Main Volcanoes Ushkovsky


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Klyuchevskoy Uksichan
Ushkovsky Volcano. Bibliography

Records: 57
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Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G. Mantle and fluid sources below Klyuchevskoy-Kamen-Bezymianny line (Kamchatka) // Geofluid-3. Nature and Dynamics of fluids in Subduction Zones. Tokyo, Japan, February 28 - March 3, 2014. 2014. P. 72    Annotation
Kamen volcano is an extinct volcanic complex located in the central part of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) between active Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes. Kamen volcano was mapped by V.A. Ermakov only in the 1970s. However the modern geochemical studies of Kamen volcano have not been previously carried out and its relationship and petrogenesis in comparison to other active neighbors are unknown. A modern geochemical study of Kamen volcano is needed because it will shed light not only on the history of the volcano itself and its closest neighbors, but also on the history and magmatic evolution of the KGV melts in general. The distance between the summits of Kamen and Klyuchevskoy is only 5 km, the same as between Kamen and Bezymianny. The close relationship in space and time of the KGV and the common zone of seismicity below them suggests a common source and a possible genetic relationship between their magmas. However, the Late-Pleistocene-Holocene lavas of all these neighboring volcanoes are very different: high-Mg and high-Al Ol-Cpx-Pl basalts and basaltic andesites occur at Klyuchevskoy volcano, and Hbl-bearing andesites and dаcites dominate at Bezymianny volcano. The rocks of Ploskie Sopky volcano, situated only 10 km NW of Kamen, are represented by medium-high-K subalkaline lavas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Erster Teil. Historischer Bericht nach den Tagebüchern. 1890.    Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1890 erschienene erste Teil seines Werkes enthält den ausführlichen Bericht seiner Reise nach den Tagebüchern, ein getrennt erscheinender zweiter Teil die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Zweiter Teil. Allgemeines über Kamtschatka. 1900. 273 p.    Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1900 erschienene zweite Teil seines Werkes enthält die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas sowie ein geografisches Lexikon.
Flerov G.B., Churikova T.G., Anan'ev V.V. The Ploskie Sopki volcanic massif: Geology, petrochemistry, mineralogy, and petrogenesis (Klyuchevskoi Volcanic Cluster, Kamchatka) // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2017. V. 11. V. 4. P. 266-284. doi: 10.1134/S0742046317040030.    Annotation
This paper is concerned with the geological history and petrology of a major polygenic volcanic edifice dating back to Upper Pleistocene to Holocene time. This long-lived volcanic center is remarkable in that it combines basaltic and trachybasaltic magmas which are found in basaltic andesite and trachybasaltic– trachyandesite series. The inference is that the coexisting parent magmas are genetically independent and are generated at different sources at depth in an upper mantle volume. The associated volcanic rocks have diverse compositions, stemming from a multi-stage spatio–temporal crystallization differentiation of the magmas and mixing of these in intermediate chas.
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
Krasheninnikov Stepan, Portnyagin Maxim, Ponomareva V.V., Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Mironov Nikita Periodic volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoy and Ushkovsky volcanoes during the early Holocene inferred from tephra study 2009.
Muravyev Y.D., Salamatin A.N. Mass balance and thermal regime of a crater glacier at Ushkovskii volcano // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. V. 11. № 3. P. 411-424.    Annotation
A thermal model has been constructed for a steady-state glacier of Ushkovskii Volcano. Analysis of ice mass balance components has revealed elevated heat flow (mean valce 10 W/m2) in the summit crater wich has remained nearly constant over the last 40 years. The measured accumulation rate and temperature distribution in the snow and firn body in the middle of the Gorshkov crater suggest the existence of a considerable uplift (a small embedded crater) overlain by the glaciers. The formulas proposed in this paper can be used to evaluate critical state parameters for unsteady ice masses on the slopes of Klyuchevskoi Volcano.

Построена теплофизическая модель стационарного состояния ледника в активном кратере Ушковского вулкана. Анализ составляющих баланса массы льда показал повышенный геотермический поток (среднее значение 10 Вт/м¤) в пределах вершинного конуса и слабую его изменчивость за последние 40 лет. По измеренной скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежнофирновой скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежно-фирновой толще в центре кратера Горшкова предполагается существование значительного поднятия (вложенного малого кратера), перекрытого ледником.
Полученные расчетные формулы помогут оценить параметры критических состояний нестационарных ледяных масс на склонах Ключевского вулкана.
Muravyev Y.D., Shiraiwa T. 400 years of climatic change in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia: paleoglaciologic, tree-ring and ice-core evidance // Proceedings International Workshop. Matsuyama, Japan, 2002. 2002. P. 76-91.
Ponomareva Vera V., Melekestsev Ivan V., Dirksen Oleg V. Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. V. 158. № 1-2. P. 117-138. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.04.016.    Annotation
On Kamchatka, detailed geologic and geomorphologic mapping of young volcanic terrains and observations on historical eruptions reveal that landslides of various scales, from small (0.001 km3) to catastrophic (up to 20–30 km3), are widespread. Moreover, these processes are among the most effective and most rapid geomorphic agents. Of 30 recently active Kamchatka volcanoes, at least 18 have experienced sector collapses, some of them repetitively. The largest sector collapses identified so far on Kamchatka volcanoes, with volumes of 20–30 km3 of resulting debris-avalanche deposits, occurred at Shiveluch and Avachinsky volcanoes in the Late Pleistocene. During the last 10,000 yr the most voluminous sector collapses have occurred on extinct Kamen' (4–6 km3) and active Kambalny (5–10 km3) volcanoes. The largest number of repetitive debris avalanches (> 10 during just the Holocene) has occurred at Shiveluch volcano. Landslides from the volcanoes cut by ring-faults of the large collapse calderas were ubiquitous. Large failures have happened on both mafic and silicic volcanoes, mostly related to volcanic activity. Orientation of collapse craters is controlled by local tectonic stress fields rather than regional fault systems.

Specific features of some debris avalanche deposits are toreva blocks — huge almost intact fragments of volcanic edifices involved in the failure; some have been erroneously mapped as individual volcanoes. One of the largest toreva blocks is Mt. Monastyr' — a ∼ 2 km3 piece of Avachinsky Somma involved in a major sector collapse 30–40 ka BP.

Long-term forecast of sector collapses on Kliuchevskoi, Koriaksky, Young Cone of Avachinsky and some other volcanoes highlights the importance of closer studies of their structure and stability.
Ponomareva Vera, Portnyagin Maxim, Derkachev Alexander, Pendea I. Florin, Bourgeois Joanne, Reimer Paula J., Garbe-Schönberg Dieter, Krasheninnikov Stepan, Nürnberg Dirk Early Holocene M~6 explosive eruption from Plosky volcanic massif (Kamchatka) and its tephra as a link between terrestrial and marine paleoenvironmental records // International Journal of Earth Sciences. 2013. V. 102. № 6. P. 1673-1699. doi:10.1007/s00531-013-0898-0.    Annotation
We report tephrochronological and geochemical data on early Holocene activity from Plosky volcanic massif in the Kliuchevskoi volcanic group, Kamchatka Peninsula. Explosive activity of this volcano lasted for ~1.5 kyr, produced a series of widely dispersed tephra layers, and was followed by profuse low-viscosity lava flows. This eruptive episode started a major reorganization of the volcanic structures in the western part of the Kliuchevskoi volcanic group. An explosive eruption from Plosky (M~6), previously unstudied, produced tephra (coded PL2) of a volume of 10–12 km3 (11–13 Gt), being one of the largest Holocene explosive eruptions in Kamchatka. Characteristic diagnostic features of the PL2 tephra are predominantly vitric sponge-shaped fragments with rare phenocrysts and microlites of plagioclase, olivine and pyroxenes, medium- to high-K basaltic andesitic bulk composition, high-K, high-Al and high-P trachyandesitic glass composition with SiO2 = 57.5–59.5 wt%, K2O = 2.3–2.7 wt%, Al2O3 = 15.8–16.5 wt%, and P2O5 = 0.5–0.7 wt%. Other diagnostic features include a typical subduction-related pattern of incompatible elements, high concentrations of all REE (>10× mantle values), moderate enrichment in LREE (La/Yb ~ 5.3), and non-fractionated mantle-like pattern of LILE. Geochemical fingerprinting of the PL2 tephra with the help of EMP and LA-ICP-MS analyses allowed us to map its occurrence in terrestrial sections across Kamchatka and to identify this layer in Bering Sea sediment cores at a distance of >600 km from the source. New high-precision 14C dates suggest that the PL2 eruption occurred ~10,200 cal BP, which makes it a valuable isochrone for early Holocene climate fluctuations and permits direct links between terrestrial and marine paleoenvironmental records. The terrestrial and marine 14C dates related to the PL2 tephra have allowed us to estimate an early Holocene reservoir age for the western Bering Sea at 1,410 ± 64 14C years. Another important tephra from the early Holocene eruptive episode of Plosky volcano, coded PL1, was dated at 11,650 cal BP. This marker is the oldest geochemically characterized and dated tephra marker layer in Kamchatka to date and is an important local marker for the Younger Dryas—early Holocene transition. One more tephra from Plosky, coded PL3, can be used as a marker northeast of the source at a distance of ~110 km.


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