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Records: 2355
Lundgren Paul, Kiryukhin Alexey, Milillo Pietro, Samsonov Sergey Dike model for the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption constrained by satellite radar interferometry observations // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 79 - 88. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.05.011.    Annotation
Abstract A large dike intrusion and fissure eruption lasting 9 months began on November 27, 2013, beneath the south flank of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. The eruption was the most recent at Tolbachik since the Great Tolbachik Eruption from 1975 to 1976. The 2012 eruption was preceded by more than 6 months of seismicity that clustered beneath the east flank of the volcano along a NW–SE trend. Seismicity increased dramatically before the eruption, with propagation of the seismicity from the central volcano conduit in the final hours. We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to compute relative displacement images (interferograms) for {SAR} data pairs spanning the eruption. We use satellite {SAR} data from the Canadian Space Agency's RADARSAT-2 and from the Italian Space Agency's COSMO-SkyMed missions. Data are modeled first through a Markov Chain Monte Carlo solution for a single tensile dislocation (dike). We then use a boundary element method that includes topography to model a distributed dike-opening model. We find the best-fitting dike dips 80° to the {WNW} with maximum opening of 6–8 m, localized in the near surface and more broadly distributed in distinct regions up to 3 km beneath the surface, which varies from 1 to 2 km elevation for the eruptive fissures. The distribution of dike opening and its correspondence with co-diking seismicity suggests that the dike propagated radially from Tolbachik's central conduit.
Maksimov A.P. A Physicochemical Model for Deep Degassing of Water-Rich Magma // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2008. Vol. 2. № 5. P. 356-363. doi: 10.1134/S0742046308050059.    Annotation
Two powerful eruptions of Quizapu vent on Cerro Azul Volcano, Chile are used as examples to discuss
the problem of effusive eruptions of magmas having high preeruptive volatile concentrations. A physicochemical
mechanism is proposed for magma degassing, with the volatiles being lost before coming to the surface.
The model is based on the interaction of magmas residing in chambers at different depths and on the difference
between the solubility of water in the melt and the water equilibrium concentration in a magma body
having a considerable vertical extent. The shallower chamber can accumulate the volatiles released from the
magma that is supplied from the deeper chamber. An explanation is provided of the dramatic differences in the
character of the 1846–1847 and 1932 eruptions, which had identical chemical–petrographic magma compositions.

На примере двух мощных извержений конуса Квицапу вулкана Сьерро-Ассуль (Чили) рассматривается проблема эффузивных извержений магм с высокими предэруптивными содержаниями летучих. Предложен физико-химический механизм дегазации магм с потерей ими летучих до появления на поверхности. Модель основана на взаимодействии магм, находившихся в разных по глубине очагах, и различии между растворимостью воды в расплаве и ее равновесной концентрацией в протяженном по вертикали магматическом теле. При этом малоглубинный очаг может аккумулировать летучие, выделяющиеся из магмы, поступающей в него из глубинного очага. Дается объяснение резких различий в характере извержений 1846–1847 и 1932 г. при идентичном химико-петрографическом составе магм.
Maksimov A.P., Firstov P.P., Girina O.A., Malyshev A.I. The June 1986 eruption of Bezymyannyi // Volcanology and Seismology. 1992. Vol. 13. № 1. P. 1-20.    Annotation
This paper presents the results of visual observations, particle-size analysis, seismological observations, and acoustic measurements carried out during a small-magnitude eruption of Bezymyannyi in June 1986. A mlodel is proposed for the mechanism of the eruption. A specific character of the eruption is explained by a deeper localization of a gas-rich aagia portion in the conduit,
Malkovsky S.I., Sorokin A.A., Korolev S.P., Girina O.A., Loupian E.A. Models of Volcanic Ash Propagation for the Exploration of Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatka Volcanoes // JKASP-2018. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018.
Manevich A.G., Girina O.A., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A. 2016-2017 explosive eruptions of Kamchatka volcanoes based on KVERT data // JKASP-2018. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018.
Mania Rene, Walter Thomas, Belousova Marina, Belousov Alexander, Senyukov Sergey Deformations and Morphology Changes Associated with the 2016–2017 Eruption Sequence at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka // Remote Sensing. 2019. № 11. P. 1278 doi: 10.3390/rs11111278.
Matoba S., Shiraiwa T., Tsushima A., Sasaki H., Muravyev Y.D. Records of sea-ice extent and air temperature at the Sea of Okhotsk from an ice core of Mount Ichinsky, Kamchatka // Annaly of Glaciology . 2011. Vol. 52. № 58. P. 44-50. doi: 10.3189/172756411797252149.    Annotation
The Sea of Okhotsk is the southernmost area in the Northern Hemisphere where seasonal sea ice is produced every year. The formation of sea ice drives thermohaline circulation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and this circulation supports the high productivity in the region. However, recent reports have indicated that sea-ice production in the Sea of Okhotsk is decreasing, raising concern that the decreased sea ice will affect not only circulation but also biological productivity in the sea. To reconstruct climatic changes in the Sea of Okhotsk region, we analyzed an ice core obtained from Ichinskaya Sopka (Mount Ichinsky), Kamchatka. We assumed that the remarkable negative peaks of δD in the ice core were caused by expansion of sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk. Melt feature percentage (MFP), which indicates summer snowmelt, showed high values in the 1950–60s and the mid-1990s–2000s. The high MFP in the 1950–60s was assumed to be caused by an increase in cyclone activity reaching Kamchatka during a negative period of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index, and that in the 1990–2000s may reflect the increase in solar irradiation during a positive period of the summer Arctic Oscillation index.
Maximov A.P. Effusive eruptions of silicic magmas and mechanism of the deep degassing of aqueous magmas // IV International Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs. August 21-27, 2004, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. 2004. P. 148-151.
Maximov A.P. Petrological constraints on the mechanisms of catastrophic explosive eruptions of andesitic and acid magmas // 7 th Biennual Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes: Mitigating Risk Through International Volcano, Earthquake, and Tsunami Science (JKASP-2011). August 25-30, 2011, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. 2011. P. 257-258.
Maximov A.P. Physicochemical mechanism of the deep degassing of aqueous magmas // Experiment in Geosciences. 2001. Vol. 10. № 1. P. 122-123.

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