Diky Greben Volcano. Bibliography
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Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
Holocene Volcanoes in Kamchatka. 2002.
Ponomareva V.V., Churikova T., Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Pevzner M., Sulerzhitskii L. Late Pleistocene - Holocene Volcanism on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northwest Pacific Region / Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union. 2007. Vol. 172. P. 165-198. doi: 10.1029/172GM15.    Annotation
Late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanism in Kamchatka results from the subduction of the
Pacific Plate under the peninsula and forms three volcanic belts arranged in en echelon manner
from southeast to northwest. The cross-arc extent of recent volcanism exceeds 250 km and
is one of the widest worldwide. All the belts are dominated by mafic rocks. Eruptives with
SiO2>57% constitute ~25% of the most productive Central Kamchatka Depression belt and
~30% of the Eastern volcanic front, but <10% of the least productive Sredinny Range belt.
All the Kamchatka volcanic rocks exhibit typical arc-type signatures and are represented
by basalt-rhyolite series differing in alkalis. Typical Kamchatka arc basalts display a strong
increase in LILE, LREE and HFSE from the front to the back-arc. La/Yb and Nb/Zr increase
from the arc front to the back arc while B/Li and As, Sb, B, Cl and S concentrations decrease.
The initial mantle source below Kamchatka ranges from N-MORB-like in the volcanic front
and Central Kamchatka Depression to more enriched in the back arc. Rocks from the Central
Kamchatka Depression range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.70334 to 0.70366, but have almost
constant Nd isotopic ratios (143Nd/144Nd 0.51307–0.51312). This correlates with the highest
U/Th ratios in these rocks and suggest the highest fluid-flux in the source region.
Holocene large eruptions and eruptive histories of individual Holocene volcanoes have been
studied with the help of tephrochronology and 14C dating that permits analysis of time-space
patterns of volcanic activity, evolution of the erupted products, and volcanic hazards.
Ponomareva Vera V., Melekestsev Ivan V., Dirksen Oleg V. Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. Vol. 158. № 1-2. P. 117-138. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.04.016.    Annotation
On Kamchatka, detailed geologic and geomorphologic mapping of young volcanic terrains and observations on historical eruptions reveal that landslides of various scales, from small (0.001 km3) to catastrophic (up to 20–30 km3), are widespread. Moreover, these processes are among the most effective and most rapid geomorphic agents. Of 30 recently active Kamchatka volcanoes, at least 18 have experienced sector collapses, some of them repetitively. The largest sector collapses identified so far on Kamchatka volcanoes, with volumes of 20–30 km3 of resulting debris-avalanche deposits, occurred at Shiveluch and Avachinsky volcanoes in the Late Pleistocene. During the last 10,000 yr the most voluminous sector collapses have occurred on extinct Kamen' (4–6 km3) and active Kambalny (5–10 km3) volcanoes. The largest number of repetitive debris avalanches (> 10 during just the Holocene) has occurred at Shiveluch volcano. Landslides from the volcanoes cut by ring-faults of the large collapse calderas were ubiquitous. Large failures have happened on both mafic and silicic volcanoes, mostly related to volcanic activity. Orientation of collapse craters is controlled by local tectonic stress fields rather than regional fault systems.

Specific features of some debris avalanche deposits are toreva blocks — huge almost intact fragments of volcanic edifices involved in the failure; some have been erroneously mapped as individual volcanoes. One of the largest toreva blocks is Mt. Monastyr' — a ∼ 2 km3 piece of Avachinsky Somma involved in a major sector collapse 30–40 ka BP.

Long-term forecast of sector collapses on Kliuchevskoi, Koriaksky, Young Cone of Avachinsky and some other volcanoes highlights the importance of closer studies of their structure and stability.
VONA/KVERT Information Releases. 2005.
Volcano observatory notification to aviation (VONA/KVERT). 2011.
Zaretskaya N.E., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitsky L.D. Radiocarbon dating of large Holocene volcanic events within South Kamchatka (Russian Far East) // Radiocarbon. 2007. Vol. 49. № 2. P. 1065-1078.    Annotation
Radiocarbon dating is widely used when studying recent volcanic activity in the Kamchatka Peninsula due to the abundance of organic matter that is associated with the volcanic deposits. Here, we present the results of 14C dating of major volcanic events within the active South Kamchatka volcanic zone. South Kamchatka includes 8 recently active volcanic centers (stratovolcanoes, calderas, and large craters) that have been erupting during the Holocene. Their tephras represent useful markers for both the southern part of the peninsula and the Northern Kurile Islands. Since these marker tephra layers facilitate stratigraphic and tephrochronological studies in this area, it was important to determine their ages. We have obtained 73 new individual 14C dates on paleosol, peat, charcoal, and wood associated with the marker tephra layers, then complemented these data with 37 earlier published dates and analyzed the resulting data set. We selected the reliable dates and then obtained average 14C ages of marker tephra layers. The details of these procedures, as well as brief descriptions of South Kamchatka Holocene eruptions and their tephra beds, are presented in the paper.
Апродов В.А. Вулканы. М.: Мысль. 1982. 367 с.    Annotation
Справочник содержит характеристику около трех тысяч вулканов земного шара, сгруппированных по вулканическим поясам и другим районам проявления вулканизма. Этим поясам и районам предшествует их общая геолого-географическая характеристика. Сведения о вулканах включают географическое положение, морфологию, геологическую структуру, активность и т.д. Книга рассчитана не только на специалистов, но и на более широкий круг читателей.
Долгоживущий центр эндогенной активности Южной Камчатки / Отв. ред. Масуренков Ю.П. М.: Наука. 1980. 172 с.    Annotation
В монографии рассматривается широкий круг вопросов, касающихся геологического строения, тектоники, вулканизма и структур Южно-Камчатской вулканической зоны, обосновывается специфика ее геодинамических условий по сравнению с другими зонами Камчатки и Курильских островов. Большое внимание уделено характеристике четвертичного вулканизма.
Детально охарактеризована крупнейшая на Камчатке Паужетская кольцевая вулкано-тектоническая структура, являющаяся примером долгоживущего вулканического центра, развивающегося в течение по крайней мере 15 млн. лет. Сделано предположение о расположении этой структуры над конвекционным потоком вещества и энергии, поднимающимся из верхней мантии.
Иванов Б.В. Андезиты Камчатки (справочник химических анализов вулканитов и основных породообразующих минералов) / Отв. ред. Колосков А.В. М.: Наука. 2008. 364 с.    Annotation
Впервые приводятся наиболее полные данные по химическому составу четвертичных андезитов Камчатки. Помимо химического состава андезитов дается их фазовый анализ, геохимический состав, содержание РЗЭ, изотопный анализ стронция, неодима, кислорода. Главной особенностью опубликованных анализов является их стратификация и четкая геологическая привязка образцов, что позволяет понимать последовательность геологических событий. Рассматриваются петрогенетические особенности толеитовых (андезитов мантийного генезиса I типа) и известково-щелочных (андезитов мантийно-корового генезиса II типа) андезитов. Подчеркивается значение петрохимических, петрологических и изотопно-геохимических корреляторов для распознания двух типов андезитов. На основе петрохимической базы данных выделяется устойчивый, неустойчивый и промежуточный тренды дифференциации вулканитов, которые предлагается использовать для определения характера вулканической деятельности и типов вулканических извержений.
Книга может быть использована как справочник по андезитовому вулканизму и рассчитана на вулканологов, петрографов, геохимиков и геологов, занимающихся вопросами происхождения вулканических пород.

This book is the first work that provides the ultimate data about chemical composition of the Kamchatka Quaternary andesites. Besides the book provides data about a phase analysis of andesites, geochemical composition, REE composition and isotopic analysis of strontium, neodymium and oxygen. The analyses are prominent for their stratification and accurate geological positioning. This allows understanding how the geological events alternated. The paper is focused on the petrogenetic peculiarities of tholeiitic (the 1st type of mantle genesis) and calc-alkali (the 2nd type of mantle-crust genesis) andesites. The book stresses that petrochemical, petrological and isotopic-geochemical correlators play a great role in distinguishing of those two types of andesites. On the basis of petrochemical database we distinguished three trends of the volcanites differentiation: stable, unstable and intermediate. These trends are supposed to be used for the determination of the volcanic activity character and types of the volcanic eruptions.
This book will be helpful as a reference guide to volcanologists, petrographers, geochemists and geologists, to those who study the genesis of volcanic rocks.


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