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Geochemistry of magmatic gases from Kudryavy volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands (1995)
Taran Yu.A., Hedenquist J.W., Korzhinsky M.A., Tkachenko S.I., Shmulovich K.I. Geochemistry of magmatic gases from Kudryavy volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 1995. Vol. 59. № 9. P. 1749 - 1761. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(95)00079-F.
   Annotation
Volcanic vapors were collected during 1990–1993 from the summit crater of Kudryavy, a basaltic andesite volcano on Iturup island in the Kuril arc. The highest temperature (700–940°C) fumarolic discharges are water rich (94–98 mole% H2O and have δD values of −20 to −12%o. The chemical and water isotope compositions of the vapors (temperature of thirteen samples, 940 to 130°C) show a simple trend of mixing between hot magmatic fluid and meteoric water; the magmatic parent vapor is similar in composition to altered seawater. The origin of this endmember is not known; it may be connate seawater, or possibly caused by the shallow incorporation of seawater into the magmatic-hydrothermal system. Samples of condensed vapor from 535 to 940°C fumaroles have major element trends indicating contamination by wall-rock particles. However, the enrichment factors (relative to the host rock) of many of the trace elements indicate another source; these elements likely derive from a degassing magma. The strongest temperature dependence is for Re, Mo, W, Cu, and Co; highly volatile elements such as Cl, I, F, Bi, Cd, B, and Br show little temperature dependence. The Re abundance in high-temperature condensates is 2–10 ppb, sufficient to form the pure Re sulfide recently discovered in sublimates of Kudryavy. Anomalously high I concentrations (1–12 ppm) may be caused by magma-marine sediment interaction, as Br/I ratios are similar to those in marine sediments.

The high-temperature (>700°C) fumaroles have a relatively constant composition (∼2 mol% each C and S species, with SO2/H2S ratio of about 3:1, and 0.5 mol% HCl); as temperature decreases, both St and CI are depleted, most likely due to formation of native S and HCl absorption by condensed liquid, in addition to the dilution by meteoric water. Thermochemical evaluation of the high-temperature gas compositions indicates they are close to equilibrium mixtures, apart from minor loss of H2O and oxidation of CO and H2 during sampling. Calculation to an assumed equilibrium state indicates temperatures from 705 to 987°C. At high temperature (≈900°C), the redox states are close to the overlap of mineral (quartz-fayalite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide) and gas (H2OH2SO2H2S) buffer curves, due to heterogeneous reaction between the melt and gas species. At lower temperatures (<800°C), the trend of the redox state is similar to the gas buffer curve, probably caused by homogeneous reaction among gas species in a closed system during vapor ascent.
Geochemistry of the late Holocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic field, Kamchatka: Quantitative modelling of subduction-related open magmatic systems (2015)
Portnyagin Maxim, Duggen Svend, Hauff Folkmar, Mironov Nikita, Bindeman Ilya, Thirlwall Matthew, Hoernle Kaj Geochemistry of the late Holocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic field, Kamchatka: Quantitative modelling of subduction-related open magmatic systems // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 133 - 155. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.015.
   Annotation
Abstract We present new major and trace element, high-precision Sr–Nd–Pb (double spike), and O-isotope data for the whole range of rocks from the Holocene Tolbachik volcanic field in the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD). The Tolbachik rocks range from high-Mg basalts to low-Mg basaltic trachyandesites. The rocks considered in this paper represent mostly Late Holocene eruptions (using tephrochronological dating), including historic ones in 1941, 1975–1976 and 2012–2013. Major compositional features of the Tolbachik volcanic rocks include the prolonged predominance of one erupted magma type, close association of middle-K primitive and high-K evolved rocks, large variations in incompatible element abundances and ratios but narrow range in isotopic composition. We quantify the conditions of the Tolbachik magma origin and evolution and revise previously proposed models. We conclude that all Tolbachik rocks are genetically related by crystal fractionation of medium-K primary magmas with only a small range in trace element and isotope composition. The primary Tolbachik magmas contain ~ 14 wt. of MgO and ~ 4 wt. of {H2O} and originated by partial melting (~ 6) of moderately depleted mantle peridotite with Indian-MORB-type isotopic composition at temperature of ~ 1250 °C and pressure of ~ 2 GPa. The melting of the mantle wedge was triggered by slab-derived hydrous melts formed at ~ 2.8 {GPa} and ~ 725 °C from a mixture of sediments and MORB- and Meiji-type altered oceanic crust. The primary magmas experienced a complex open-system evolution termed Recharge-Evacuation-Fractional Crystallization (REFC). First the original primary magmas underwent open-system crystal fractionation combined with periodic recharge of the magma chamber with more primitive magma, followed by mixing of both magma types, further fractionation and finally eruption. Evolved high-K basalts, which predominate in the Tolbachik field, and basaltic trachyandesites erupted in 2012–2013 approach steady-state {REFC} liquid compositions at different eruption or replenishment rates. Intermediate rocks, including high-K, high-Mg basalts, are formed by mixing of the evolved and primitive magmas. Evolution of Tolbachik magmas is associated with large fractionation between incompatible trace elements (e.g., Rb/Ba, La/Nb, Ba/Th) and is strongly controlled by the relative difference in partitioning between crystal and liquid phases. The Tolbachik volcanic field shows that open-system scenarios provide more plausible and precise descriptions of long-lived arc magmatic systems than simpler, but often geologically unrealistic, closed-system models.
Geochronology of the greatest Holocene explosive eruptions in Kamchatka and their imprint on the Greenland glacier shield (1997)
Braitseva O.A., Sulerzhitskii L.D., Ponomareva V.V., Melekestsev I.V. Geochronology of the greatest Holocene explosive eruptions in Kamchatka and their imprint on the Greenland glacier shield // Transactions (Doklady) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Earth Science Sections. 1997. Vol. 352. № 1. P. 138-140.
Geologic and petrologic study of the Central Kurile Islands, VI - Dzigoku Volcano, Urup Island (1937)
Nemoto T. Geologic and petrologic study of the Central Kurile Islands, VI - Dzigoku Volcano, Urup Island // Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan. 1937. Vol. 3. № 2.
Geological Effect of 2005 Eruptions of Sheveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia (2006)
Girina O.A., Gorbach N.V., Nuzhdaev A.A. Geological Effect of 2005 Eruptions of Sheveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Abstracts. 5rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-5). 2006. P. 43
Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia (2015)
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Iwamori H., Nakamura H., Ishizuka O., Nishizawa T., Haraguchi S., Yasukawa K., Miyazaki T., Vaglarov B., Ueki K., Toyama C., Chang Q., Kimura J.I. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // 26th IUGG General Assembly 2015. June 22 - July 2, 2015, Prague, Czech Republic. 2015. P. VS28p-487.
   Annotation
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of previously geochemically unstudied Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from Tolbachik volcanic massif (Central Kamchatka Depression, CKD) are presented. Two volcanic series – middle-K and high-K were erupted. The geochemical history of the massif was started earlier 86 ka (K-Ar dating) with the formation of the Tolbachik pedestal presented by middle-K series. During stratovolcanoes formation both series occur and the role of high-K melts was increasing with time. In Holocene high-K rocks are dominated but some cinder cone lavas are presented by middle-K high-Mg melts which suggest that both volcanic series are still exists. The computer modeling show that both series can be explained by the process of crystal fractionation at different water content from nearly or the same mantle source similar to high-Mg basalts of 1975 Northern Breakthrough. Middle-K rocks could crystallize at water-rich conditions (more than 2% of H2O) while the high-K rock could crystallize at dry conditions at the same pressure. However the existence of different mantle sources and possible magma mixing cannot be excluded. Our data show that fractional crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions can be one of the main processes responsible for rock variations at CKD. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest 2-4% of crustal assimilation to the magma chamber during pedestal and stratovolcanoes formation while lava-cinder cones are not show evidences of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K-Ar dating provide strong evidence that Povorotnaya mount located in 8 km NE of Plosky Tolbachik is the old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment the oldest known object (306 ka by K-Ar dating) in Klyuchevskaya group.

Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282656425_Geology_petrology_and_geochemistry_of_the_Tolbachik_volcanic_massif_Kamchatka_Russia [accessed Jun 19, 2017].
Geomagnetic and Bathymetric Study of the Okhotsk Sea - (1) (1967)
Yasui M., Hashimoto Y., Ueda S. Geomagnetic and Bathymetric Study of the Okhotsk Sea - (1) // Oceanographical Magazine. 1967. Vol. 19. № 1. P. 73-85.
Geometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: Methodology (2021)
Horváth Á, Carr J.L., Girina O.A., Wu D.L., Bril A.A., Mazurov A.A., Melnikov D.V., Hoshyaripour G.A., Buehler S.A. Geometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: Methodology // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021. Vol. 21. Vol. 16. P. 12189-12206. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12189-2021, 2021.
   Annotation
A geometric technique is introduced to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns using the generally discarded near-limb portion of geostationary imagery. Such oblique observations facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method by offering close-to-orthogonal side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid. Coverage is restricted to daytime point estimates in the immediate vicinity of the vent, which nevertheless can provide complementary constraints on source conditions for the modeling of near-field plume evolution. The technique is best suited to strong eruption columns with minimal tilting in the radial direction. For weak eruptions with severely bent plumes or eruptions with expanded umbrella clouds the radial tilt/expansion has to be corrected for either visually or using ancillary wind profiles. Validation on a large set of mountain peaks indicates a typical height uncertainty of ±500 m for near-vertical eruption columns, which compares favorably with the accuracy of the common temperature method.
Geometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studies (2021)
Horváth Á, Girina O.A., Carr J.L., Wu D.L., Bril A.A., Mazurov A.A., Melnikov D.V., Hoshyaripour G.A., Buehler S.A. Geometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studies // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021. Vol. 21. Vol. 16. P. 12207-12226. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12207-2021.
   Annotation
In a companion paper (Horváth et al., 2021), we introduced a new technique to estimate volcanic eruption column height from extremely oblique near-limb geostationary views. The current paper demonstrates and validates the technique in a number of recent eruptions, ranging from ones with weak columnar plumes to subplinian events with massive umbrella clouds and overshooting tops that penetrate the stratosphere. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new method is shown to be unaffected by the limitations of the traditional brightness temperature method, such as height underestimation in subpixel and semitransparent plumes, ambiguous solutions near the tropopause temperature inversion, or the lack of solutions in undercooled plumes. The side view height estimates were in good agreement with plume heights derived from ground-based video and satellite stereo observations, suggesting they can be a useful complement to established techniques.
Gigantic Eruption of the Volcano Bezymianny (1959)
Gorshkov G.S. Gigantic Eruption of the Volcano Bezymianny // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1959. Vol. 20. № 2. P. 77-109.