JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017 Abstracts. Chiba, Japan: Japan Geoscience Union. 2017.
Gordeychik Boris, Churikova Tatiana, Kronz Andreas, Simakin Alexander, Wörner Gerhard Olivine zoning in high-Mg basalts of the Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka) // Geophysical Research Abstracts. 2017. V. 19. P. EGU2017-10473.    Аннотация
Shiveluch volcano located in northern Kamchatka erupted mainly high-Mg andesites during Holocene times. However, tephrochronologists found two Holocene tephra layers that are unusual for this volcano: a high-Mg middle-K basalts with an age of 7600 yr BP and high-Mg high-K basalt with an age of 3600 yr BP [Volynets et al, 1997]. The proximal outcrops for these two tephra deposits were discovered just recently [Churikova et al., 2010; Gorbach & Portnyagin, 2011]. Our study of olivines from the high-Mg basalts documents unusual Mg-Fe zonation [Gordeychik et al., 2016]: Inner cores of olivines from both eruptions show Fo87-92, falling to the rim to Fo75-85. In the outer cores of both basalt tephra, forsterite decreases linearly abruptly changing to a steeper gradient towards the rim. Electron microprobe element maps reveal the complex and highly unusual zoning features of these olivines.
The inner cores of the olivines of 7600 yr BP tephra have bell-shaped distributions for forsterite and nickel. The maximum forsterite in their core can be up to Fo92, decreasing outward to the outer core to Fo86. At the same time, the trace elements in the inner core remain constant. Such element distribution is consistent with diffusion of Fe, Mg, and Ni in the initially uniform high Mg cores after the phenocrysts were changed to non-equilibrium in a less mafic melt. The shape of the inner cores suggests partial dissolution after magma mixing. The interfaces between the inner and outer cores are marked by abundant melt/fluid inclusions. The inner cores were overgrown by olivine with Fo90 when the crystals moved to the high-Mg melt. As result some olivine grains have the maximum forsterite values in the outer core. The specific feature of the olivine outer cores from basalt of the 7600 yr BP tephra eruption are concentric zones with higher values of Ca, Cr, Al, P. One of the crystals has five distinct growth zones with high Cr concentrations. The width of these zones can be only a few microns and thus such zones are often missed in typical quantitative point measurements in microprobe profiles.
Inner cores of olivines from the 3600 yr BP tephra are uniform in forsterite and nickel. However, Al and Ca element distribution maps show in inner cores higher concentrations with rather smooth contours. This suggests that initially the olivines were formed from high-Al and high-Ca melt, then were dissolved and the overgrowth zonation has been smoothed out due to faster Mg-Fe diffusion. Only Ca and Al with low diffusivity were conserved. The concentric zones with higher element concentrations are not so well expressed in olivines from the 3600 yr BP tephra, but some distinct growth zones are also shown in Ca, Cr, and P.
Information extraction and decoding of the elemental maps allow seeing highly complex growth-dissolutiondiffusion history of magma mixing processes prior to eruption. This research was supported by RFBR-DFG grant # 16-55-12040.
Igarashi Yohko, Girina O.A., Osiensky Jeffrey, Moore Donald International Coordination in Managing Airborne Ash Hazards: Lessons from the Northern Pacific // Advances in Volcanology. 2017. P. 1-19.    Аннотация
Airborne volcanic ash is one of the most common, far-travelled, direct hazards associated with explosive volcanic eruptions worldwide. Management of volcanic ash cloud hazards often requires coordinated efforts of meteorological, volcanological, and aviation authorities from multiple countries. These international collaborations during eruptions pose particular challenges due to variable crisis response protocols, uneven agency responsibilities and technical capacities, language differences, and the expense of travel to establish and maintain relationships over the long term. This report introduces some of the recent efforts in enhancing international cooperation and collaboration in the Northern Pacific region.
Melnikov Dmitry, Malik Nataliya, Chaplygin Ilya, Zelenski Mikhail First data on the volatile fluxes from passively degassing volcanoes of the Kuril Island arc // EGU General Assembly 2017. 2017. V. 19.
Pendea Ionel Florin, Ponomareva Vera, Bourgeois Joanne, Zubrow Ezra B.W., Portnyagin Maxim, Ponkratova Irina, Harmsen Hans, Korosec Gregory Late Glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental change on the northwestern Pacific seaboard, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) // Quaternary Science Reviews. 2017. V. 157. P. 14-28. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.11.035.    Аннотация
We used a new sedimentary record from a small kettle wetland to reconstruct the Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Krutoberegovo-Ust Kamchatsk region in eastern Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). Pollen and charcoal data suggest that the Late Glacial landscape was dominated by a relatively fire-prone Larix forest-tundra during the Greenland Interstadial complex (GI 1) and a subarctic steppe during the Younger Dryas (GS1). The onset of the Holocene is marked by the reappearance of trees (mainly Alnus incana) within a fern and shrub dominated landscape. The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) features shifting vegetational communities dominated by Alnus shrubs, diverse forb species, and locally abundant aquatic plants. The HTM is further defined by the first appearance of stone birch forests (Betula ermanii) – Kamchatka's most abundant modern tree species. The Late Holocene is marked by shifts in forest dynamics and forest-graminoid ratio and the appearance of new non-arboreal taxa such as bayberry (Myrica) and meadow rue (Filipendula). Kamchatka is one of Earth's most active volcanic regions. During the Late Glacial and Holocene, Kamchatka's volcanoes spread large quantities of tephra over the study region. Thirty-four tephra falls have been identified at the site. The events represented by most of these tephra falls have not left evidence of major impacts on the vegetation although some of the thicker tephras caused expansion of grasses (Poaceae) and, at least in one case, forest die-out and increased fire activity.
Ponomareva Vera, Polyak Leonid, Portnyagin Maxim, Abbott Peter, Zelenin Egor, Vakhrameeva Polina, Garbe-Schönberg Dieter Holocene tephra from the Chukchi-Alaskan margin, Arctic Ocean: Implications for sediment chronostratigraphy and volcanic history // Quaternary Geochronology. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2017.11.001.    Аннотация
Developing chronologies for sediments in the Arctic Ocean and its continental margins is an important but challenging task. Tephrochronology is a promising tool for independent age control for Arctic marine sediments and here we present the results of a cryptotephra study of a Holocene sedimentary record from the Chukchi Sea. Volcanic glass shards were identified and quantified in sediment core HLY0501-01 and geochemically characterized with single-shard electron microprobe and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This enabled us to reveal a continuous presence of glass shards with identifiable chemical compositions throughout the core. The major input of glasses into the sediments is geochemically fingerprinted to the ∼3.6 ka Aniakchak caldera II eruption (Alaska), which provides an important chronostratigraphic constraint for Holocene marine deposits in the Chukchi-Alaskan region and, potentially, farther away in the western Arctic Ocean. New findings of the Aniakchak II tephra permit a reevaluation of the eruption size and highlight the importance of this tephra as a hemispheric late Holocene marker. Other identified glasses likely originate from the late Pleistocene Dawson and Old Crow tephras while some cannot be correlated to certain eruptions. These are present in most of the analyzed samples, and form a continuous low-concentration background throughout the investigated record. A large proportion of these glasses are likely to have been reworked and brought to the depositional site by currents or other transportation agents, such as sea ice. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential for tephrochronology for improving and developing chronologies for Arctic Ocean marine records, however, at some sites reworking and redistribution of tephra may have a strong impact on the record of primary tephra deposition.
Ponomareva Vera, Portnyagin Maxim, Pendea I. Florin, Zelenin Egor, Bourgeois Joanne, Pinegina Tatiana, Kozhurin Andrey A full holocene tephrochronology for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region: Applications from Kamchatka to North America // Quaternary Science Reviews. 2017. V. 168. P. 101-122. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.04.031.    Аннотация
Geochemically fingerprinted widespread tephra layers serve as excellent marker horizons which can directly link and synchronize disparate sedimentary archives and be used for dating various deposits related to climate shifts, faulting events, tsunami, and human occupation. In addition, tephras represent records of explosive volcanic activity and permit assessment of regional ashfall hazard. In this paper we report a detailed Holocene tephrochronological model developed for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region of eastern Kamchatka (NW Pacific) based on ∼2800 new electron microprobe analyses of single glass shards from tephra samples collected in the area as well as on previously published data. Tephra ages are modeled based on a compilation of 223 14C dates, including published dates for Shiveluch proximal tephra sequence and regional marker tephras; new AMS 14C dates; and modeled calibrated ages from the Krutoberegovo key site. The main source volcanoes for tephra in the region are Shiveluch and Kliuchevskoi located 60–100 km to the west. In addition, local tephra sequences contain two tephras from the Plosky volcanic massif and three regional marker tephras from Ksudach and Avachinsky volcanoes located in the Eastern volcanic front of Kamchatka. This tephrochronological framework contributes to the combined history of environmental change, tectonic events, and volcanic impact in the study area and farther afield. This study is another step in the construction of the Kamchatka-wide Holocene tephrochronological framework under the same methodological umbrella. Our dataset provides a research reference for tephra and cryptotephra studies in the northwest Pacific, the Bering Sea, and North America.
Roman Alberto, Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Shapiro Nikolay M., Gordeev E.I., Taisne Benoit, Jaupart Claude Control on the organization of the plumbing system of subduction volcanoes: the role of volatiles and edifice load // AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017.
Sorokin A.A., Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Malkovskii S.I., Balashov I.V., Efremov V.Yu., Kramareva L.S., Korolev S.P., Romanova I.M., Simonenko E.V. Satellite observations and numerical simulation results for the comprehensive analysis of ash clouds transport during the explosive eruptions of Kamchatka volcanoes // Russian Meteorology and Hydrology. 2017. V. 42. № 12. P. 759-765. doi: 10.3103/S1068373917120032.    Аннотация
Ash clouds resulting from explosive volcanic eruptions pose a real threat to human (for aircraft flights, airports operations, etc.); therefore, the detection, monitoring, and forecast of their movement is an urgent and important issue. The features and examples of application of the new tool developed on the basis of "Monitoring of active volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands" information system (VolSatView) are described. It allows the integrated monitoring and forecasting of ash cloud transport using the data of remote sensing and mathematical modeling as well as the assessment of the parameters of explosive events.
Trifonov Grigory, Zhizhin Mikhail, Melnikov Dmitry, Poyda Alexey VIIRS Nightfire Remote Sensing Volcanoes // Procedia Computer Science. 2017. V. 119. P. 307-314. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.189.    Аннотация
Satellite based remote sensing of active volcanoes has been performed in various forms since 1965. Compared to “on the ground” observations it lets data to be gathered globally at regular pace for long periods of time without the need for local maintenance. Currently existing publicly available volcanoes thermal activity monitoring systems rely on the detection algorithms narrowly specified for volcanoes temperature ranges and operate using the data from previous generation of sensors, which is supported with non-reserved constellation of two satellites. The presented work proposes pipeline (the sequence of actions) based on the clustering of the data received from the Nightfire thermal anomalies detection algorithm, which is not focused on the specific type of infrared sources. Pipeline has been tested on Kamchatka’s region 2016 year dataset and proved to produce sound results corresponding to manual observations.
Белоусов А.Б., Белоусова М.Г., Козлов Д.Н. Распространение отложений тефры и реконструкция параметров эксплозивного извержения вулкана Тятя 1973 г., о.Кунашир, Курильские острова // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2017. № 4. С. 48-56.
Бриль А.А., Гирина О.А., Кашницкий А.В., Уваров И.А. Возможности оценки параметров пепловых шлейфов на основе данных дистанционных наблюдений в информационной системе дистанционного мониторинга активности вулканов Камчатки и Курил VolSatView // Современные проблемы дистанционного зондирования Земли из космоса. Тезисы докладов. Пятнадцатая Всероссийская открытая конференция. 13-17 ноября 2017 г. М.: ИКИ РАН. 2017. С. 80
Гирина О.А. Ключевская группа вулканов с природным парком "Ключевской" // Особо охраняемые природные территории Камчатского края: опыт работы, проблемы управления и перспективы развития: доклады Второй региональной научно-практической конференции. Петропавловск-Камчатский: Камчатпресс. 2017. С. 68-71.
Гирина О.А., Крамарева Л.С., Лупян Е.А., Мельников Д.В., Маневич А.Г., Сорокин А.А., Уваров И.А., Кашницкий А.В., Бурцев М.А., Марченков В.В., Бриль А.А., Мазуров А.А., Романова И.М., Мальковский С.И. Применение данных спутника Himawari для мониторинга вулканов Камчатки // Современные проблемы дистанционного зондирования Земли из космоса. 2017. Т. 14. № 7. С. 65-76. doi: 10.21046/2070-7401-2017-14-7-65-76.    Аннотация
Действующие вулканы Камчатки ― одни из самых активных в мире. Ежегодно здесь происходят извержения 3−7 вулканов, во время которых эксплозии поднимают пепел до 10−15 км над уровнем моря и пепловые облака распространяются на тысячи километров от вулканов. Активная вулканическая деятельность может стать причиной пеплопадов в городах и поселках, уничтожения лесов и коммуникаций. Пепловые облака и шлейфы представляют серьезную опасность для полетов современной реактивной авиации. Для снижения вулканоопасности для авиаперевозок и населения с 1993 г. Камчатская группа реагирования на вулканические извержения (KVERT) выполняет ежедневный мониторинг вулканов. С 2014 г. спутниковый мониторинг вулканов проводится учеными KVERT с помощью информационной системы VolSatView, в которую с 2016 г. начали поступать данные с геостационарного спутника Himawari-8. В системе созданы специальные инструменты, позволяющие работать с оперативно поступающими данными и анализировать ряды долговременных наблюдений. Применение данных Himawari-8, а также инструментов, реализованных в VolSatView для работы с ними, позволяет: значительно повысить оперативность обнаружения эксплозивных событий, происходящих в регионе; определять начало эруптивных событий с точностью до 10 и менее минут; отслеживать и прогнозировать все изменения динамики активности вулканов, в том числе близкое начало сильных эксплозивных событий. Статья посвящена описанию особенностей технологии интеграции данных Himawari-8 в VolSatView и основным возможностям работы с ними, реализованным в настоящее время в системе.

The volcanoes of Kamchatka are the most active in the world. Annually, from 3 to 7 volcanoes produce eruptions, during which the explosions eject ash to 10−15 km above sea level, and ash clouds spread thousands of kilometers from volcanoes. Strenuous volcanic activity could cause ash falls in towns and settlements, destruction of forests and communications. Ash clouds and plumes pose a serious threat to the present-day jet aviation. Since 1993, the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) has conducted daily monitoring of Kamchatka volcanoes to mitigate volcanic hazards to airline operations and population. Since 2014, satellite monitoring of volcanoes is carried out by KVERT scientists using the VolSatView information system that since 2016 has utilized data from Himawari-8 geostationary satellite. The system has created special tools that allow us to work with promptly received data, as well as analyze series of long-term observations. Using data from Himawari-8, as well as the tools implemented in VolSatView to work with them, enables to: significantly raise the efficient response to detection of explosive events in the region; identify the onset of eruptive events with an accuracy of 10 minutes or less; track and forecast all changes in the dynamics of volcanic activity, including the near onset of strong explosive events. The paper describes the technology features for integrating Himawari-8 data into VolSatView and the main possibilities of working with them, implemented now
in the system.


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