Bolshoi Semiachik Volcano. Bibliography
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Bindeman I.N., Leonov V.L., Izbekov P.E., Ponomareva V.V., Watts K.E., Shipley N.K., Perepelov A.B., Bazanova L.I., Jicha B.R., Singer B.S., Schmitt A.K., Portnyagin M.V., Chen C.H. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2010. Vol. 189. № 1-2. P. 57-80. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.10.009.
The Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia represents the most volcanically active arc in the world in terms of magma production and the number of explosive eruptions. We investigate large-scale silicic volcanism in the past several million years and present new geochronologic results from major ignimbrite sheets exposed in Kamchatka. These ignimbrites are found in the vicinity of morphologically-preserved rims of partially eroded source calderas with diameters from ∼ 2 to ∼ 30 km and with estimated volumes of eruptions ranging from 10 to several hundred cubic kilometers of magma. We also identify and date two of the largest ignimbrites: Golygin Ignimbrite in southern Kamchatka (0.45 Ma), and Karymshina River Ignimbrites (1.78 Ma) in south-central Kamchatka. We present whole-rock geochemical analyses that can be used to correlate ignimbrites laterally. These large-volume ignimbrites sample a significant proportion of remelted Kamchatkan crust as constrained by the oxygen isotopes. Oxygen isotope analyses of minerals and matrix span a 3‰ range with a significant proportion of moderately low-δ18O values. This suggests that the source for these ignimbrites involved a hydrothermally-altered shallow crust, while participation of the Cretaceous siliceous basement is also evidenced by moderately elevated δ18O and Sr isotopes and xenocryst contamination in two volcanoes. The majority of dates obtained for caldera-forming eruptions coincide with glacial stages in accordance with the sediment record in the NW Pacific, suggesting an increase in explosive volcanic activity since the onset of the last glaciation 2.6 Ma. Rapid changes in ice volume during glacial times and the resulting fluctuation of glacial loading/unloading could have caused volatile saturation in shallow magma chambers and, in combination with availability of low-δ18O glacial meltwaters, increased the proportion of explosive vs effusive eruptions. The presented results provide new constraints on Pliocene–Pleistocene volcanic activity in Kamchatka, and thus constrain an important component of the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskii L.D. The ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1995. Vol. 57. № 6. P. 383-402. doi: 10.1007/BF00300984.
The ages of most of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region have been determined by extensive geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological and isotopic geochronological studies, including more than 600 14C dates. Eight ‘Krakatoa-type’ and three ‘Hawaiian-type’ calderas and no less than three large explosive craters formed here during the Holocene. Most of the Late Pleistocene Krakatoa-type calderas were established around 30 000–40 000 years ago. The active volcanoes are geologically very young, with maximum ages of about 40 000–50 000 years. The overwhelming majority of recently active volcanic cones originated at the very end of the Late Pleistocene or in the Holocene. These studies show that all Holocene stratovolcanoes in Kamchatka were emplaced in the Holocene only in the Eastern volcanic belt. Periods of synchronous, intensified Holocene volcanic activity occurred within the time intervals of 7500–7800 and 1300–1800 14C years BP.
Braitseva O.A., Ponomareva V.V., Melekestsev I.V., Sulerzhitskiy L.D., Pevzner M.M. Holocene Kamchatka volcanoes. 2002.
Global Volcanism Program. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.11.0 (08 Jun 2022). 2013. doi: 10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013.
The Volcanoes of the World database is a catalog of Holocene and Pleistocene volcanoes, and eruptions from the past 12,000 years.
Ponomareva Vera A chronology of the Holocene eruptions from the northern Kamchatka volcanoes based on linking major C14-dated tephra sequences with the help of EMPA glass data // Quaternary International. 2012. Vol. 279–28. P. 383 doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2012.08.1191.
Volcanic eruptions from Kamchatka have deposited many unique tephra layers over a large region within the North Pacific, providing important isochrons between key sites such as marine ODP core 883 (Pacific Ocean, Detroit Seamount) and Elgygytgyn Lake (Chukotka, eastern Siberia). Here we present a compilation of C14 dates on major Holocene tephras from the volcanically highly active region, based on decades of detailed stratigraphical fieldwork on Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoy, and other volcanoes.The 12-m thick tephra sequence at the Kliuchevskoy slope has been continuously accumulating during the last ∼11 ka. It contains over 200 visible individual tephra layers and no datable organic material. The section is dominated by dark-gray mafic cinders related to Kliuchevskoy activity. In addition, it contains 30 light-colored thin layers of silicic tephra from distant volcanoes including 11 layers from Shiveluch volcano located only 65 km to the north. We have used EMPA glass analysis to correlate most of the marker tephra layers to their source eruptions dated earlier by C14 (Braitseva et al., 1997; Ponomareva et al., 2007), and in this way linked Kliuchevskoy tephra sequence to sequences at other volcanoes including Shiveluch. The C14 dates and tephras from the northern Kamchatka are then combined into a single Bayesian framework taking into account stratigraphical ordering within and between the sites. This approach has allowed us to enhance the reliability and precision of the estimated ages for the eruptions. Age-depth models are constructed to analyse changes in deposition rates and volcanic activity throughout the Holocene. This detailed chronology of the eruptions serves as a basis for understanding temporal patterns in the eruption sequence and geochemical variations of magmas. This research could prove important for the long-term forecast of eruptions and volcanic hazards.
Siebert L., Simkin T., Kimberly P. Volcanoes of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2010. 568 p.
This impressive scientific resource presents up-to-date information on ten thousand years of volcanic activity on Earth. In the decade and a half since the previous edition was published new studies have refined assessments of the ages of many volcanoes, and several thousand new eruptions have been documented. This edition updates the book's key components: a directory of volcanoes active during the Holocene; a chronology of eruptions over the past ten thousand years; a gazetteer of volcano names, synonyms, and subsidiary features; an extensive list of references; and an introduction placing these data in context. This edition also includes new photographs, data on the most common rock types forming each volcano, information on population densities near volcanoes, and other features, making it the most comprehensive source available on Earth's dynamic volcanism.
Аверьев В.В., Вакин Е.А. Термальные поля вулканического массива Большой Семячик // Бюллетень вулканологических станций. 1966. № 42. С. 3-16.
Брайцева О.А., Богоявленская Г.Е., Эрлих Э.Н., Пилипенко Г.Ф., Карпов Г.А. Узонско-Семячинский вулканический район / Вулканы и геотермы Камчатки. Материалы IV Всесоюзного вулканологического совещания. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВ ДВНЦ АН СССР. 1974. С. 139-191.
Вакин Е.А. Гидротермы вулканического массива Большой Семячик / Гидротермальные системы и термальные поля Камчатки. Владивосток: ДВНЦ АН СССР. 1976. С. 212-236.
Влодавец В.И. Вулканы Советского Союза / Отв. ред. Головко И.Г. М.: Гос. изд-во географической литературы. 1949. 164 с.
Среди разнообразных явлений природы вулканическая деятельность во все времена особо привлекала внимание человека. Мощные, величественные, порой мрачные, иногда грозные, но всегда прекрасные, а в древности мало или совсем непонятные картины вулканических извержений производили на людей всегда сильное впечатление. И неудивительно поэтому, что деятельность вулканов вызывала в человеке, с одной стороны, безотчетную тревогу, а с другой — поэтическое восхищение.
Люди различно воспринимают деятельность вулканов. Одни видят в них величественные и грозные явления природы, другие интересуются ими с точки зрения внешней красоты проявления внутренних сил земли, третьих поражает мощь вулканических сил, а четвертые стремятся разобраться во всех вулканических явлениях и выявить причины их— познать их.