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Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Griboedova Irina Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption // 8-th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes, JKASP 2014. 22-26 September, 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014.    Annotation
The 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption started from lava gushing and effusion in the Menyailov vent on November 27 th , 2012; after three days the activity of this vent ceased and the eruption continued from the Naboko vent until its end in September 2013. The eruption produced about 0.7 km 3 of high-Al basaltic trachyandesites (Dvigalo et al., 2014). At Menyailov vent SiO2 concentrations were as high as 55.35 wt.% and K2O -2.67 wt.% -higher than in any previously erupted rocks in Tolbachik monogenetic area. From the beginning of December, SiO 2 concentration in lavas dropped by 2 wt.% and remained at this level until the end of eruption. MgO, TiO2, Mg# increased, K2O, Na2O decreased slightly. Most prominent change we observe in K2O/MgO ratio, which was about 0.7 in the Menyailov vent rocks and became 0.5 in the Naboko vent rocks. Details of the geochemical composition of the volcanic rocks produced by this eruption are reported elsewhere (Volynets et al., 2013, Volynets et al., 2014 a, b); here we present the results of the geochemical study of the main phenocrysts in the lavas – plagioclase. For the detailed geochemical study of the plagioclase we selected two samples from the Naboko vent (Pl-phyric lavas, erupted in February and August) and five crystal lapilli (two of them were erupted in December 2012, and three – during 2013, when the new cone has been already built). Plagioclases in these lavas are represented by two generations of labradorite and bytownite. Pl phenocrysts of the 1 st generation are large (up to 2 cm on the long axis) strongly resorbed at the edges and sometimes in the cores as well, containing lots of glass inclusions. Pl subphenocrysts of the 2 nd generation are smaller (less than 500 µm), usually nonresorbed and clean, having euhedral facets. Normal, reversed and patchy zoning are typical for all studied crystals (fig.1, I and II). Maximum concentrations of An (up to 83% at compositional variation between An50 and 74) has been measured in the patchy zones. Crystal lapilli are characterized by the oscillatory zoning with An fluctuations around An57-63 (fig. 1, III and IV). This kind of zoning is the result of the diffusion control of Pl growth at low growth rates (Sibley et al., 1976). The edges of lapilli are usually rich of glassy inclusions, tunnel-like dissolution structures, Ol, Px, Mt inclusions (fig. 1, III and IV). There are abundant resorption zones in lapilli, with plenty of glassy inclusions. These zones are characterized by the patchy zoning with An concentration jumps up to An74; usually these high-An areas are observed near the inclusions of glass. At the edges of lapilli there are zones with An gradual decrease towards the rim from An 74 to An61.

Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption.
Zelenski M., Malik N., Taran Yu. Emissions of trace elements during the 2012–2013 effusive eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka: enrichment factors, partition coefficients and aerosol contribution // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. Vol. 285. P. 136 - 149. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.08.007.    Annotation
Abstract Gases and aerosols from the 2012–13 effusive eruption of Tolbachik basaltic volcano, Kamchatka, were sampled in February and May, 2013, from a lava tube window located 300 m from the eruptive crater; temperature at the sampling point was 1060–1070 °C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of the sampled gases (92.4 H2O, 3.5 CO2, 2.3 SO2 on average; δD from − 25.0 to − 38.6‰) correspond to a typical volcanic arc gas without dilution by meteoric or hydrothermal water. Halogen contents in the gases (1.37 HCl, 0.5 HF) were higher than average arc values. The total amount of analyzed metallic and metalloid (trace) elements in the gas exceeded 665 ppm. Six most abundant trace elements, K (250 ppm), Na (220 ppm), Si (74 ppm), Br (48 ppm), Cu (21 ppm) and Fe (12 ppm), accounted for 95 of the total content of trace elements in the gas. The gases contained 24 ppb Re, 12 ppb Ag, 4.9 ppb Au and 0.45 ppb Pt. Refractory rock-forming elements (Mg, Al, Ca) and some other elements such as Ba and Th were transported mainly in the form of silicate microspheres and altered rock particles. The concentrations of metals in the eruptive Tolbachik gases are higher than the corresponding concentrations in high-temperature fumaroles worldwide, although the mutual ratios of the elements are approximately the same. The gas/magma partition coefficients of eleven elements exceed unity, including the non-metals F, S, Cl, Br, As, Se and Te and the rare metals Cd, Re, Tl and Bi. Despite the relatively low concentrations of trace elements in the volcanic gases at the highest temperatures, superficial magma degassing provides information on the sources and sinks of metals.
Zubov A.G., Ananyev V.V. Testing of the Titanomagnetite Method to Detect Magmatic Chamber Depth at Avachinsky Stratovolcano and Tolbachik Fissure Eruption // 10th International Conference “PROBLEMS OF GEOCOSMOS”. Book of Abstracts. St. Petersburg, Petrodvorets, October 6-10, 2014. St. Peterburg: Физфак СПбГУ. 2014. P. 81    Annotation
Two volcanoes were tested using the titanomagnetite method in order to detect the magma chamber depth. Curie temperature of andesite tephra shows that the magmatic chamber was situated on the depth of 18±7 km under Avachinsky Volcano ~5 Ka ago, but one of the basalt-andesite tephra from Avachinsky results the chamber depth of 32±6 km ~3 Ka ago. This method applied to the lava from Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (TFE) shows a chamber depth of 47±5 km. This result is inconsistent slightly with the depth of 35±6 km obtained by our microzond analysing of element composition of titanomagnetite grains into lava sample from earlier phase of the same eruption. This two different results between TFE lava samples may occur from magma differentiation or this is a methodical or occasional error. To know true it needs a sample statistics. At present, more microzond data from Tolbachik Fissure Eruption are being analyzed.
Белоусов А.Б., Белоусова М.Г. Горячие лавовые пещеры вулкана Толбачик и их необычные минеральные образования // Вестник ДВО РАН. 2014. № 5. С. 148-150.
Блох Ю.И., Бондаренко В.И., Долгаль А.С., Новикова П.Н., Рашидов В.А., Трусов А.А. Комплексные геофизические исследования подводного вулкана 3.8 (Курильская островная дуга) // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Материалы региональной конференции, посвященной Дню вулканолога, 27-28 марта 2014 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2014. С. 144-151.
Быкасов В.Е. Извержения 1739 и 1740 годов в районе вулкана Плоский Толбачик // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Материалы региональной конференции, посвященной Дню вулканолога, 27-28 марта 2014 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2014. С. 14-21.    Annotation
Ландшафтно-ситуационный анализ описаний событий, приводимых С. П. Крашенинниковым, показывает, что в районе вулкана Плоский Толбачик произошло два самостоятельных — в январе 1739 и в декабре 1740 годов извержения. При этом мощное пароксизмальное извержение 1739 г. в центральном кратере вулкана Плоский Толбачик сопровождалось выпадением пепла на расстояниях до 50 вёрст от вершины вулкана. А двойное (Конус Красный и прорыв Звезда) извержение 1740 г. привело к выпадению пепла на расстояниях до 150 км, а также к погребению и возгоранию большого массива горной тайги в юго-юго-западной части Толбачинского дола. Помимо этого приводятся данные о ранее неизвестных извержениях Плоского Толбачика в 1728 и 1927 годах.
Викулин А.В., Акманова Д.Р. Магматический очаг как свойство земной коры // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2014. Вып. 23. № 1.    Annotation
На основании наиболее общих распределений, характеризующих извержения вулканов (графиков их повторяемости, площадей, объемов изверженного материала), обосновывается гипотеза о постоянной, независимой от вулканического процесса, толщине магматического очага как свойстве земной коры. Гипотеза обсуждается в свете концепции блоковой геосреды и ее волновых геодинамических движений.
Гирина О.А. Камчатской группе реагирования на вулканические извержения (KVERT) - 20 лет // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Материалы региональной конференции, посвященной Дню вулканолога, 28-29 марта 2013 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2014. С. 36-41.
Гирина О.А. О некоторых особенностях тектоники Северной группы вулканов Камчатки // Геологические процессы в обстановках субдукции, коллизии и скольжения литосферных плит. Материалы Второй Всероссийской конференции с международным участием, Владивосток, 17–20 сентября 2014 г. Владивосток: Дальнаука. 2014. С. 30-32.
Гирина О.А., Баженов Е.В. О магнитных свойствах базальтов Толбачинского дола, Камчатка // Научные перспективы XXI века. Достижения и перспективы нового столетия. III международная научно-практическая конференция. 15-16.08.2014. Новосибирск: Международный научный институт "Educatio". 2014. № 3 (7). С. 52-54.

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