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Portnyagin Maxim, Hoernle Kaj, Plechov Pavel, Mironov Nikita, Khubunaya Sergey Constraints on mantle melting and composition and nature of slab components in volcanic arcs from volatiles (H2O, S, Cl, F) and trace elements in melt inclusions from the Kamchatka Arc // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2007. Т. 255. № 1-2. С. 53-69. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.005.
Portnyagin Maxim, Ponomareva Vera Kliuchevskoi volcano diary // International Journal of Earth Sciences. 2012. V. 101. № 1. P. 195 doi:10.1007/s00531-011-0710-y.    Аннотация
Numerous ash layers deposited at the slopes of Kliuchevskoi volcano provide a detailed and continuous record of its explosive activity during the last ca. 10,000 years.
Ramsey Michael, Dehn Jonathan Spaceborne observations of the 2000 Bezymianny, Kamchatka eruption: the integration of high-resolution ASTER data into near real-time monitoring using AVHRR // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2004. V. 135. № 1-2. P. 127-146. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2003.12.014.    Аннотация
Since its launch in December 1999, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has been observing over 1300 of the world's volcanoes during the day and night and at different times of the year. At the onset of an eruption, the temporal frequency of these regularly scheduled observations can be increased to as little as 1–3 days at higher latitudes. However, even this repeat time is not sufficient for near real-time monitoring, which is on the order of minutes to hours using poorer spatial resolution (>1 km/pixel) instruments. The eruption of Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatkan Peninsula, Russia) in March 2000 was detected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and also initiated an increased observation frequency for ASTER. A complete framework of the eruptive cycle from April 2000 to January 2001 was established, with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data used to monitor the large eruptions and produce the average yearly background state for the volcano. Twenty, nearly cloud-free ASTER scenes (2 days and 18 nights) show large thermal anomalies covering tens to hundreds of pixels and reveal both the actively erupting and restive (background) state of the volcano. ASTER short-wave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data were also used to validate the recovered kinetic temperatures from the larger AVHRR pixels, as well as map the volcanic products and monitor the thermal features on the summit dome and surrounding small pyroclastic flows. These anomalies increase to greater than 90 °C prior to a larger eruption sequence in October 2000. In addition, ASTER has the first multispectral spaceborne TIR capability, which allowed for the modeling of micrometer-scale surface roughness (vesicularity) on the active lava dome. Where coupled with ongoing operational monitoring programs like those at AVO, ASTER data become extremely useful in discrimination of small surface targets in addition to providing enhanced volcanic mapping capabilities.
Rashidov V.A., Romanova I.M., Bondarenko V.I., Palueva A.A. Information technologies in geomagnetic investigations of Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes // Russian Journal of Earth Sciences. 2010. V. 11. № 3. P. 1-8. doi:10.2205/2009ES000358.    Аннотация
The original actual materials collected during the geomagnetic research on the research vessel "Vulkanolog" in 1977-1991 (19 volcanological expeditions) resulted in important contribution into the world data on the structure of Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes.

The research resulted in a single method analysis of the anomalous magnetic field of submarine volcanoes and volcanic zones within the Kurile, Izu-Bonin, Mariana, Solomon and Kermadec arcs, New Guinean and South China peripheral seas and within the Socorro hot-spot.

It is stressed that the Late Cenozoic submarine volcanoes within the arcs show their presence distinctly in the anomalous magnetic field by local anomalies located within the edifices. Their amplitude may reach 3000 nT, and the horizontal gradient of the field may exceed 100 nT/km. The data interpretation of the hydromagnetic survey allowed distinguishing the internal structure of single submarine volcanoes, volcanic massifs and volcanic zones in various Pacific regions. The authors revealed the bodies forming anomalies within the isolated volcanic edifices and submarine volcanic zones. The 2.5D and 3D modeling resulted in the estimation of the body ages and the period of the submarine volcanic activity.

Besides the research resulted in estimation of the edifice volumes, scale of submarine volcanic activity and drew the conclusion on the evolution of certain volcanic massifs.

In order to classify and visualize the materials on the geomagnetic research we continue to create "Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes" information system. Currently the information system includes:

The Internet page "Comparative analysis of the materials on geomagnetic research of various manifestation types of the Late Cenozoic submarine volcanism in the Pacific";
"Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes" database;
GIS "Geomagnetic investigations of various appearance types of Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcano activity".
The web site http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/grant/grant_04/index.html contains numerous maps of the anomalous magnetic field, bathymetric and structural maps, fragments of the echo- sounding survey records and continuous acoustic profiling, photos of land volcanoes, references of the Pacific submarine volcanic activity and "Catalogue on the Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes" (in Russian).
The database on the Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes includes location of submarine volcanoes, magnetic behaviors and chemical composition of dredge rocks and volumes of the volcanic edifices. The database is hosted on the IVS FEB RAS server and is available on the following page: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/submarine/.

The GIS contains maps of the anomalous magnetic field and the volcanic edifices relief.

"Late Cenozoic Pacific submarine volcanoes" information system provides researchers with the convenient tools for working with cartographic and attributive data and helps to implement a comprehensive data processing.
Romanova I.M., Girina O.A., Maximov A.P., Melekestsev I.V., Vasiliev S.E. Volcanoes of Kurile-Kamchatka Islands Arc Information System for Integration Heterogeneous Volcanological Data // Abstracts. International Workshop “JKASP-8”. Sapporo. Japan. September 22-26. 2014. 2014.
Romanova I.M., Girina O.A., Maximov A.P., Vasiliev S.E. Integration of volcanological data in VOKKIA information system // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proc. of the VI International Conference, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, August 7-11, 2016. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 2016. P. 65-66.
Rowell Colin R., Fee David, Szuberla Curt A.L., Arnoult Ken, Matoza Robin S., Firstov Pavel P., Kim Keehoon, Makhmudov Evgeniy Three-dimensional volcano-acoustic source localization at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. V. 283. P. 101 - 115. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.06.015.    Аннотация
Abstract We test two methods of 3-D acoustic source localization on volcanic explosions and small-scale jetting events at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Recent infrasound studies have provided evidence that volcanic jets produce low-frequency aerodynamic sound (jet noise) similar to that from man-made jet engines. For man-made jet noise, noise sources localize along the turbulent jet flow downstream of the nozzle. Discrimination of jet noise sources along the axis of a volcanic jet requires high resolution in the vertical dimension, which is very difficult to achieve with typical volcano-acoustic network geometries. At Karymsky Volcano, an eroded edifice (Dvor Caldera) adjacent to the active cone provided a platform for the deployment of five infrasound sensors in July 2012 with intra-network relief of ~ 600 m. The network was designed to target large-scale jetting, but unfortunately only small-scale jetting and explosions were recorded during the 12-day experiment. A novel 3-D inverse localization method, srcLoc, is tested and compared against a more common grid-search semblance technique. Simulations using synthetic signals show that srcLoc is capable of determining vertical solutions to within ± 150 m or better (for signal-to-noise ratios ≥ 1) for this network configuration. However, srcLoc locations for explosions and small-scale jetting at Karymsky Volcano show a persistent overestimation of source elevation and underestimation of sound speed. The semblance method provides more realistic source locations, likely because it uses a fixed, realistic sound speed of ~ 340 m/s. Explosion waveforms exhibit amplitude relationships and waveform distortion strikingly similar to those theorized by modeling studies of wave diffraction around the crater rim. We suggest that the delay of acoustic signals and apparent elevated source locations are due to raypaths altered by topography and/or crater diffraction effects, implying that topography in the vent region must be accounted for when attempting 3-D volcano acoustic source localization. Though the data presented here are insufficient to resolve small-scale jet noise sources, similar techniques may be successfully applied to large volcanic jets in the future.
Senyukov S.L., Nuzhdina I.N., Droznina S.Ya., Garbuzova V.T., Kozhevnikova T.Yu., Sobolevskaya O.V., Nazarova Z.A., Bliznetsov V.E. Reprint of "Seismic monitoring of the Plosky Tolbachik eruption in 2012-2013 (Kamchatka Peninsula Russia)" // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 47 - 59. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.026.    Аннотация
Abstract The active basaltic volcano Plosky Tolbachik (Pl. Tolbachik) is located in the southern part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The previous 1975–1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (1975–1976 GTFE) occurred in the southern sector of Pl. Tolbachik. It was preceded by powerful earthquakes with local magnitudes between 2.5 and 4.9 and it was successfully predicted with a short-term forecast. The Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) began to publish the results of daily seismic monitoring of active Kamchatka volcanoes on the Internet in 2000. Unlike the 1975–1976 {GTFE} precursor, (1) seismicity before the 2012–2013 Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (2012–2013 TFE) was relatively weak and earthquake magnitudes did not exceed 2.5. (2) Precursory earthquake hypocenters at 0–5 km depth were concentrated mainly under the southeastern part of the volcano. (3) The frequency of events gradually increased in September 2012, and rose sharply on the eve of the eruption. (4) According to seismic data, the explosive-effusive 2012–2013 {TFE} began at ~ 05 h 15 min {UTC} on November 27, 2012; the outbreak occurred between the summit of the Pl. Tolbachik and the Northern Breakthrough of the 1975–1976 GTFE. (5) Because of bad weather, early interpretations of the onset time and the character of the eruption were made using seismological data only and were confirmed later by other monitoring methods. The eruption finished in early September 2013. This article presents the data obtained through real-time seismic monitoring and the results of retrospective analysis, with additional comments on the future monitoring of volcanic activity.
Shcherbakov Vasily D., Neill Owen K., Izbekov Pavel E., Plechov Pavel Yu. Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. V. 263. P. 132-140. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.02.010.
Shellnutt J. Gregory, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Wang Kuo-Lung, Zellmer Georg F. Generation of calc-alkaline andesite of the Tatun volcanic group (Taiwan) within an extensional environment by crystal fractionation // International Geology Review. 2014. V. 56. № 9. P. 1156-1171. doi:10.1080/00206814.2014.921865.
Shishkina T.A., Botcharnikov R.E., Holtz F., Almeev R.R., Portnyagin M.V. Solubility of H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids in tholeiitic basalts at pressures up to 500 MPa // Chemical Geology. 2010. V. 277. № 1–2. P. 115 - 125. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.07.014.    Аннотация
The solubility of H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids in tholeiitic basalts has been investigated experimentally at temperature of 1250 °C and pressures of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa. The concentrations of dissolved H2O and CO2 have been determined using FTIR spectroscopy with an accurate calibration of the absorption coefficients for hydrogen- and carbon-bearing species using synthesized standards of the same tholeiitic composition. The absorption coefficients are 0.65 ± 0.08 and 0.69 ± 0.08 L/(mol cm) for molecular H2O and OH groups by Near-Infrared (NIR), respectively, and 68 ± 10 L/(mol cm) for bulk H2O by Mid-Infrared (MIR). The carbonate groups determined by MIR have an absorption coefficient of 317 ± 23 L/(mol cm) for the band at 1430 cm−1.The solubility of H2O in the melt in equilibrium with pure H2O fluid increases from about 2.3 ± 0.12 wt.% at 50 MPa to about 8.8 ± 0.16 wt.% at 500 MPa, whereas the concentration of CO2 increases from about 175 ± 15 to 3318 ± 276 ppm in the melts which were equilibrated with the most CO2-rich fluids (with mole fraction of CO2 in the fluid, XflCO2, from 0.70 to 0.95). In melts coexisting with H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids, the concentrations of dissolved H2O and CO2 in basaltic melt show a non-linear dependence on both total pressure and mole fraction of volatiles in the equilibrium fluid, which is in agreement with previous studies. A comparison of new experimental data with existing numerical solubility models for mixed H2O–CO2 fluids shows that the models do not adequately predict the solubility of volatiles in basaltic liquids at pressures above 200 MPa, in particular for CO2, implying that the models need to be recalibrated.

The experimental dataset presented in this study enables a quantitative interpretation of volatile concentrations in glass inclusions to evaluate the magma storage conditions and degassing paths of natural island arc basaltic systems. The experimental database covers the entire range of volatile compositions reported in the literature for natural melt inclusions in olivine from low- to mid-K basalts indicating that most melt inclusions were trapped or equilibrated at intermediate to shallow levels in magmatic systems (< 12–15 km).
Siebert Lee, Glicken Harry, Ui Tadahide Volcanic hazards from Bezymianny - and Bandai-type eruptions // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1987. P. 435-459.
http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/bibl/vulk/stbezim/bez_3.pdf [связанный ресурс]
Simakin Alexander, Salova Tamara, Devyatova Vera, Zelensky Michael Reduced carbonic fluid and possible nature of high-K magmas of Tolbachik // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 210 - 221. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.018.    Аннотация
Abstract Historical basaltic eruptions of Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka) are of a medium to high potassic type. The potassic character of magmatism can be attributed to the influence of CO2–CO-rich fluid at or near the magma generation depths. Decarbonatization reactions in the mantle under Tolbachik producing a column of the carbonic fluids may be connected with the recent accretion of Kronotsky paleoarc with carbonates dragged under the mantle wedge. With thermodynamic modeling, we show that reduced carbonic fluid at fO2 < {NNO} may be a good carrier of nickel transported in the form of Ni(CO)4. This carbonyl is expected to become thermally stable near the magmatic temperatures at pressures above 1 GPa. In the crust, it is predicted to be thermally stable within the {PT} field of the amphibolite facies. We connect the particles of native Ni and Ag–Pt alloy observed in the volcanic aerosols from the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption with flushing of the ascending Tolbachik magma with reduced carbonic fluids enriched with {PGE} and Ni. Native metals may form by the thermal decomposition of the carbonyls and other carbon-bearing compounds dissolved in the fluid.
Simon A., Yogodzinski G.M., Robertson K., Smith E., Selyangin O., Kiryukhin A., Mulcahy S.R., Walker J.D. Evolution and genesis of volcanic rocks from Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. V. 286. P. 116 - 137. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.09.003.    Аннотация
This study presents new geochemical data for Mutnovsky Volcano, located on the volcanic front of the southern portion of the Kamchatka arc. Field relationships show that Mutnovsky Volcano is comprised of four distinct stratocones, which have grown over that past 80 ka. The youngest center, Mutnovsky IV, has produced basalts and basaltic andesites only. The three older centers (Mutnovsky I, II, III) are dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite (60–80 by volume), but each has also produced small volumes of andesite and dacite. Across centers of all ages, Mutnovsky lavas define a tholeiitic igneous series, from 48–70 SiO2. Basalts and basaltic andesites have relatively low K2O and Na2O, and high FeO* and Al2O3 compared to volcanic rocks throughout Kamchatka. The mafic lavas are also depleted in the light rare earth elements (REEs), with chondrite-normalized La/Sm < 1.0. Andesites have generally higher REE abundances and are more enriched in light REEs, some showing negative Eu anomalies. All samples are depleted in field strength elements (HFSEs) relative to similarly incompatible REEs (e.g., low La/Ta, Nd/Hf compared to MORB), similar to island arc volcanic rocks worldwide. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) are similar for samples from all four eruptive centers, and indicate that all samples were produced by melting of a similar source mixture. No clear age-progressive changes are evident in the compositions of Mutnovsky lavas. Mass balance and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) modeling of major and rare earth elements (REEs) indicate that basaltic andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine from a parental basalt, combined with assimilation of a melt composition similar to dacite lavas present at Mutnovsky. This modeling also indicates that andesites were produced by FC of plagioclase from basaltic andesite, combined with assimilation of dacite. Dacites erupted from Mutnovsky I and II have low abundances of REEs, and do not appear to be related to mafic magmas by FC or AFC processes. These dacites are modeled as the products of dehydration partial melting at mid-crustal levels of a garnet-free, amphibole-bearing basaltic rock, which itself formed in the mid-crust by emplacement of magma that originated from the same source as all Mutnovsky magmas. Lead isotope data indicate that subducted sediment is likely present in the source beneath Mutnovsky and most Kamchatka volcanoes, but uniformly radiogenic Hf and Nd in mafic samples (εNd = 8.7–9.3, εHf = 15.4–15.9), and significant variation in trace element ratios at nearly constant εNd and εHf, indicate that sediment plays a minor roll in controlling subduction trace element patterns in Mutnovsky lavas. Mafic lavas with Ba/Th > 450 require an aqueous fluid source component from subducting oceanic crust, but mixing patterns in isotope versus trace element ratio plots for Hf and the REEs (εNd and εHf vs. ratios with Ce, Nd and Hf) demonstrate that a source component with radiogenic Nd and Hf, and fractionated (arc-type) trace element ratios must be present in the source of Mutnovsky lavas. This source component, which is interpreted to be a partial melt of subducted basalt in the eclogite facies (eclogite melt source component), appears to be present in the source of all Kamchatka volcanoes. Cross-arc geochemical patterns at Mutnovsky and in other arc systems (Isu-Bonin, Tonga-Kermadec) suggest that the aqueous fluid component diminishes and the eclogite melt component is increased from volcanoes at the arc front compared to those in rear-arc positions.
Slezin Yu. B. The Bezymyannyi, Shiveluch, and St. Helens volcanoes: A comparative revision of their catastrophic eruptions during the 20th century // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2015. V. 9. № 5. P. 289-294. doi:10.1134/S0742046315050073.
Slezin Yu.B. The morphology and rheology of modern Klyuchevskoi parasitic lava flows // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. V. 10. V. 5. P. 665-686.
Sorokin A.A., Girina O.A., Korolev S.P., Romanova I.M., Efremov V.Yu., Malkovskii S., Verkhoturov A., Balashov I. The system of computer modeling of ash cloud propagation from Kamchatka volcanoes // 2016 6th International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering (WCSE 2016). Tokyo, Japan: 2016. V. II. P. 730-733.
Sorokin A.A., Korolev S.P., Romanova I.M., Girina O.A., Urmanov I.P. The Kamchatka volcano video monitoring system // 2016 6th International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering (WCSE 2016). Tokyo, Japan: 2016. V. II. P. 734-737.
Tanakadate H. Morphological Development of the Volcanic Islet Taketomi in the Kuriles // Proceedings of the Imperial Academy. 1934. V. 10. № 8. P. 494-497. doi: 10.2183/pjab1912.10.494.
Taran Yu.A., Hedenquist J.W., Korzhinsky M.A., Tkachenko S.I., Shmulovich K.I. Geochemistry of magmatic gases from Kudryavy volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 1995. V. 59. № 9. P. 1749 - 1761. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(95)00079-F.    Аннотация
Volcanic vapors were collected during 1990–1993 from the summit crater of Kudryavy, a basaltic andesite volcano on Iturup island in the Kuril arc. The highest temperature (700–940°C) fumarolic discharges are water rich (94–98 mole% H2O and have δD values of −20 to −12%o. The chemical and water isotope compositions of the vapors (temperature of thirteen samples, 940 to 130°C) show a simple trend of mixing between hot magmatic fluid and meteoric water; the magmatic parent vapor is similar in composition to altered seawater. The origin of this endmember is not known; it may be connate seawater, or possibly caused by the shallow incorporation of seawater into the magmatic-hydrothermal system. Samples of condensed vapor from 535 to 940°C fumaroles have major element trends indicating contamination by wall-rock particles. However, the enrichment factors (relative to the host rock) of many of the trace elements indicate another source; these elements likely derive from a degassing magma. The strongest temperature dependence is for Re, Mo, W, Cu, and Co; highly volatile elements such as Cl, I, F, Bi, Cd, B, and Br show little temperature dependence. The Re abundance in high-temperature condensates is 2–10 ppb, sufficient to form the pure Re sulfide recently discovered in sublimates of Kudryavy. Anomalously high I concentrations (1–12 ppm) may be caused by magma-marine sediment interaction, as Br/I ratios are similar to those in marine sediments.

The high-temperature (>700°C) fumaroles have a relatively constant composition (∼2 mol% each C and S species, with SO2/H2S ratio of about 3:1, and 0.5 mol% HCl); as temperature decreases, both St and CI are depleted, most likely due to formation of native S and HCl absorption by condensed liquid, in addition to the dilution by meteoric water. Thermochemical evaluation of the high-temperature gas compositions indicates they are close to equilibrium mixtures, apart from minor loss of H2O and oxidation of CO and H2 during sampling. Calculation to an assumed equilibrium state indicates temperatures from 705 to 987°C. At high temperature (≈900°C), the redox states are close to the overlap of mineral (quartz-fayalite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide) and gas (H2OH2SO2H2S) buffer curves, due to heterogeneous reaction between the melt and gas species. At lower temperatures (<800°C), the trend of the redox state is similar to the gas buffer curve, probably caused by homogeneous reaction among gas species in a closed system during vapor ascent.


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