Hasegawa Takeshi, Nakagawa Mitsuhiro, Yoshimoto Mitsuhiro, Ishizuka Yoshihiro, Hirose Wataru, Seki Sho-ichi, Ponomareva Vera, Rybin Alexander Tephrostratigraphy and petrological study of Chikurachki and Fuss volcanoes, western Paramushir Island, northern Kurile Islands: Evaluation of Holocene eruptive activity and temporal change of magma system // Quaternary International. 2011. V. 246. № 1–2. P. 278 - 297. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2011.06.047.
A tephrostratigraphic and petrological study of the Chikurachki (1816 m)-Tatarinov-Lomonosov volcanic chain (CTL volcanic chain) and Fuss (1772 m), located at the southern part of Paramushir Island in the northern Kurile Islands, was carried out to reveal the explosive eruption history during the Holocene and the temporal change of the magma systems of these active volcanoes. Tephra successions were described at 54 sites, and more than 20 major eruptive units were identified, consisting of pumice fall, scoria fall and ash fall deposits, each of which are separated by paleosol or peat layers. The source volcano of each recognized tephra layer was confirmed by correlation with proximal deposits of each eruption center with respect to petrography and whole-rock and glass chemistry. The age of each layer was determined by radiocarbon dating and the stratigraphic relationship with the dated, widespread tephra from Kamchatka according to the thickness of paleosols bracketed between tephra layers. The Holocene activity in this region was initiated by eruptions from the Tatarinov and Lomonosov volcanoes. After the eruptions, the Fuss and Chikurachki volcanoes started their explosive activities at ca. 7.5 ka BP, soon after the deposition of widespread tephra from the Kurile Lake caldera in southern Kamchatka. Compared with Fuss located on the back-arc side, Chikurachki has frequent, repeated explosive and voluminous eruptions. Whole-rock compositions of the rocks of the CTL volcanic chain and Fuss are classified into medium-K and high-K groups, respectively. These suggest that magma systems beneath the CTL volcanic chain and Fuss differ from each other and have been independently constructed. The rocks of the Chikurachki volcano are basalt-basaltic andesite and have gradually evolved their chemical compositions; when graphed on a SiO2-oxide diagram, these form smooth trends from mafic to more felsic. This suggests that the magma system evolved mainly by fractional crystallization. In contrast, matrix glass chemistries for Fuss pumices are distinct for each eruption and show different K2O levels on a SiO2-K2O diagram. This implies that the magma system of Fuss has been frequently replaced. Both volcanoes have been active under the same subduction system. However, the Chikurachki volcano will continue eruptive activity under a stable magma system with a higher magma discharge rate, whereas Fuss may continue construction with an intermittent supply of distinct, small magma batches.
Hoff U., Dirksen O., Dirksen V., Herzschuh U., Hubberten H.-W., Meyer H., Bogaard van den C., Diekmann B. Late Holocene diatom assemblages in a lake-sediment core from Central Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Paleolimnology. 2012. V. 47. V. 4. P. 549-560. doi: 10.1007/s10933-012-9580-y.
Fossil diatom assemblages in a sediment core from a small lake in Central Kamchatka (Russia) were used to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions of the late Holocene. The waterbody may be a kettle lake that formed on a moraine of the Two-Yurts Lake Valley, located on the eastern slope of the Central Kamchatka Mountain Chain. At present, it is a seepage lake with no surficial outflow. Fossil diatom assemblages show an almost constant ratio between planktonic and periphytic forms throughout the record. Downcore variations in the relative abundances of diatom species enabled division of the core into four diatom assemblage zones, mainly related to changes in abundances of Aulacoseira subarctica, Stephanodiscus minutulus, and Discostella pseudostelligera and several benthic species. Associated variations in the composition and content of organic matter are consistent with the diatom stratigraphy. The oldest recovered sediments date to about 3220 BC. They lie below a sedimentation hiatus and likely include reworked deposits from nearby Two-Yurts Lake. The initial lake stage between 870 and 400 BC was characterized by acidic shallow-water conditions. Between 400 BC and AD 1400, lacustrine conditions were established, with highest contributions from planktonic diatoms. The interval between AD 1400 and 1900 might reflect summer cooling during the Little Ice Age, indicated by diatoms that prefer strong turbulence, nutrient recycling and cooler summer conditions. The timing of palaeolimnological changes generally fits the pattern of neoglacial cooling during the late Holocene on Kamchatka and in the neighbouring Sea of Okhotsk, mainly driven by the prevailing modes of regional atmospheric circulation.