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Neill Owen K., Hammer Julia E., Izbekov Pavel E., Belousova Marina G., Belousov Alexander B., Clarke Amanda B., Voight Barry Influence of pre-eruptive degassing and crystallization on the juvenile products of laterally directed volcanic explosions // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2010. V. 198. № 1-2. P. 264-274. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.09.011.
Nemoto T. Geologic and petrologic study of the Central Kurile Islands, VI - Dzigoku Volcano, Urup Island // Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan. 1937. V. 3. № 2.
Nishizawa T., Nakamura Hitomi, Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Ishizuka Osamu, Haraguchi Satoru, Miyazaki Takashi, Vaglarov Bogdan S., Ueki K., Toyama C., Iwamori Hikaru Geochemistry of high-Mg andesitic rocks in NE Kamchatka // V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Yokohama, Japan, 26 June - 1 July 2016. Program and Abstracts. 2016. P. 2295    Аннотация
The northeast Kamchatka Peninsula is characterized by unique tectonic regimes: (i) the triple junction ~30 km off the east coast [1], (ii) subduction of the Emperor Seamount Chain [2], and (iii) possible asthenospheric flow between the mantle wedge and the sub-slab mantle via the edge of subducted Pacific slab [3]. Within this area, a monogenetic volcanic group occurs along the east coast, including high-Mg andesitic rocks and relatively primitive basalts (East Cones, EC [4]). We have conducted geochemical studies of the EC lavas, with bulk rock major and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, and K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages, based on which a possible contribution of subducted seamounts and its relation to the tectonic setting are discussed.
The elemental and isotopic compositions indicate that the lavas from individual cones have distinct mantle sources with different amounts and/or compositions of slab-derived fluids. Based on mass balance, water content and melting phase relations, we estimate the melting P-T conditions to be ~1200 ℃ at 1.5 GPa, while the slab surface temperature is 620 – 730 ℃ (at 50-80 km depth). The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions is close to Late Cretaceous Emperor Seamount Chain, especially Detroit [5]. The K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of the Middle to Late Pleistocene are consistent with the present tectonic setting after 2 Ma [6].
These results suggest that the EC lavas including high-Mg andesite and basalt were generated by mantle flux-melting induced by dehydration of a subducted seamount inheriting a local thermal anomaly [7, 8]
Nishizawa Tatsuji, Nakamura Hitomi, Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Ishizuka Osamu, Iwamori Hikaru Genesis of Quaternary volcanism of high-Mg andesitic rocks in the northeast Kamchatka Peninsula // Japan Geoscience Union Meeting. 22-26 May 2016, Makuhari, Messe. 2016. P. SVC48-02.    Аннотация
Arc magmatism is a product of subduction factory, involving thermal and chemical interactions
between a subducted slab as a material input and mantle wedge as a processing factory. In turn, the
compositions of arc magma provide invaluable information concerning the material input and the
interactions. The northeast Kamchatka Peninsula is an ideal field to examine such interactions and
relationships, being characterized by (1) subduction of the Emperor Seamount Chain (Davaille and
Lees, 2004), and (2) possible material and thermal interaction among the subducted slab, the
overlying mantle wedge and the sub-slab mantle via the edge of subducted Pacific slab (Portnyagin
and Manea, 2008). Within this area, a monogenetic volcanic group occurs along the east coast,
including high-Mg andesitic rocks and relatively primitive basalts (East Cones, EC (Fedorenko,
1969)). We have conducted geochemical studies of the EC lavas, with bulk rock major and trace
elements, and K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages, based on which a possible contribution of subducted seamounts
and its relation to the tectonic setting are discussed.
The elemental compositions indicate that the lavas from individual cones have distinct mantle
sources with different amounts and/or compositions of slab-derived fluids. Based on mass balance,
water content and melting phase relations, we estimate the melting P-T conditions to bet ~1200 ℃
at 1.5 GPa, while the slab surface temperature is 620 –730 ℃ (at 50-80 km depth). Compared with
the southern part of Kamchatka, the slab surface temperature beneath EC seems to be high due to the
thinner Pacific slab associated with the seamount chain and/or the plate rejuvenation from a mantle
plume impact (Davaille and Lees, 2004; Manea and Manea, 2007).
The K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of the Middle Pleistocene are consistent with the tephrochronological
study (Uspensky and Shapiro, 1984) and the present tectonic setting after 2 Ma (Lander and Shapiro,
2007). The high-Mg andesite with the highest SiO2 content in the EC lavas shows the oldest age
(0.73 ±0.06 Ma) within not only EC but also the northeast part of Kamchatka (e.g., Churikova et
al., 2015, IAVCEI). On the other hand, the rest of EC lava samples show relatively younger ages to
0.18 ±0.07 Ma. These results suggest that the EC lavas including high-Mg andesite and basalt were
generated by mantle flux-melting induced by dehydration of a subducted seamount inheriting a local
thermal anomaly (Nishizawa et al., 2014, JpGU; 2015, JpGU).

島弧火成活動はサブダクションファクトリーの産物で, それは沈み込んだスラブ(物質のインプット)-マン
トルウェッジ(加工工場)間の熱的・物質的相互作用を含む. 島弧マグマの組成は, その物質インプットと相
互作用について非常に貴重な情報をもたらす. カムチャツカ半島北東部はそのような相互作用と関係性を調べ
るうえで理想的な場所である, それは次のような特徴を有する為だ(1)天皇海山列の沈み込み(Davaille and
Lees, 2004)(2)沈み込んだスラブ, マントルウェッジと太平洋スラブエッジにかけてのサブスラブマントル
との物質的・熱的相互作用の可能性(Portnyagin and Manea, 2008). この地域の東海岸沿いに, 高-Mg安山岩
と比較的初生的な玄武岩を産出する単成火山群が確認されている(East Cones, EC(Fedorenko, 1969)).
我々はこのEC溶岩について全岩主要-微量元素組成分析とK-Ar, Ar-Ar年代測定を含む地球化学的研究を行い,
沈み込んだ海山からの寄与の可能性とテクトニックセッティングとの関係について議論する.
EC溶岩の組成は, 火山ごとに独立したソースに由来しており, そのソースの違いはスラブ起源流体の量および
またはその組成の違いによることを示す. マスバランス, 含水量, 相関係に基づき, 我々は溶融温度-圧力条
件を推定した, 溶融温度・圧力~1200℃, 1.5 GPa, スラブ表面温度 620-730℃(深度50-80 km). カム
チャツカ南部に沈み込むスラブ表面温度と比較すると, EC直下のスラブ表面温度は高く, これは天皇海山列に
沿ったプレートの薄化およびまたは沈み込む直前のプルームからの熱的効果による若返り効果によるものと考
えられる(Davaille and Lees, 2004; Manea and Manea, 2007).
K-Ar, Ar-Ar年代測定値は中期更新世で, これはテフラ層序学からの推定年代と一致し(Uspensky and
Shapiro, 1984), 2Ma以降現在のテクトニックセッティングに変化したこととも矛盾しない(Lander and
Shapiro, 2007). 最もSiO2含有量が高い高Mg安山岩は最古の年代を示し(0.73 ±0.06 Ma), これはECのみな
らずカムチャツカ北東部においても最も古いとみられる(e.g., Churikova et al., 2015, IAVCEI). 一方他
のECはより若い年代を示す(~0.18 ±0.07 Ma). これらの結果は以下のことを示す: 高Mg安山岩, 玄武岩を
含むEC溶岩は沈み込んだ海山による局所的な温度異常がスラブ起源流体の脱水を強めそれによって生じたフ
ラックス溶融によりもたらされた(西澤他, 2014, JpGU; 2015, JpGU).
 O
Ozerov A., Ispolatov I., Lees J. Modeling Strombolian eruptions of Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2003. V. 122. № 3–4. P. 265 - 280. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(02)00506-1.    Аннотация
A model is proposed to explain temporal patterns of activity in a class of periodically exploding Strombolian-type andesite volcanoes. These patterns include major events (explosions) which occur every 3–30 min and subsequent tremor with a typical period of 1 s. This two-periodic activity is thought to be caused by two distinct mechanisms of accumulation of the elastic energy in the moving magma column: compressibility of the magma in the conduit and viscoelastic response of the almost solid magma plug on the top. A release of the elastic energy occurs during a stick–slip dynamic phase transition in a boundary layer along the walls of the conduit; this phase transition is driven by the shear stress accumulated in the boundary layer. The intrinsic hysteresis of this first-order phase transition explains the long periods of inactivity in the explosion cycle. Temporal characteristics of the model are found to be qualitatively similar to the acoustic and seismic signals recorded at Karymsky volcano in Kamchatka.
Ozerov Alexei Y. The evolution of high-alumina basalts of the Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, based on microprobe analyses of mineral inclusions // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2000. V. 95. № 1–4. P. 65 - 79. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00118-3.    Аннотация
The origin of calc-alkaline high-alumina basalts (HAB) of the Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, was examined using electron microprobe analyses of phenocrysts and mineral phases included in the phenocrysts. Continuous trends on major-element variation diagrams suggest the HAB were derived from high-magnesia basalt (HMB) by fractional crystallization. Phenocrysts in the HAB are strongly zoned: olivine (Mg# 91–64), clinopyroxene (Wo45–38En40–51Fs5–20) and chrome—spinel/magnetite inclusions in them (Cr2O3 45–0 wt.%, TiO2 0.5–11%). Microprobe analyses of minerals included in the phenocrysts provide additional constraints on the mineral crystallization trends in the HAB. Fe/Mg partitioning data, when applied to the phenocrysts cores, show they crystallized from a HMB. The similarity of phenocryst core compositions in HAB with those in HMB strongly suggests a genetic relationship between the two magma types.
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Panov V.K., Slezin Yu.B. The mechanism of the lava field formation at the Predskazanny parasitic eruption (Klyuchevskoy volcano, 1983) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1988. V. 7. P. 321-335.
Panov V.K., Slezin Yu.B., Storcheus A.V. Mechanical properties of lava extruded in the 1983 Predskazanny eruption (Klyuchevskoi volcano) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1988. V. 7. P. 25-37.
Paris Raphaël, Switzer Adam D., Belousova Marina, Belousov Alexander, Ontowirjo Budianto, Whelley Patrick L., Ulvrova Martina Volcanic tsunami: a review of source mechanisms, past events and hazards in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea) // Natural Hazards. 2014. V. 70. № 1. P. 447-470. doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0822-8.
Paris Raphaël, Wassmer Patrick, Lavigne Franck, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Iskandarsyah Yan, Benbakkar Mhammed, Ontowirjo Budianto, Mazzoni Nelly Coupling eruption and tsunami records: the Krakatau 1883 case study, Indonesia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 2014. V. 76. № 4. doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0814-x.
Pevzner M.M. Holocene volcanism of Northern Kamchatka: The spatiotemporal aspect // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2006. Т. 409. № 2. С. 884-887. doi: 10.1134/S1028334X06060109.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/2107/ [связанный ресурс]
Pevzner M.M. New data on Holocene monogenetic volcanism of the Northern Kamchatka: ages and space distribution // Abstracts. 4rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-4). Linkages among tectonics, seismicity, magma genesis, and eruption in volcanic arcs. August 21-27, 2004. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS. 2004. С. 72-76.
Pevzner M.M. The First Geological Data on the Chronology of Holocene Eruptive Activity in the Ichinskii Volcano (Sredinnyi Ridge, Kamchatka) // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2004. V. 395A. № 3. P. 335-337.
Piip B.I. Kronotzk ignimbrites in Kamchatka // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1963. V. 25. № 1. P. 31-32. doi: 10.1007/BF02596535.
Piip B.I., Tonani F., Suehiro C. Report of the UNESCO volcanological mission to Indonesia in 1963 // Bulletin UNESCO. Paris: Unesco. 1964.
Plechov Pavel, Blundy Jon, Nekrylov Nikolay, Melekhova Elena, Shcherbakov Vasily, Tikhonova Margarita S. Petrology and volatile content of magmas erupted from Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, 2012–13 // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 182 - 199. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.011.    Аннотация
Abstract We report petrography, and bulk rock, mineral and glass analyses of eruptive products of the 2012–13 eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Central Kamchatka Depression, Russia. Magmas are shoshonitic in composition, with phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase; clinopyroxene phenocrysts are scarce. Samples collected as bombs from the active vent, from liquid lava at the active lava front, and as naturally solidified “toothpaste” lava allow us to quantify changes in porosity and crystallinity that took place during 5.25 km of lava flow and during solidification. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from rapidly-cooled, mm-size tephra have near-constant {H2O} contents (1.19 ± 0.1 wt) over a wide range of {CO2} contents (< 900 ppm), consistent with degassing. The groundmass glasses from tephras lie at the shallow end of this degassing trend with 0.3 wt {H2O} and 50 ppm CO2. The presence of small saturation, rather than shrinkage, bubbles testifies to volatile saturation at the time of entrapment. Calculated saturation pressures are 0.3 to 1.7 kbar, in agreement with the depths of earthquake swarms during November 2012 (0.6 to 7.5 km below the volcano). Melt inclusions from slowly-cooled and hot-collected lavas have {H2O} contents that are lower by an order of magnitude than tephras, despite comparable {CO2} contents. We ascribe this to diffusive {H2O} loss through olivine host crystals during cooling. The absence of shrinkage bubbles in the inclusions accounts for the lack of reduction in dissolved {CO2} (and S and Cl). Melt inclusions from tephras experienced < 3 wt post-entrapment crystallisation. Melt inclusion entrapment temperatures are around 1080 °C. Compared to magmas erupted elsewhere in the Kluchevskoy Group, the 2012–13 Tolbachik magmas appear to derive from an unusually H2O-poor and K2O-rich basaltic parent.
Ponomareva V., Kyle P., Pevzner M., Sulerzhitsky L., Hartman M. Holocene eruptive history of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia // Geophysical Monograph Series. // Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. 2007. V. 172. P. 263-282. № doi:10.1029/172GM19.    Аннотация
The Holocene eruptive history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, has been reconstructed using geologic mapping, tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, XRF and microprobe analyses. Eruptions of Shiveluch during the Holocene have occurred with irregular repose times alternating between periods of explosive activity and dome growth. The most intense volcanism, with frequent large and moderate eruptions occurred around 6500–6400 BC, 2250–2000 BC, and 50–650 AD, coincides with the all-Kamchatka peaks of volcanic activity. The current active period started around 900 BC; since then the large and moderate eruptions has been following each other in 50–400 yrs-long intervals. This persistent strong activity can be matched only by the early Holocene one.
Most Shiveluch eruptions during the Holocene produced medium-K, hornblendebearing andesitic material characterized by high MgO (2.3–6.8 wt %), Cr (47–520 ppm), Ni (18–106 ppm) and Sr (471–615 ppm), and low Y (> 18 ppm). Only two mafic tephras erupted about 6500 and 2000 BC, each within the period of most intense activity.
Many past eruptions from Shiveluch were larger and far more hazardous then the historical ones. The largest Holocene eruption occurred ∼1050 AD and yielded >2.5 km3 of tephra. More than 10 debris avalanches took place only in the second half of the Holocene. Extent of Shiveluch tephra falls exceeded 350 km; travel distance of pyroclastic density currents was > 22 km, and that of the debris avalanches ≤20 km.
Ponomareva V.V., Churikova T., Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Pevzner M., Sulerzhitskii L. Late Pleistocene - Holocene Volcanism on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Northwest Pacific Region // Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region. 2007. V. 172. P. 165-198. № 10.1029/172GM15.    Аннотация
Late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanism in Kamchatka results from the subduction of the
Pacific Plate under the peninsula and forms three volcanic belts arranged in en echelon manner
from southeast to northwest. The cross-arc extent of recent volcanism exceeds 250 km and
is one of the widest worldwide. All the belts are dominated by mafic rocks. Eruptives with
SiO2>57% constitute ~25% of the most productive Central Kamchatka Depression belt and
~30% of the Eastern volcanic front, but <10% of the least productive Sredinny Range belt.
All the Kamchatka volcanic rocks exhibit typical arc-type signatures and are represented
by basalt-rhyolite series differing in alkalis. Typical Kamchatka arc basalts display a strong
increase in LILE, LREE and HFSE from the front to the back-arc. La/Yb and Nb/Zr increase
from the arc front to the back arc while B/Li and As, Sb, B, Cl and S concentrations decrease.
The initial mantle source below Kamchatka ranges from N-MORB-like in the volcanic front
and Central Kamchatka Depression to more enriched in the back arc. Rocks from the Central
Kamchatka Depression range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.70334 to 0.70366, but have almost
constant Nd isotopic ratios (143Nd/144Nd 0.51307–0.51312). This correlates with the highest
U/Th ratios in these rocks and suggest the highest fluid-flux in the source region.
Holocene large eruptions and eruptive histories of individual Holocene volcanoes have been
studied with the help of tephrochronology and 14C dating that permits analysis of time-space
patterns of volcanic activity, evolution of the erupted products, and volcanic hazards.
Ponomareva V.V., Kyle P.R., Melekestsev I.V., Rinkleff P.G., Dirksen O.V., Sulerzhitsky L.D., Zaretskaia N.E., Rourke R. The 7600 (14C) year BP Kurile Lake caldera-forming eruption, Kamchatka, Russia: stratigraphy and field relationships // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2004. V. 136. № 3-4. P. 199-222. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.05.013.    Аннотация
The 7600 14C-year-old Kurile Lake caldera-forming eruption (KO) in southern Kamchatka, Russia, produced a 7-km-wide caldera now mostly filled by the Kurile Lake. The KO eruption has a conservatively estimated tephra volume of 140–170 km3 making it the largest Holocene eruption in the Kurile–Kamchatka volcanic arc and ranking it among the Earth’s largest Holocene explosive eruptions. The eruptive sequence consists of three main units: (I) initial phreatoplinian deposits; (II) plinian fall deposits, and (III) a voluminous and extensive ignimbrite sheet and accompanying surge beds and co-ignimbrite fallout. The KO fall tephra was dispersed over an area of >3 million km2, mostly in a northwest direction. It is a valuable stratigraphic marker for southern Kamchatka, the Sea of Okhotsk, and a large part of the Asia mainland, where it has been identified as a f6 to 0.1 cm thick layer in terrestrial and lake sediments, 1000–1700 km from source. The ignimbrite, which constitutes a significant volume of the KO deposits, extends to the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific Ocean on either side of the peninsula, a distance of over 50 km from source. Fine co-ignimbrite ash was likely formed when the ignimbrite entered the sea and could account for the wide dispersal of the KO fall unit. Individual pumice clasts from the fall and surge deposits range from dacite to rhyolite, whereas pumice and scoria clasts in the ignimbrite range from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. Ignimbrite exposed west and south of the caldera is dominantly rhyolite, whereas north, east and southeast of the caldera it has a strong vertical compositional zonation from rhyolite at the base to basaltic andesite in the middle, and back to rhyolite at the top. Following the KO eruption, Iliinsky volcano formed within the northeastern part of the caldera producing basalt to dacite lavas and pyroclastic rocks compositionally related to the KO erupted products. Other post-caldera features include several extrusive domes, which form islands in Kurile Lake, submerged cinder cones and the huge silicic extrusive massif of Dikii Greben’ volcano.
Ponomareva V.V., Pevzner M.M., Melekestsev I.V. Large debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene eruptive history of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1998. V. 59. № 7. P. 490-505. doi: 10.1007/s004450050206.    Аннотация
Shiveluch Volcano, located in the Central Kamchatka Depression, has experienced multiple flank failures during its lifetime, most recently in 1964. The overlapping deposits of at least 13 large Holocene debris avalanches cover an area of approximately 200 km2 of the southern sector of the volcano. Deposits of two debris avalanches associated with flank extrusive domes are, in addition, located on its western slope. The maximum travel distance of individual Holocene avalanches exceeds 20 km, and their volumes reach ∼3 km3. The deposits of most avalanches typically have a hummocky surface, are poorly sorted and graded, and contain angular heterogeneous rock fragments of various sizes surrounded by coarse to fine matrix. The deposits differ in color, indicating different sources on the edifice. Tephrochronological and radiocarbon dating of the avalanches shows that the first large Holocene avalanches were emplaced approximately 4530–4350 BC. From ∼2490 BC at least 13 avalanches occurred after intervals of 30–900 years. Six large avalanches were emplaced between 120 and 970 AD, with recurrence intervals of 30–340 years. All the debris avalanches were followed by eruptions that produced various types of pyroclastic deposits. Features of some surge deposits suggest that they might have originated as a result of directed blasts triggered by rockslides. Most avalanche deposits are composed of fresh andesitic rocks of extrusive domes, so the avalanches might have resulted from the high magma supply rate and the repetitive formation of the domes. No trace of the 1854 summit failure mentioned in historical records has been found beyond 8 km from the crater; perhaps witnesses exaggerated or misinterpreted the events.





 

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