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The 1996 subaqueous eruption at Academii Nauk volcano (Kamchatka) and its effects on Karymsky lake (2000)
Fazlullin S.M., Ushakov S.V., Shuvalov R.A., Aoki M., Nikolaeva A.G., Lupikina E.G. The 1996 subaqueous eruption at Academii Nauk volcano (Kamchatka) and its effects on Karymsky lake // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2000. V. 97. № 1–4. P. 181 - 193. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00160-2.    Annotation
A subaqueous eruption in Karymsky lake in the Academii Nauk caldera dramatically changed its water column structure, water chemistry and biological system in less than 24 h, sending major floodwaves down the discharging river and eruption plumes with ash and gases high into the atmosphere. Prior to the eruption, the lake had a pH of about 7, was dominated by bicarbonate, and well stocked with fish, but turned in early 1996 into a stratified, initially steaming waterbody, dominated by sulfate with high Na and K levels, and devoid of fish. Blockage of the outlet led to rising waterlevels, followed by dam breakage and catastrophic water discharge. The total energy input during the eruption is estimated at about 1016 J. The stable isotope composition of the lake water remained dominated by the meteoric meltwaters after the eruption.
The 1996-2003 eruptions in the Akademii Nauk Caldera and at the Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka (2003)
Fedotov S.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Maguskin M.A., Dvigalo V.N., Grib E.N., Ivanov V.V. The 1996-2003 eruptions in the Akademii Nauk Caldera and at the Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka // IUGG-2003 Abstract. 2003. P. A.523
The 2001–2004 dome-forming eruption of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka: Observation, petrological investigation and numerical modelling (2006)
Dirksen O., Humphreys M.C.S., Pletchov P., Melnik O., Demyanchuk Y., Sparks R.S.J., Mahony S. The 2001–2004 dome-forming eruption of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka: Observation, petrological investigation and numerical modelling // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. V. 155. № 3–4. P. 201 - 226. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.03.029.    Annotation
There have been three episodes of lava dome growth at Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka since the Plinian explosive eruption in 1964. The episodes in 1980–1981, 1993–1995 and 2001–2004 have discharged at least 0.27 km3 of silicic andesite magma. A time-averaged mean extrusion rate of 0.2 m3/s is thus estimated for the last 40 years. Here the 2001–2004 activity is described and compared with the earlier episodes. The recent activity involved three pulses in extrusion rate and a transition to ongoing lava extrusion. Estimated magma temperatures are in the range 830 to 900 °C, with 850 °C as the best estimate, using the plagioclase−amphibole phenocryst assemblage and Fe−Ti oxides. Melt inclusions in amphibole and plagioclase have maximum water contents of 5.1 wt.%, implying a minimum pressure of ∼ 155 MPa for water-saturated conditions. The magma chamber depth is estimated to be about 5–6 km or more, a result consistent with geophysical data. The thicknesses of opx–mt–amph reaction rims on olivine xenocrysts are used to estimate the residence time of olivine crystals in the shallow chamber in the range 2 months to 4 years, suggesting replenishment of deeper magma into the shallow chamber contemporaneous with eruption. The absence of decompression-driven breakdown rims around amphiboles indicates ascent times of less than 7 days. Volcanological observations of the start of the 2001–2004 episode suggest approximately 16 days for the ascent time and a conduit equivalent to a cylinder of diameter approximately 53–71 m. Application of a conduit flow model indicates that the magma chamber was replenished during the 2001–2004 eruption, consistent with the results of olivine reaction rims, and that the chamber has an estimated volume of order 7 km3.
The 2012 Fissure Tolbachik Eruption: Preliminary Results of Petrological Investigation (2014)
Izbekov P., Koloskov A., Maximov A., Khabunaya S. The 2012 Fissure Tolbachik Eruption: Preliminary Results of Petrological Investigation // Geophysical Research Abstracts. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 2014. Vienna, Austria: EGU General Assembly 2014. 2014. V. 16. P. 11710
The 2016 Eruptions in Kamchatka and on the North Kuril Islands: The Hazard to Aviation (2019)
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E.G. The 2016 Eruptions in Kamchatka and on the North Kuril Islands: The Hazard to Aviation // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2019. V. 13. № 3. P. 157-171. doi: 10.1134/S07420 46319 0300 47.    Annotation
Large explosive eruptions of volcanoes pose the highest hazard to modern jet f lights, because such eruptions can eject as much as several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosol into the atmosphere during a few hours or days. The year 2016 saw eruptions on 5 of the 30 active Kamchatka volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Karymsky, and Zhupanovsky) and on 3 of the 6 active volcanoes that exist on the North Kuril Islands (Alaid, Ebeko, and Chikurachki). Effusive activity was observed on Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Alaid. All volcanoes showed explosive activity. The large explosive events mostly occurred from September through December (Sheveluch), a moderate ash emission accompanied the entire Klyuchevskoy eruption in March–November, and explosive activity of Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, Alaid, and Chikurachki was mostly observed in the earlie r half of the year. The ash ejected in 2016 covered a total area of 600 000 km2, with 460 000 km2 of this being due to Kamchatka volcanoes and 140 000 km2 to the eruptions of the North Kuril volcanoes. The activity of Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, and Zhupanovsky was dangerous to international and local f lights, because the explosions sent ash to heights of 10–12 km above sea level, while the eruptions of Bezymianny, Karymsky, Alaid, Ebeko, and Chikurachki were dangerous for local flights, since the ash did not rise higher than 5 km above sea level.
The 2017 Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation (2018)
Girina O.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E. The 2017 Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation // Abstracts. JpGU2018. May 20-24, 2018. Chiba, Japan. 2018.
The 2018 Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation (2019)
Girina O.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E.G. The 2018 Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation // Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2019. Japan, Chiba: JaGU. 2019.
The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (2018)
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
The 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 sector collapse and debris avalanche at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat (2002)
Voight B., Komorowski J-C., Norton G. E., Belousov A. B., Belousova M., Boudon G., Francis P. W., Franz W., Heinrich P., Sparks R. S. J., Young S. R. The 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 sector collapse and debris avalanche at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat // Geological Society, London, Memoirs. 2002. V. 21. № 1. P. 363-407. doi:10.1144/GSL.MEM.2002.021.01.17.
The 7600 (14C) year BP Kurile Lake caldera-forming eruption, Kamchatka, Russia: stratigraphy and field relationships (2004)
Ponomareva V.V., Kyle P.R., Melekestsev I.V., Rinkleff P.G., Dirksen O.V., Sulerzhitsky L.D., Zaretskaia N.E., Rourke R. The 7600 (14C) year BP Kurile Lake caldera-forming eruption, Kamchatka, Russia: stratigraphy and field relationships // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2004. V. 136. № 3-4. P. 199-222. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.05.013.    Annotation
The 7600 14C-year-old Kurile Lake caldera-forming eruption (KO) in southern Kamchatka, Russia, produced a 7-km-wide caldera now mostly filled by the Kurile Lake. The KO eruption has a conservatively estimated tephra volume of 140–170 km3 making it the largest Holocene eruption in the Kurile–Kamchatka volcanic arc and ranking it among the Earth’s largest Holocene explosive eruptions. The eruptive sequence consists of three main units: (I) initial phreatoplinian deposits; (II) plinian fall deposits, and (III) a voluminous and extensive ignimbrite sheet and accompanying surge beds and co-ignimbrite fallout. The KO fall tephra was dispersed over an area of >3 million km2, mostly in a northwest direction. It is a valuable stratigraphic marker for southern Kamchatka, the Sea of Okhotsk, and a large part of the Asia mainland, where it has been identified as a f6 to 0.1 cm thick layer in terrestrial and lake sediments, 1000–1700 km from source. The ignimbrite, which constitutes a significant volume of the KO deposits, extends to the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific Ocean on either side of the peninsula, a distance of over 50 km from source. Fine co-ignimbrite ash was likely formed when the ignimbrite entered the sea and could account for the wide dispersal of the KO fall unit. Individual pumice clasts from the fall and surge deposits range from dacite to rhyolite, whereas pumice and scoria clasts in the ignimbrite range from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. Ignimbrite exposed west and south of the caldera is dominantly rhyolite, whereas north, east and southeast of the caldera it has a strong vertical compositional zonation from rhyolite at the base to basaltic andesite in the middle, and back to rhyolite at the top. Following the KO eruption, Iliinsky volcano formed within the northeastern part of the caldera producing basalt to dacite lavas and pyroclastic rocks compositionally related to the KO erupted products. Other post-caldera features include several extrusive domes, which form islands in Kurile Lake, submerged cinder cones and the huge silicic extrusive massif of Dikii Greben’ volcano.





 

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