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Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Dvigalo V.N., Basanova L.I. Historical eruptions of Avacha volcano, Kamchatka. Attempt of modern interpretation and classification for long-term prediction of the types and parameters of future eruptions. Part 2 (1926-1991) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1994. V. 16. № 2. P. 93-114.    Annotation
Previous data are summarized and new evidence is presented on the Avacha eruptions of 1926-1927, 1938, and 1945. The last eruption of January 1991 is described. The dynamics of the Avacha eruptive activity is considered for a period of 1737-1991. The eruptions are classified into different types. The type and size of a future event are predicted and the related hazard is assessed. It is recommended that the southwestern and southern sectors of the Avacha surrounding should be declared forbidden for residential or industrial construction because of a high volcanic hazard. -Journal summary
Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Dvigalo V.N., Bazanova L.I. Historical eruptions of Avacha volcano, Kamchatka. Attempt of modern interpretation and classification for long-term prediction of the types and parameters of future eruptions. Part 1 (1737-1909) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1994. V. 15. № 6. P. 649-665.    Annotation
Some of the previous views on the style of the Avacha eruptions during 1737-1909 are revised on the basis of new data obtained by the authors. The types of eruptions, their geological and geomorphological effects, and the related volcanic hazards are reassessed. All eruptions were explosive events, except for the 1894-1895 extrusive-explosive eruption. The eruptions of 1737, 1779, and 1827 are classified as large, the others, as mild or medium-size events. -from Journal summary
Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskiy L.D. Holocene catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions of Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka // Volcanology and Seismology. 1996. V. 17. № 4-5. P. 395-422.    Annotation
Four Plinian eruptions of Ksudach have been reconstructed and dated by the carbon-14 method. The eruptions produced three collapse calderas: the KS1 eruption formed Caldera V 1700-1800 years ago, the KS2 and KS3 events produced Caldera IV 6000-6100 years ago, and the KS4 eruption formed Caldera III 8700-8800 years ago. The most violent eruption was the KS1 event. The sizes of the calderas were 4 × 6.5 km (V), 5 × 6 km (IV), and presumably 2-3 km across (III). Juvenile material was erupted in a rhythmic manner. The composition of the products was dominated by andesite (KS2 and KS4), dacite and rhyodacite (KS3), and rhyodacite (KS1). It is assumed that all caldera-forming eruptions were triggered by the injection of a new portion of high-temperature basic magma and its mixing with the cooling acid magma of the preexisting source. -from Journal summary

Реконструированы и датированы 14С-методом четыре плинианских извержения вулкана Ксудач, сформировавших три кальдеры обрушения: KCi и кальдеру V - 1700-1800 л. н.; КС2 + КС3 и кальдеру IV - 6000-6100 л. н.; КС4 и кальдеру III 8700-8800 л. н. Самым мощным было извержение KCi: 18-19 км3 пирокластики, высота эруптивной колонны до 23 км. Объем продуктов извержений КС2 + КС3 - 10-11 км3, КС4 - не менее 1,5-1,7 км3. Размеры кальдер: V - 4 X 6,5 км, IV - 5x6 км, поперечь III - предположительно 2-3 км. Вынос ювенильной пирокластики в ходе извержений было ритмичным. Каждый ритм начинался выбросом тефры, а завершался формированием пирокластических потоков. Состав продуктов варьировал от андезитов до риодацитов: КС2 и КС4 - преимущественно андезиты, КС3 - дациты и риодациты, KCi - риодацит. Предполагается, что "спусковой механизм" для начала всех кальдерообразующих извержений - внедрение свежей сильно нагретой магмы основного состава и смешение ее с остывающей кислой магмой существовавшего ранее очага. В соответствии со своими масштабами извержения должны были оказать влияние на климат и озоновый слой 3емли и найти отражение в виде кислотных пиков в Гренландском ледниковом щите.
Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Sulerzhitskii L.D., Ogorodov N.V., Kozhemiaka N.N., Egorova I.A., Lupikina E.G. Age of Volcanoes in the Kurille-Kamchatka Zone // International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth`s Interior. Sumposium on Volcanoes &Their Roots. Oxford: 1969. P. 138-139.
Melekestsev I.V., Dirksen O.V., Girina O.A. A giant landslide-explosion circue and debris avalanche at Bakening volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 1999. V. 20. № 3. P. 265-279.    Annotation
This study revealed that the giant cirque of Bakening Volcano had been produced by its eruption ca. 8000-8500 carbon-14 year ago. The eruption is supposed to have been heralded by a large earthquake (M > 7) resulting in the collapse and slide of the SE sector of the cone. The landslide unroofed the hydrothermal system and triggered an explosion which was followed by an ash-and-block pyroclastic flow. A rockslide avalanche rolled down into the valley of the Srednyaya Avacha River and travelled as far as 10-11 km along it. The avalanche deposited its debris material over an area of 18-20 km2 measuring 0.4-0.5 km3 in volume. These deposits dammed the river, produced two lakes (Bezymyannoe and Verkhneavacha), and gave birth to a large lahar which traveled along the valley much farther.
Melekestsev I.V., Dvigalo V.N., Kirianov V.Yu., Kurbatov A.V., Nesmachnyi I.A. Ebeko volcano, Kuril Islands: eruptive history and potential volcanic hazards. Part I // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 1994. V. 15. № 3. P. 339-354.    Annotation
The eruptive history of Ebeko Volcano is described since its origin about 2400 years ago until the beginning of the 17th century. Six stages of increased activity each lasting 200-300 years were separated by repose periods of the same duration. The eruption of juvenile material (lava and pyroclastics) took place at the first stage only (420-200 B.C.). All eruptions that followed were phreatic events of varying vigor. It is shown that, except for the first eruptive stage, the main volcanic hazard for the Ebeko area and the town of Severo-Kurilsk near by comes from large lahars and tephra fallout. -from Journal summary
Melekestsev I.V., Dvigalo V.N., Kirianov V.Yu., Kurbatov A.V., Nesmachnyi I.A. Ebeko volcano, Kuril Islands: eruptive history and potential volcanic hazards. Part II // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 1994. V. 15. № 4. P. 411-430.    Annotation
Consequences of the Ebeko eruptions in the 17th-20th centuries have been reconstructed, using historical records, tephrochronological study, and air photographs. It is shown that all eruptions were phreatic and phreatomagmatic with a heat source of a strongly heated dike-sill complex of more than 1 km3 volume. It is supposed that the main potential hazard for Severo-Kurilsk city and adjacent area may be connected with large-volume lahar flows along the Kuzminka and Matrosskaya Rivers, which are sourced on Ebeko Volcano. Lesser hazard is expected from ashfalls of this and other volcanoes of the north Kurils and south Kamchatka. -from Journal summary

По историческим сведениям, дополненным тефрохронологическими исследованиями и материалами аэрофотосъемок I960, 1987, 1988, 1990 гг. района в. Эбеко, детально восстановлены последствия его извержений XVII-XX вв. Показано, что все извержения были фреатическими и условно фреатомагматическими с источником теплового питания в виде сильно нагретого дайково-силлового комплекса объемом более 1 км . приуроченного к зоне растяжения ССВ (аз. 25°) простирания, вдоль которого расположены вулканы хр. Вернадского на о-в Парамушир. Предполагается, что в будущем главная опасность для г. Северо-Курильска и прилежащих участков связана с прохождением большеобъемных лахаров по рекам Кузьминка и Матросская, начинающихся на в. Эбеко, в меньшей степени - с пеплопадами этого и других вулканов Северных Курил и Южной Камчатки. Доказывается, что серьезная угроза городу может возникнуть при будущем извержении в. Эбеко типа его извержения 1934-1935 гг. Рекомендованы меры для защиты города.
Melekestsev I.V., Kartasheva E.V., Kirsanova T.P., Kuzmina A.A. Water Contaminated Fresh Tephra as a Natural Hazard Factor: the 2008-2009 Eruption of Koryakskii Volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2011. V. 5. № 1. P. 17-30. doi: 10.1134/S0742046311010064.    Annotation
Abstract-This study is the first to show, using data from the eruption of Koryakskii Volcano, Kamchatka that began in December 2008 and continued through 2009 that the water in permanent and temporary streams that start on the slopes of the volcanic cone and in temporary lakes when contaminated with fresh tephra is a specific hazard factor related to long-continued hydrothemial-phreatic eruptions on that volcano. This water is characterized by increased acidity (pH 4.1-4.35) and large amounts (up to 50-100 cm /liter) of solid suspension and is unfit for drinking and irrigation. When combined with tephra, it probably produced mass destruction of a number of animals who lived on the slopes and at the base of the volcano. The water contaminated with tephra is an important component of the atmospheric mud tlows occurring on Koryakskii Volcano; for several future years it will be a potential source for enhancing the acidity of ground water in the volcanic edifice.
Melekestsev I.V., Sulerzhitskiy L.D., Bazanova L.I., Braitseva O.A., Florenskaya N.I. Holocene catastrophic lahars at Avacha and Koryakskiy volcanoes in Kamchatka // Volcanology and Seismology. 1996. V. 17. № 4-5. P. 561-570.    Annotation
Remnants of five catastrophic lahars have been discovered, described, and dated by the carbon-14 method. They occurred during eruptions of Avacha (violent explosions with voluminous juvenile pyroclastics) and Koryakskiy (large fissure lava flows): 3500 to 3200 14C years ago or 1900-1500 years B.C. These lahars were much higher in vigor, hazard, and effect on the environment than the lahars generated by the historic eruptions of these volcanoes. -from Journal summary
Melekestsev Ivan V., Ponomareva Vera V., Volynets Oleg N. Kizimen volcano, Kamchatka — A future Mount St. Helens? // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 1995. V. 65. № 3-4. P. 205-226.    Annotation
We studied the tectonic setting, morphology, geologic structure, history of eruptive activity and evolution of the composition of the erupted material of Kizimen volcano, Kamchatka, from the moment of its origination 11–12 thousand years ago to the present time. Four cycles, each 2–3.5 thousand years long, were distinguished that characterize the activity of the volcano. All of the largest eruptions were dated, and their parameters determined. We also estimated the volume and the mass of the erupted products, the volcanic intensity of eruption of material during periods of high activity, and the amount of material the volcano ejected at different stages of its formation. It has been shown that the evolution of the composition of the rocks erupted (from dacite to basaltic andesite) takes place as a result of mixing of dacitic and basaltic magma. It is suggested that future eruptions that may take place at Kizimen may be similar to those at Bandai (1888) and Mount St. Helens (1980) volcanoes.


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