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Holocene Volcanoes in Kamchatka. Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS. 2002.
Igarashi Yohko, Girina Olga, Osiensky Jeffrey, Moore Donald International Coordination in Managing Airborne Ash Hazards: Lessons from the Northern Pacific // Advances in Volcanology. Springer. 2017. P. 1-19.    Аннотация
Airborne volcanic ash is one of the most common, far-travelled, direct hazards associated with explosive volcanic eruptions worldwide. Management of volcanic ash cloud hazards often requires coordinated efforts of meteorological, volcanological, and aviation authorities from multiple countries. These international collaborations during eruptions pose particular challenges due to variable crisis response protocols, uneven agency responsibilities and technical capacities, language differences, and the expense of travel to establish and maintain relationships over the long term. This report introduces some of the recent efforts in enhancing international cooperation and collaboration in the Northern Pacific region.
Inbar Moshe, Gilichinsky Michael, Melekestsev Ivan, Melnikov Dmitry, Zaretskaya Natasha Morphometric and morphological development of Holocene cinder cones: A field and remote sensing study in the Tolbachik volcanic field, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2011. V. 201. P. 301-310.
Ionov D.A., Bénard A., Plechov P.Yu., Shcherbakov V.D. Along-arc variations in lithospheric mantle compositions in Kamchatka, Russia: First trace element data on mantle xenoliths from the Klyuchevskoy Group volcanoes // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. V. 263. P. 122 - 131. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.12.022.    Аннотация
Abstract We provide results of a detailed study of the first peridotite xenoliths of proven mantle origin reported from Bezymyanny volcano in the Klyuchevskoy Group, northern Kamchatka arc. The xenoliths are coarse spinel harzburgites made up mainly of Mg-rich olivine as well as subhedral orthopyroxene (opx) and Cr-rich spinel, and also contain fine-grained interstitial pyroxenes, amphibole and feldspar. The samples are unique in preserving the evidence for both initial arc mantle substrate produced by high-degree melt extraction and subsequent enrichment events. We show that the textures, modal and major oxide compositions of the Bezymyanny xenoliths are generally similar to those of spinel harzburgite xenoliths from Avacha volcano in southern Kamchatka. However, coarse opx from the Bezymyanny harzburgites has higher abundances of light and medium rare earth elements and other highly incompatible elements than coarse opx from the Avacha harzburgites. We infer that (1) the sub-arc lithospheric mantle beneath both Avacha and Bezymyanny (and possibly between these volcanoes) consists predominantly of harzburgitic melting residues, which experienced metasomatism by slab-related fluids or low-fraction, fluid-rich melts and (2) the degrees of metasomatism are higher beneath Bezymyanny. By contrast, xenolith suites from Shiveluch and Kharchinsky volcanoes 50–100 km north of the Klyuchevskoy Group include abundant cumulates and products of reaction of mantle rocks with silicate melts at high melt/rock ratios. The high melt flux through the lithospheric mantle beneath Shiveluch and Kharchinsky may be related to the asthenospheric flow around the northern edge of the sinking Pacific plate; lateral propagation of fluids in the mantle wedge south of the plate edge may contribute to metasomatism in the mantle lithosphere beneath the Klyuchevskoy Group volcanoes.
Ishimaru Satoko, Arai Shoji Highly silicic glasses in peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka arc; implications for melting and metasomatism within the sub-arc mantle // Lithos. 2009. V. 107. № 1–2. P. 93 - 106. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2008.07.005.    Аннотация
Silicate glasses in peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano have high SiO2 (up to 72 wt.) and highly SiO2-oversaturated characteristics; normative quartz content is up to 50 wt.. The glasses represent secondary melts solidified after interaction with mantle peridotite, i.e. crystallization of secondary orthopyroxene at the expense of olivine. We identified two kinds of silicate glasses in Avacha peridotites; one is higher in K2O and enriched in Rb, Ba, U, and Pb than the other. The glasses show basically similar chemical characteristics to the host basaltic andesite to andesite of the Avacha volcano. These chemical characteristics are inherited from slab-derived fluids/melts, which metasomatize the mantle wedge and induce partial melting. The differences of chemical features among the Avacha glasses are attributed to chemical difference of the slab-derived fluids/melts, possibly due to the difference of sediments/basalt ratio of the relevant slab. The low-degree partial melt of peridotite assisted by these fluids/melts, is primarily SiO2-oversaturated, and can conduct silicate metasomatism, evolving through interaction with surrounding mantle peridotite, i.e. formation of orthopyroxene at the expense of olivine. Highly silicic glasses, also reported from peridotite xenoliths from oceanic hotspots and continental rift zones, mostly result from assimilation of orthopyroxene by SiO2-undersaturated melts, which crystallize clinopyroxene and olivine. The glasses also show similar trace-element patterns to their host alkali basaltic magmas, as in the case of arc glasses/calc-alkali magmas. If the glasses in peridotite xenoliths are of silicate metasomatism origin, they are similar in chemistry to host magmas. Reaction between carbonatite melts and peridotites shows the same petrographical feature as that of SiO2-undersaturated silicate melts with peridotites. The glasses originated from carbonatite metasomatism, however, exhibit clearly different trace-element patterns from their host alkali basaltic magmas.
Ishimaru Satoko, Arai Shoji, Shukuno Hiroshi Metal-saturated peridotite in the mantle wedge inferred from metal-bearing peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2009. V. 284. № 3–4. P. 352 - 360. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.04.042.    Аннотация
Lithospheric mantle is inferred to be more oxidized than the asthenosphere, and mantle-wedge peridotites are characterized by high oxidation state relative to abyssal and continental peridotites due to addition of slab-derived fluids or melts. We found metals (native Ni, Fe silicides, native Fe and possible native Ti) from otherwise oxidized sub-arc mantle peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka. This is contrary to the consensus and experimental results that the metals are stable only in deeper parts of the mantle (> 250 km). The metals from Avacha are different in chemistry and petrography from those in serpentinized peridotites. The Avacha metals are characteristically out of chemical equilibrium between individual grains as well as with surrounding peridotite minerals. This indicates their independent formation from different fluids. Some of the Avacha metals form inclusion trails with fluids and pyroxenes, leading to the inference that very local metal saturation resulted from rapid supply (‘flashing’) of reducing fluids from deeper levels. The fluids, possibly rich in H2, are formed by serpentinization at the cold base of the mantle wedge just above the slab, and they reduce overlying peridotites. We propose a metal-saturated peridotite layer, underlying the main oxidized portion, within the mantle wedge beneath the volcanic front to fore-arc region.
Ivanov B.V., Gorelchik V.I., Andreev V.N., Maksimov A.P., Stepanov V.V., Chirkov A.M. The 1972-1974 eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1981. V. 44. № 1. P. 1-10. doi: 10.1007/BF02598184.    Аннотация
A new Klyuchevskoy volcano eruptive cycle encompasses terminal (March 30, 1972 to August 23, 1974) and lateral (August 23, 1974 to December, 1974) eruption stages. The terminal eruption stage resulted in lava flows and parasitic cones that formed on the south-western flank of the volcano.
Eruption products are moderately alkalic high-alumina olivine-bearing andesite-basalts. The terminal eruption stage was accompanied by volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor. The lateral eruption was accompanied by explosive earthquakes. Volcanic tremor was the most useful prognostic sign indicating the onset of the lateral eruption. Eruptive mechanisms are discussed.
Izbekov P., Eichelberger J., Ivanov B., Maximov A. Variations of Volcanic Glass Composition Show Possible Mixing Event at the Beginning of 1996 Eruption of Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Trans. American Geophys. Union, Fall Meet. Suppl, Abstract . 1998. V. 79(45). P. V22B-10.
Izbekov P., Koloskov A., Maximov A., Khabunaya S. The 2012 Fissure Tolbachik Eruption: Preliminary Results of Petrological Investigation // Geophysical Research Abstracts. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 2014. Vienna, Austria: EGU General Assembly 2014. 2014. V. 16. P. 11710
Izbekov Pavel E., Eichelberger John C., Patino Lina C., Vogel Thomas A., Ivanov Boris V. Calcic cores of plagioclase phenocrysts in andesite from Karymsky volcano: Evidence for rapid introduction by basaltic replenishment // Geology. 2002. V. 30. № 9. P. 799-802.    Аннотация
Calcic cores in plagioclase of Karymsky andesite of the 1996–2000 eruptive cycle texturally and compositionally (both trace and major elements) mimic the plagioclase phenocrysts of basalt erupted 6 km away at the onset of the cycle. These observations support the view that simultaneous eruption of andesite and basalt at Karymsky in the beginning of the cycle represents an example of replenishment and eruption triggering of an andesitic reservoir. Homogeneity of andesitic output occurred within two months. This suggests to us that blending of injected basalt into reservoir magma was thorough and rapid.
http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/bibl/vulk/karim/ipe02.pdf [связанный ресурс]
Ji Lingyun, Lu Zhong, Dzurisin Daniel, Senyukov Sergey Pre-eruption deformation caused by dike intrusion beneath Kizimen volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, observed by InSAR // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. V. 256. P. 87 - 95. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.02.011.    Аннотация
Abstract Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images reveal a pre-eruption deformation signal at Kizimen volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, where an ongoing eruption began in mid-November, 2010. The previous eruption of this basaltic andesite-to-dacite stratovolcano occurred in 1927–1928. InSAR images from both ascending and descending orbital passes of Envisat and ALOS PALSAR satellites show as much as 6 cm of line-of-sight shortening from September 2008 to September 2010 in a broad area centered at Kizimen. About 20 cm of opening of a nearly vertical dike provides an adequate fit to the surface deformation pattern. The model dike is approximately 14 km long, 10 km high, centered 13 km beneath Kizimen, and strikes NE–SW. Time-series analysis of multi-temporal interferograms indicates that (1) intrusion started sometime between late 2008 and July 2009, (2) continued at a nearly constant rate, and (3) resulted in a volume expansion of 3.2 × 107 m3 by September 2010, i.e., about two months before the onset of the 2010 eruption. Earthquakes located above the tip of the dike accompanied the intrusion. Eventually, magma pressure in the dike exceeded the confining strength of the host rock, triggering the 2010 eruption. Our results provide insight into the intrusion process that preceded an explosive eruption at a Pacific Rim stratovolcano following nearly a century of quiescence, and therefore have implications for monitoring and hazards assessment at similar volcanoes elsewhere.
Jiang Guoming, Zhao Dapeng, Zhang Guibin Seismic tomography of the Pacific slab edge under Kamchatka // Tectonophysics. 2009. V. 465. № 1–4. P. 190 - 203. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.11.019.    Аннотация
We determine a 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the mantle down to 700 km depth under the Kamchatka peninsula using 678 P-wave arrival times collected from digital seismograms of 75 teleseismic events recorded by 15 portable seismic stations and 1 permanent station in Kamchatka. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly that is visible in the upper mantle and extends below the 660-km discontinuity under southern Kamchatka, while it shortens toward the north and terminates near the Aleutian–Kamchatka junction. Low-velocity anomalies are visible beneath northern Kamchatka and under the junction, which are interpreted as asthenospheric flow. A gap model without remnant slab fragment is proposed to interpret the main feature of high-V anomalies. Combining our tomographic results with other geological and geophysical evidences, we consider that the slab loss may be induced by the friction with surrounding asthenosphere as the Pacific plate rotated clockwise at about 30 Ma ago, and then it was enlarged by the slab-edge pinch-off by the asthenospheric flow and the presence of Meiji seamounts. As a result, the slab loss and the subducted Meiji seamounts have jointly caused the Pacific plate to subduct under Kamchatka with a lower dip angle near the junction, which made the Sheveluch and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes shift westward.
Kalacheva Elena, Taran Yuri, Kotenko Tatiana Geochemistry and solute fluxes of volcano-hydrothermal systems of Shiashkotan, Kuril Islands // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 296. P. 40-54. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.03.010.    Аннотация
Shiashkotan Island belongs to the Northern Kuril island arc and consists of two joined volcanoes, Sinarka and
Kuntomintar, with about 18 km of distance between the summits. Both volcanoes are active, with historic
eruptions, and both emit fumarolic gases. Sinarka volcano is degassing through the extrusive domewith inaccessible
strong and hot (N400 °C) fumaroles. A large fumarolic field of the Kuntomintar volcano situated in a wide
eroded caldera-like crater hosts many fumarolic vents with temperatures from boiling point to 480 °C. Both
volcanoes are characterized by intense hydrothermal activity discharging acid SO4-Cl waters, which are drained
to the Sea of Okhotsk by streams. At least 4 groups of near-neutral Na-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO4 springs with temperatures in
the range of 50–80 °C are located at the sea level,within tide zones and discharge slightly altered diluted seawater.
Volcanic gas of Kuntomintar as well as all types of hydrothermal manifestations of both volcanoes were collected
and analyzed for major and trace elements and water isotopes. Volcanic gases are typical for arc volcanoes
with 3He/4He corrected for air contamination up to 6.4 Ra (Ra=1.4 ×10−6, the air ratio) and δ13C (CO2) within
−10‰to−8‰VPDB. Using a saturation indices approach it is shown that acid volcanic waters are formed at a
shallow level, whereas waters of the coastal springs are partially equilibrated with rocks at ~180 °C. Trace
element distribution and concentrations and the total REE depend on the water type, acidity and Al+Fe concentration.
The REE pattern for acidic waters is unusual but similar to that found in some acidic crater lake waters.
The total hydrothermal discharge of Cl and S from the island associated with volcanic activity is estimated at
ca. 20 t/d and 40 t/d, respectively, based on the measurements of flow rates of the draining streams and
their chemistry. The chemical erosion of the island by surface and thermal waters is estimated at 27 and 140
ton/km2/year, respectively, which is 2–3 times lower than chemical erosion of tropical volcanic islands.
Kalacheva Elena, Taran Yuri, Kotenko Tatiana, Hattori Keiko, Kotenko Leonid, Solis-Pichardo Gabriela Volcano–hydrothermal system of Ebeko volcano, Paramushir, Kuril Islands: Geochemistry and solute fluxes of magmatic chlorine and sulfur // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2016. V. 310. P. 118-131. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.11.006.    Аннотация
Ebeko volcano at the northern part of Paramushir Island in the Kuril island arc produces frequent phreatic eruptions and relatively strong fumarolic activity at the summit area ~ 1000 m above sea level (asl). The fumaroles are characterized by low-temperature, HCl- and S-rich gas and numerous hyper-acid pools (pH < 1) without drains. At ~ 550 m asl, in the Yurieva stream canyon, many hot (up to 87 °C) springs discharge ultra-acidic (pH 1–2) SO4–Cl water into the stream and finally into the Sea of Okhotsk. During quiescent stages of degassing, these fumaroles emit 1000–2000 t/d of water vapor, < 20 t/d of SO2 and < 5 t/d of HCl. The measurement of acidic hot Yurieva springs shows that the flux of Cl and S, 60–80 t/d each, is independent on the volcanic activity in the last two decades. Such high flux of Cl is among the highest ever measured in a volcano–hydrothermal system. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of water and Cl concentration for Yurieva springs show an excellent positive correlation, indicating a mixing between meteoric water and magmatic vapor. In contrast, volcanic gas condensates of Ebeko fumaroles do not show a simple mixing trend but rather a complicated data suggesting evaporation of the acidic brine. Temperatures calculated from gas compositions and isotope data are similar, ranging from 150 to 250 °C, which is consistent with the presence of a liquid aquifer below the Ebeko fumarolic fields. Saturation indices of non-silicate minerals suggest temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C for Yurieva springs. Trace elements (including REE) and Sr isotope composition suggest congruent dissolution of the Ebeko volcanic rocks by acidic waters. Waters of Yurieva springs and waters of the summit thermal fields (including volcanic gas condensates) are different in Cl/SO4 ratios and isotopic compositions, suggesting complicated boiling–condensation–mixing processes.
Kardanova O. F., Dubrovskaya I. K., Murav’ev Ya. D. Thermal anomalies on Savich Cone, Kikhpinych Volcano, Kamchatka: IR surveys and land-based observations for 30 years (1982 through 2012) // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2015. V. 9. № 6. P. 368-377. doi:10.1134/S0742046315060032.
Kersting Annie B., Arculus Richard J. Pb isotope composition of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka and North Pacific sediments: Implications for magma genesis and crustal recycling in the Kamchatkan arc // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 1995. V. 136. № 3–4. P. 133 - 148. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(95)00196-J.    Аннотация
Pb isotope data are used to constrain the chemical contribution of the subducted components in the recycling beneath Klyuchevskoy volcano, the most active volcano in the Kamchatkan arc. The Pb isotope ratios of Klyuchevskoy basalts (206Pb/204Pb= 18.26–18.30, 207/Pb204Pb= 15.45–15.48, 208/Pb204Pb= 37.83–37.91) define a narrow range that falls within the Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) field and are among the least radiogenic island arc basalts measured to date. These data are similar to data from three other Quaternary Kamchatkan volcanoes: Tolbachik, Kumroch-Shish, and Maly Semiachik. In contrast, North Pacific sediments (primarily siliceous oozes) collected parallel to the Kamchatkan trench during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 145, have Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb= 18.51–18.78, 207Pb/204Pb= 15.56–15.64, 208Pb/204Pb= 38.49–38.75) that are more radiogenic than either the Klyuchevskoy basalts or Pacific MORB. Incorporation of even a small amount of sediment in the source of the Klyuchevskoy magmas would shift the Pb isotope ratios of the erupted basalts from the MORB field to more radiogenic values. The absence of 10Be and elevated Pb isotope ratios in the Kamchatkan volcanic lavas, despite the presence of distinctively radiogenic Pb in the North Pacific sediments makes it unlikely that sediments or sediment-derived fluids are involved in the source magmas beneath Kamchatka. The Kamchatkan arc thus represents an “end-member” whereby little or no sediment is involved in terms of elemental recycling and arc magma genesis. The major and trace elements, Pb, Sr and Nd isotope data of the Kamchatkan basalts are most consistently explained if derived from a fluid-fluxed, peridotitic mantle wedge source, wherein the fluid composition is dominantly controlled by dehydration of altered oceanic crust, imparting a radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, and MORB-like Pb isotope signature to the mantle source. The erupted Klyuchevskoy lavas preserve a slab signature derived from incompatible elements that are strongly partitioned into the fluid. The 30 km of arc crust through which the Klyuchevskoy magmas traverse prior to eruption is not composed of older crust, but must be juvenile, similar in isotopic composition to MORB.
Khrenov A.P., Ozerov A.Yu., Litasov N.E., Slezin Yu.B., Murav’ev Ya.D., Zharinov N.A. Parasitic eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano (Predskazanny eruption, 1983) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1988. V. 7. P. 1-24.
Khubunaya S.A., Eremina T.S., Sobolev A.V. The classification of potassium basaltic trachyandesites that were discharged by the 2012–2013 parasitic eruption on Ploskii Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka using geochemical criteria // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2016. V. 10. № 1. P. 33-49. doi: 10.1134/S0742046316010024.    Аннотация
Abstract—This study is concerned with the petrographic, mineralogic, and geochemical features in the K-high basaltic trachyandesites that were discharged by the 2012–2013 parasitic eruption on Ploskii Tolbachik Volcano. These K-high basaltic trachyandesites exhibit some obvious characteristics that testify to their suprasubduction origin. They are deeply differentiated rocks with strongly fractionated plagioclase.A study of the Sr, Nd, and Pb radiogenic isotope ratios in the K-high basaltic trachyandesites provided evidence of their mantle origin and of the fact that the crust has exerted no influence on their compositions. We performed a comparative analysis of the ratios of the concentrations for some incoherent elements in the K-high basaltic trachyandesites, as well as in intraplate, riftogenic, and island-arc moderate potassium basalts and basaltic andesites in relation to the concentrations of these elements in the primitive mantle. The geochemical features of these K-high basaltic trachyandesites classify them as belonging to the suprasubduction subalkaline formation of the potassium series.

Изучены петрографические, минералогические и геохимические особенности К-трахиандезибазальтов побочного извержения 2012–2013 гг. вулкана Плоский Толбачик. К-трахиандезибазальты имеют явные признаки надсубдукционного происхождения. Это глубоко дифференцированные породы, характеризующиеся значительным фракционированием плагиоклаза. Изучение радиогенных изотопных отношений Sr, Nd и Pb в К-трахиандезибазальтах свидетельствует об их мантийном происхождении и отсутствии влияния земной коры на их составы. Проведен сравнительный анализ отношений содержаний некогерентых элементов в К-трахиандезибазальтов,внутриплитных,рифтогенных и островодужных умереннокалиевых базальтах и андезибазальтах к содержанию этих элементов в примитивной мантии. Геохимические особенности К-трахиандезибазальтов позволяют отнести их к надсубдукционной субщелочной формации калиевого ряда.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/2626/ [связанный ресурс]
Khubunaya S.A., Gontovaya L.I., Sobolev A.V., Nizkous I.V. Magma Chambers beneath the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2007. V. 1. № 2. P. 98-118. doi: 0.1134/S0742046307020029.    Аннотация
A 3D velocity model of the Earth's crust beneath the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group has been constructed using the seismic tomography method. Anomalies of the velocity parameters related to the zones of magma supply to active volcanoes have been distinguished. Petrological data on the composition, temperature, and pressure of generation and crystallization of primary melts of Klyuchevskoy volcano magnesian basalts have been obtained. The primary melt corresponds to picrite (MgO = 13-14 wt %) with an ultimate saturation of SiO2 (49-50 wt %), a high H2O content (2.2-2.9%), and incompatible elements (Sr, Rb, Ba, Hf). This melt is formed at pressures of 15-20 kbar and temperatures of 1280--1320С . Its further crystallization proceeds in intermediate magma chambers at two discrete pressure levels (i.e., greater than 6, and 1-2 kbar). The results of the petrological studies are in good agreement with the seismotomographic model.

Поступила в редакцию 1. 11. 2006 г.
Методом сейсмической томографии построена объемная скоростная модель земной коры под Ключевской группой вулканов. Выделены аномалии скоростных параметров связанных с зонами магматического питания активных вулканов. Получены петрологические данные о составе, температуре и давлении генерации и кристаллизации родоначальных расплавов магнезиальных базальтов Ключевского вулкана. Родоначальный расплав отвечает пикриту (MgO=13-14%,мас) с предельным насыщением SiO2 (49-50%, мас.), высоким содержанием H2O (2,2-2.9%) и несовместимыми элементами (Sr, Rb, Ba, Hf). Он образуется при давлениях 15-20 кбар и температурах 1280-13200С. Его дальнейшая кристаллизация проходит в промежуточных магматических камерах при двух дискретных уровнях давлений (более 6 и 1-2 кбар). Результаты петрологических исследований находятся в хорошем соответствии с сейсмотомографической моделью.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/2129/ [связанный ресурс]
Kirianov V.Yu., Melekestsev I.V., Andreev V.N., Ovsyannikov A.A. Reconstruction of the eruptive activity of Momotombo volcano (Nicaragua) to assess volcanic hazards // Kagoshima International Conference on Volcanoes: Proceedings of the International Conference on Volcanoes, Japan, Kagoshima, 19-23 July 1988. Kagoshima: Kagoshima Prefectural Government. 1988. P. 495-498.


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