Opala Volcano. Bibliography
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Kirianov V.Yu., Solovieva N.A. Lateral variations in ash composition due to Eolian differentiation // Volcanology and Seismology. 1991. Vol. 12. № 4. P. 431-442.
Kyle Philip R., Ponomareva Vera V., Rourke Schluep Rachelle Geochemical characterization of marker tephra layers from major Holocene eruptions, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia // International Geology Review. 2011. Vol. 53. № 9. P. 1059-1097. doi:10.1080/00206810903442162.
   Annotation
Kamchatka Peninsula is one of the most active volcanic regions in the world. Many Holocene explosive eruptions have resulted in widespread dispersal of tephra-fall
deposits. The largest layers have been mapped and dated by the 14C method. The tephra provide valuable stratigraphic markers that constrain the age of many geological
events (e.g. volcanic eruptions, palaeotsunamis, faulting, and so on). This is the first systematic attempt to use electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of glass to characterize
individual tephra deposits in Kamchatka. Eighty-nine glass samples erupted from 11 volcanoes, representing 27 well-identified Holocene key-marker tephra layers, were analysed. The glass is rhyolitic in 21 tephra, dacitic in two, and multimodal in three.
Two tephra are mixed with glass compositions ranging from andesite/dacite to rhyolite. Tephra from the 11 eruptive centres are distinguished by their glass K2O,
CaO, and FeO contents. In some cases, individual tephra from volcanoes with multiple eruptions cannot be differentiated. Trace element compositions of 64 representative
bulk tephra samples erupted from 10 volcanoes were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a pilot study to further refine the geochemical haracteristics; tephra from these volcanoes can be characterized using Cr and Th contents and La/Yb ratios.
Unidentified tephra collected at the islands of Karaginsky (3), Bering (11), and Attu (5) as well as Uka Bay (1) were correlated to known eruptions. Glass compositions and
trace element data from bulk tephra samples show that the Karaginsky Island and Uka Bay tephra were all erupted from the Shiveluch volcano. The 11 Bering Island tephra
are correlated to Kamchatka eruptions. Five tephra from Attu Island in the Aleutians are tentatively correlated with eruptions from the Avachinsky and Shiveluch volcanoes.
Ponomareva V.V., Churikova T., Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Pevzner M., Sulerzhitskii L. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Volcanism on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northwest Pacific Region / Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union. 2007. Vol. 172. P. 165-198. doi: 10.1029/172GM15.
   Annotation
Late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanism in Kamchatka results from the subduction of the
Pacific Plate under the peninsula and forms three volcanic belts arranged in en echelon manner
from southeast to northwest. The cross-arc extent of recent volcanism exceeds 250 km and
is one of the widest worldwide. All the belts are dominated by mafic rocks. Eruptives with
SiO2>57% constitute ~25% of the most productive Central Kamchatka Depression belt and
~30% of the Eastern volcanic front, but <10% of the least productive Sredinny Range belt.
All the Kamchatka volcanic rocks exhibit typical arc-type signatures and are represented
by basalt-rhyolite series differing in alkalis. Typical Kamchatka arc basalts display a strong
increase in LILE, LREE and HFSE from the front to the back-arc. La/Yb and Nb/Zr increase
from the arc front to the back arc while B/Li and As, Sb, B, Cl and S concentrations decrease.
The initial mantle source below Kamchatka ranges from N-MORB-like in the volcanic front
and Central Kamchatka Depression to more enriched in the back arc. Rocks from the Central
Kamchatka Depression range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.70334 to 0.70366, but have almost
constant Nd isotopic ratios (143Nd/144Nd 0.51307–0.51312). This correlates with the highest
U/Th ratios in these rocks and suggest the highest fluid-flux in the source region.
Holocene large eruptions and eruptive histories of individual Holocene volcanoes have been
studied with the help of tephrochronology and 14C dating that permits analysis of time-space
patterns of volcanic activity, evolution of the erupted products, and volcanic hazards.
Ponomareva Vera V., Melekestsev Ivan V., Dirksen Oleg V. Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. Vol. 158. № 1-2. P. 117-138. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.04.016.
   Annotation
On Kamchatka, detailed geologic and geomorphologic mapping of young volcanic terrains and observations on historical eruptions reveal that landslides of various scales, from small (0.001 km3) to catastrophic (up to 20–30 km3), are widespread. Moreover, these processes are among the most effective and most rapid geomorphic agents. Of 30 recently active Kamchatka volcanoes, at least 18 have experienced sector collapses, some of them repetitively. The largest sector collapses identified so far on Kamchatka volcanoes, with volumes of 20–30 km3 of resulting debris-avalanche deposits, occurred at Shiveluch and Avachinsky volcanoes in the Late Pleistocene. During the last 10,000 yr the most voluminous sector collapses have occurred on extinct Kamen' (4–6 km3) and active Kambalny (5–10 km3) volcanoes. The largest number of repetitive debris avalanches (> 10 during just the Holocene) has occurred at Shiveluch volcano. Landslides from the volcanoes cut by ring-faults of the large collapse calderas were ubiquitous. Large failures have happened on both mafic and silicic volcanoes, mostly related to volcanic activity. Orientation of collapse craters is controlled by local tectonic stress fields rather than regional fault systems.

Specific features of some debris avalanche deposits are toreva blocks — huge almost intact fragments of volcanic edifices involved in the failure; some have been erroneously mapped as individual volcanoes. One of the largest toreva blocks is Mt. Monastyr' — a ∼ 2 km3 piece of Avachinsky Somma involved in a major sector collapse 30–40 ka BP.

Long-term forecast of sector collapses on Kliuchevskoi, Koriaksky, Young Cone of Avachinsky and some other volcanoes highlights the importance of closer studies of their structure and stability.
Siebert L., Simkin T., Kimberly P. Volcanoes of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2010. 568 p.
   Annotation
This impressive scientific resource presents up-to-date information on ten thousand years of volcanic activity on Earth. In the decade and a half since the previous edition was published new studies have refined assessments of the ages of many volcanoes, and several thousand new eruptions have been documented. This edition updates the book's key components: a directory of volcanoes active during the Holocene; a chronology of eruptions over the past ten thousand years; a gazetteer of volcano names, synonyms, and subsidiary features; an extensive list of references; and an introduction placing these data in context. This edition also includes new photographs, data on the most common rock types forming each volcano, information on population densities near volcanoes, and other features, making it the most comprehensive source available on Earth's dynamic volcanism.
VONA/KVERT Information Releases. 2005.
Volcano observatory notification to aviation (VONA/KVERT). 2011.
Zaretskaya N.E., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitsky L.D. Radiocarbon dating of large Holocene volcanic events within South Kamchatka (Russian Far East) // Radiocarbon. 2007. Vol. 49. № 2. P. 1065-1078.
   Annotation
Radiocarbon dating is widely used when studying recent volcanic activity in the Kamchatka Peninsula due to the abundance of organic matter that is associated with the volcanic deposits. Here, we present the results of 14C dating of major volcanic events within the active South Kamchatka volcanic zone. South Kamchatka includes 8 recently active volcanic centers (stratovolcanoes, calderas, and large craters) that have been erupting during the Holocene. Their tephras represent useful markers for both the southern part of the peninsula and the Northern Kurile Islands. Since these marker tephra layers facilitate stratigraphic and tephrochronological studies in this area, it was important to determine their ages. We have obtained 73 new individual 14C dates on paleosol, peat, charcoal, and wood associated with the marker tephra layers, then complemented these data with 37 earlier published dates and analyzed the resulting data set. We selected the reliable dates and then obtained average 14C ages of marker tephra layers. The details of these procedures, as well as brief descriptions of South Kamchatka Holocene eruptions and their tephra beds, are presented in the paper.
Zubov A.G., Kirianov V.Yu., Hughes S.R., Kurbatov A. To use of thermomagnetic parameters to identify tephra // AGU Meeting-99. Abstracts., 1999 г. 1999.
   Annotation
О возможности использования термомагнитных параметров для идентификации вулканических пеплов
Апродов В.А. Вулканы. М.: Мысль. 1982. 367 с.
   Annotation
Справочник содержит характеристику около трех тысяч вулканов земного шара, сгруппированных по вулканическим поясам и другим районам проявления вулканизма. Этим поясам и районам предшествует их общая геолого-географическая характеристика. Сведения о вулканах включают географическое положение, морфологию, геологическую структуру, активность и т.д. Книга рассчитана не только на специалистов, но и на более широкий круг читателей.