Tibaldi Alessandro, Corazzato Claudia, Kozhurin Andrey, Lagmay Alfredo F.M., Pasquarè Federico A., Ponomareva Vera V., Rust Derek, Tormey Daniel, Vezzoli Luigina Influence of substrate tectonic heritage on the evolution of composite volcanoes: Predicting sites of flank eruption, lateral collapse, and erosion // Global and Planetary Change. 2008. Vol. 61. № 3-4. P. 151-174. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.08.014.
This paper aims to aid understanding of the complicated interplay between construction and destruction of volcanoes, with an emphasis on the role of substrate tectonic heritage in controlling magma conduit geometry, lateral collapse, landslides, and preferential erosion pathways. The influence of basement structure on the development of six composite volcanoes located in different geodynamic/geological environments is described: Stromboli (Italy), in an island arc extensional tectonic setting, Ollagüe (Bolivia–Chile) in a cordilleran extensional setting, Kizimen (Russia) in a transtensional setting, Pinatubo (Philippines) in a transcurrent setting, Planchon (Chile) in a compressional cordilleran setting, and Mt. Etna (Italy) in a complex tectonic boundary setting. Analogue and numerical modelling results are used to enhance understanding of processes exemplified by these volcanic centres. We provide a comprehensive overview of this topic by considering a great deal of relevant, recently published studies and combine these with the presentation of new results, in order to contribute to the discussion on substrate tectonics and its control on volcano evolution. The results show that magma conduits in volcanic rift zones can be geometrically controlled by the regional tectonic stress field. Rift zones produce a lateral magma push that controls the direction of lateral collapse and can also trigger collapse. Once lateral collapse occurs, the resulting debuttressing produces a reorganization of the shallow-level magma migration pathways towards the collapse depression. Subsequent landslides and erosion tend to localize along rift zones. If a zone of weakness underlies a volcano, long-term creep can occur, deforming a large sector of the cone. This deformation can trigger landslides that propagate along the destabilized flank axis. In the absence of a rift zone, normal and transcurrent faults propagating from the substrate through the volcano can induce flank instability in directions respectively perpendicular and oblique to fault strike. This destabilization can evolve to lateral collapse with triggering mechanisms such as seismic activity or magmatic intrusion.
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Tolstykh M.L., Naumov V.B., Gavrilenko M.G., Ozerov A.Yu., Kononkova N.N. Chemical composition, volatile components, and trace elements in the melts of the Gorely volcanic center, southern Kamchatka: Evidence from inclusions in minerals // Geochemistry International. 2012. Vol. 50. № 6. P. 522-550. doi:10.1134/S0016702912060079.
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Torsvik T., Paris R., Didenkulova I., Pelinovsky E., Belousov A., Belousova M. Numerical simulation of a tsunami event during the 1996 volcanic eruption in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia // Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. 2010. Vol. 10. № 11. P. 2359-2369. doi:10.5194/nhess-10-2359-2010.
Satellite based remote sensing of active volcanoes has been performed in various forms since 1965. Compared to “on the ground” observations it lets data to be gathered globally at regular pace for long periods of time without the need for local maintenance. Currently existing publicly available volcanoes thermal activity monitoring systems rely on the detection algorithms narrowly specified for volcanoes temperature ranges and operate using the data from previous generation of sensors, which is supported with non-reserved constellation of two satellites. The presented work proposes pipeline (the sequence of actions) based on the clustering of the data received from the Nightfire thermal anomalies detection algorithm, which is not focused on the specific type of infrared sources. Pipeline has been tested on Kamchatka’s region 2016 year dataset and proved to produce sound results corresponding to manual observations.
Turner S.P., Sims K.W.W., Reagan M.K. A 210Pb–226Ra–230Th–238U study of Klyuchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes, Kamchatka // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2006. Vol. 70. № 18, Su. P. A661 doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.1234.
Klyuchevskoy is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth, erupting lavas at a rate of ∼1 m3/s, equivalent to a 50 km length of mid-ocean ridge. Bezymianny is located 20 km south of the summit vent of Klyuchevskoy and has been erupting silicic andesites since its spectacular avalanche eruption in 1956. Major and trace element concentrations and long-lived radiogenic isotope data suggest that basalts and basaltic andesites from Klyuchevskoy and andesites from Bezymianny were derived by different degrees of partial melting of nearly identical mantle sources. Lavas with higher SiO2 concentrations represent the differentiation products of lower degrees of melting after the mantle was fluxed with a fluid derived almost entirely from subducted altered basaltic crust with little or no sediment contribution. The higher SiO2 concentrations for lavas derived from smaller degree melts suggest that they underwent more fractionation because of the loss of their higher water contents. High Th isotope compositions for all lavas from both volcanoes suggest that a significant time transpired between U addition by a slab-fluid and melting. If the excess 226Ra in the lavas is from the slab-fluid, then long term multistage fluxing before melting is required to maintain these 226Ra excesses. An alternative model attributes the excess Ra to melting caused by upwelling mantle in association with rifting of the central Kamchatka depression. The greater Ra excess for Klyuchevskoi’s basaltic andesites compared to its basalts is consistent with generation of the Ra excesses during decompression melting, and a less than few thousand year time frame of differentiation after melting. The lower Ra excesses for Bezymianny’s andesites compared to the more mafic lavas suggest a time frame of fractionation that is longer than this by several thousand years. When time since eruption is accounted for, all samples have (210Pb/226Ra) within 2σ analytical error of one, suggesting that significant long-term gas fluxing of 222Rn into or out of both magma systems has not occurred.