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Andrews B.J., Gardner J.E., Tait S., Ponomareva V.V., Melekestsev I.V. Dynamics of the 1800 14C yr BP caldera-forming Eruption of Ksudach Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Geophysical Monograph Series. // Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. 2007. V. 172. P. 325-342. № doi:10.1029/172GM23.    Аннотация
The 1800 14C yr BP Ksudach KS1 rhyodacite deposits present an opportunity to study the effects of caldera collapse on eruption dynamics and behavior. Stratigraphic relations indicate four Phases of eruption, Initial, Main, Lithic, and Gray. Well-sorted, reverse-graded pumice fall deposits overlying a silty ash compose the Initial Phase layers. The Main, Lithic, and Gray Phases are represented by pumice fall layers interbedded with pyroclastic flow and surge deposits (proximally) and co-ignimbrite ashes (distally). Although most of the deposit is <30 wt.% lithics, the Lithic Phase layers are >50 wt.% lithics. White and gray pumice are compositionally indistinguishable, however vesicle textures and microlite populations indicate faster ascent by the white pumice prior to eruption of the Gray Phase. The eruption volume is estimated as ∼8.5 km3 magma (dense rock equivalent) and ∼3.6 km3 lithics. Isopleth maps indicate mass flux ranged from 5–10×10^7 kg/s during the Initial Phase to >10^8 kg/s during the Main, Lithic, and Gray Phases. Caldera Collapse during the Lithic Phase is reflected by a large increase in lithic particles and the abrupt textural change from white to gray pumice; collapse began following eruption of ∼66% of the magma, and finished when ∼72% of the magma was erupted. Stratigraphic, granulometric, and component analyses indicate simultaneous eruption of buoyant plumes and non-buoyant flows during the Main, Lithic, and Gray Phases. Although mass flux did not change significantly following caldera collapse, the Gray Phase of eruption was dominated by non-buoyant flows in contrast to the earlier Phases that erupted mostly buoyant plumes.
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina Eruptive process, effects and deposits of the 1996 and the ancient basaltic phreatomagmatic eruptions in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia // Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings. 2001. P. 35-60. № 10.1002/9781444304251.ch3.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G. Mantle and fluid sources below Klyuchevskoy-Kamen-Bezymianny line (Kamchatka) // Geofluid-3. Nature and Dynamics of fluids in Subduction Zones. Tokyo, Japan, February 28 - March 3, 2014. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Institute of Technology. 2014. P. 72    Аннотация
Kamen volcano is an extinct volcanic complex located in the central part of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) between active Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes. Kamen volcano was mapped by V.A. Ermakov only in the 1970s. However the modern geochemical studies of Kamen volcano have not been previously carried out and its relationship and petrogenesis in comparison to other active neighbors are unknown. A modern geochemical study of Kamen volcano is needed because it will shed light not only on the history of the volcano itself and its closest neighbors, but also on the history and magmatic evolution of the KGV melts in general. The distance between the summits of Kamen and Klyuchevskoy is only 5 km, the same as between Kamen and Bezymianny. The close relationship in space and time of the KGV and the common zone of seismicity below them suggests a common source and a possible genetic relationship between their magmas. However, the Late-Pleistocene-Holocene lavas of all these neighboring volcanoes are very different: high-Mg and high-Al Ol-Cpx-Pl basalts and basaltic andesites occur at Klyuchevskoy volcano, and Hbl-bearing andesites and dаcites dominate at Bezymianny volcano. The rocks of Ploskie Sopky volcano, situated only 10 km NW of Kamen, are represented by medium-high-K subalkaline lavas.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283481841 [связанный ресурс]
Clarke Amanda B., Ongaro Tomaso, Belousov Alexander Vulcanian Eruptions // Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Academic Press: Elsevier. 2015. P. 505-518.
Fedotov S.A. On Deep Structure, Properties of the Upper Mantle, and Volcanism of the Kuril-Kamchatka Island Arc According to Seismic Data // The Crust and Upper Mantle of the Pacific Area. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. 1968. V. 12. P. 131-139. № doi:10.1029/GM012p0131.    Аннотация
The results of detailed seismic investigations during the period 1961 to 1964 are described. Accurate data of focus location for Kamchatka and the Commander Islands are cited. The majority of earthquakes are located in the Pacific focal zone and the others are found in such remarkable tectonic regions as the east Kamchatka ranges, the continental slope of the Commander Islands, etc. The focal zone seismic activity decreases with increasing depth. The seismic activity at a depth of 250 km is 100 times less than the activity at a depth of 0–20 km. Kamchatka earthquake locations in relation to the Kuril-Kamchatka Island arc and deep water trench are approximately the same as those of the south Kuril Island earthquakes. The Kamchatka active volcano belt coincides with the region of earthquakes having focal depths of 100–200 km, especially between 125 and 175 km. S-wave screening in the magma chambers under the volcanoes is observed. The Avacha volcanic cluster magma chamber at a depth of 20–80 km has the form of a column, 25 km in diameter. P-wave velocity in the upper mantle under the Pacific Ocean and between the Aleutian trench and the Kuril-Kamchatka trench is about 8.2 km/sec, and under Kamchatka 7.7 km/sec. Local velocity decreases to basaltic range (Vp = 72 km/sec) in the upper mantle at a depth near 70 km under the east Kamchatka active volcano belt.
Gorshkov G.S. Kurile Islands // Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields. Rome: IAVCEI, 7. 1958. P. 1-99.
Gorshkov G.S. Petrochemical features of volcanism in relation to the types of the Earth's crust // The Crust of the Pacific Basin // Geoph. Monograph. AGU. 1962. V. 6. P. 110-115.
Gorshkov G.S. Petrochemistry of volcanic rocks in the Kurile Islands arc with some generalizations on volcanism // The Western Pacific: Island Arcs, Marginal Seas, Geochemistry. University of Western Australian Press. 1973. P. 459-467.
Igarashi Yohko, Girina Olga, Osiensky Jeffrey, Moore Donald International Coordination in Managing Airborne Ash Hazards: Lessons from the Northern Pacific // Advances in Volcanology. Springer. 2017. P. 1-19.    Аннотация
Airborne volcanic ash is one of the most common, far-travelled, direct hazards associated with explosive volcanic eruptions worldwide. Management of volcanic ash cloud hazards often requires coordinated efforts of meteorological, volcanological, and aviation authorities from multiple countries. These international collaborations during eruptions pose particular challenges due to variable crisis response protocols, uneven agency responsibilities and technical capacities, language differences, and the expense of travel to establish and maintain relationships over the long term. This report introduces some of the recent efforts in enhancing international cooperation and collaboration in the Northern Pacific region.
Piip B.I., Tonani F., Suehiro C. Report of the UNESCO volcanological mission to Indonesia in 1963 // Bulletin UNESCO. Paris: Unesco. 1964.
Ponomareva V., Kyle P., Pevzner M., Sulerzhitsky L., Hartman M. Holocene eruptive history of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia // Geophysical Monograph Series. // Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. 2007. V. 172. P. 263-282. № doi:10.1029/172GM19.    Аннотация
The Holocene eruptive history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, has been reconstructed using geologic mapping, tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, XRF and microprobe analyses. Eruptions of Shiveluch during the Holocene have occurred with irregular repose times alternating between periods of explosive activity and dome growth. The most intense volcanism, with frequent large and moderate eruptions occurred around 6500–6400 BC, 2250–2000 BC, and 50–650 AD, coincides with the all-Kamchatka peaks of volcanic activity. The current active period started around 900 BC; since then the large and moderate eruptions has been following each other in 50–400 yrs-long intervals. This persistent strong activity can be matched only by the early Holocene one.
Most Shiveluch eruptions during the Holocene produced medium-K, hornblendebearing andesitic material characterized by high MgO (2.3–6.8 wt %), Cr (47–520 ppm), Ni (18–106 ppm) and Sr (471–615 ppm), and low Y (> 18 ppm). Only two mafic tephras erupted about 6500 and 2000 BC, each within the period of most intense activity.
Many past eruptions from Shiveluch were larger and far more hazardous then the historical ones. The largest Holocene eruption occurred ∼1050 AD and yielded >2.5 km3 of tephra. More than 10 debris avalanches took place only in the second half of the Holocene. Extent of Shiveluch tephra falls exceeded 350 km; travel distance of pyroclastic density currents was > 22 km, and that of the debris avalanches ≤20 km.
Ponomareva V.V., Churikova T., Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Pevzner M., Sulerzhitskii L. Late Pleistocene - Holocene Volcanism on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northwest Pacific Region // Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. 2007. V. 172. P. 165-198. № 10.1029/172GM15.    Аннотация
Late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanism in Kamchatka results from the subduction of the
Pacific Plate under the peninsula and forms three volcanic belts arranged in en echelon manner
from southeast to northwest. The cross-arc extent of recent volcanism exceeds 250 km and
is one of the widest worldwide. All the belts are dominated by mafic rocks. Eruptives with
SiO2>57% constitute ~25% of the most productive Central Kamchatka Depression belt and
~30% of the Eastern volcanic front, but <10% of the least productive Sredinny Range belt.
All the Kamchatka volcanic rocks exhibit typical arc-type signatures and are represented
by basalt-rhyolite series differing in alkalis. Typical Kamchatka arc basalts display a strong
increase in LILE, LREE and HFSE from the front to the back-arc. La/Yb and Nb/Zr increase
from the arc front to the back arc while B/Li and As, Sb, B, Cl and S concentrations decrease.
The initial mantle source below Kamchatka ranges from N-MORB-like in the volcanic front
and Central Kamchatka Depression to more enriched in the back arc. Rocks from the Central
Kamchatka Depression range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.70334 to 0.70366, but have almost
constant Nd isotopic ratios (143Nd/144Nd 0.51307–0.51312). This correlates with the highest
U/Th ratios in these rocks and suggest the highest fluid-flux in the source region.
Holocene large eruptions and eruptive histories of individual Holocene volcanoes have been
studied with the help of tephrochronology and 14C dating that permits analysis of time-space
patterns of volcanic activity, evolution of the erupted products, and volcanic hazards.
Zellmer Georg F., Rubin K., Miller C., Shellnut G., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina Resolving discordant U–Th–Ra ages: constraints on petrogenetic processes of recent effusive eruptions at Tatun Volcano Group, northern Taiwan // Chemical, Physical and Temporal Evolution of Magmatic Systems. // The Geological Society of London. 2015. V. 422. № 10.1144/SP422.3.
Абдурахманов А.И., Пискунов Б.Н., Смирнов И.Г., Федорченко В.И. Вулкан Алаид (Курильские острова) // Восточно-Азиатские островные системы (тектоника и вулканизм). 1978. С. 85-107.
Абдурахманов А.И., Федорченко В.И. Особенности механизма извержения вулкана Тятя в июле 1973 г. // Вулканизм Курило-Камчатского региона и острова Сахалин. 1976. Вып. 48. С. 41-52.
Авдейко Г.П., Токарев П.И., Меняйлов И.А., Хренов А.П., Флеров Г.Б., Широков В.А. Извержение побочного прорыва Олимпийского на вулкане Алаид в 1972 г. // Вулканизм островных дуг. М.: Наука. 1977. С. 55-64.
Базанова Л.И., Брайцева О.А., Мелекесцев И.В., Пузанков М.Ю. Потенциальная опасность от извержений Авачинского вулкана // Геодинамика и вулканизм Курило-Камчатской островодужной системы. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВГиГ ДВО РАН. 2001. С. 390-407.    Аннотация
Реконструирована история эруптивной активности Авачинского вулкана за последние 10 тыс.лет, определены возраст, частота и параметры прошлых извержений, характер и масштабы опасных вулканических явлений. Дана оценка вулканической опасности, связанной с деятельностью Молодого конуса вулкана, начавшего формироваться 3800 лет назад. Характер и параметры его извержений положены в основу составленной карты вулканической опасности для прилегающих территорий.

History of eruptive activity of Avachinsky volcano over the last 10 mln years has been reconstructed; age, frequency and parameters of the past eruptions, character and scale of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena have been determined. Assessment of volcanic hazard has been given associated with the activity of Molodoi cone which began its formation 38000 years ago. Specific features of its eruption are used as the basis for the map of volcanic hazard for adjacent territories.
Балеста С.Т. Результаты просвечивания вулканов Авачинско-Корякской группы // Земная кора и магматические очаги областей современного вулканизма. М.: 1981. С. 75-79.
Балеста С.Т., Зубин М.И., Каргопольцев А.А., Федорченко И.А. Глубинное строение района извержения // Большое трещинное Толбачинское извержение. Камчатка. 1975-1976. М.: Наука. 1984. С. 514-537.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/541/ [связанный ресурс]
Барабанов Л.Н., Кирсанова Т.П., Пилипенко Г.Ф., Сугробов В.М., Сугробова Н.Г. Использование гидрохимических данных для изучения гидротермальных систем // Изучение и использование геотермальных ресурсов в вулканических областях. М.: Наука. 1979. С. 124-153.





 

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