Maly Semyachik Volcano. Bibliography
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Belousov Vladimir, Belousova Irina, Khubaeva Olga Long-lived Volcanic Centers of Kamchatka Geothermal Areas // World Geothermal Congress 2020+1. Reykjavik, Iceland: 2020. С. 1-8.
   Annotation
The current problems of hydrothermal processes and ore-forming systems are volcanic heat sources and mechanisms of heat
transfer. In Pauzhetsky, Semyachik and Mutnovsky geothermal areas in Kamchatka, active long-lived volcanic centers have been
studied, with which high-temperature hydrothermal systems are associated. In the Banno-Paratunsky geothermal area the Paleogene
and Neogene long-lived volcanic centers were identified, with which low-temperature hydrothermal systems are associated. The
geological history of the long-lived volcanic centers development is characterized by changes in their structure as a result of
hydrothermal-magmatic activity. These changes are manifested in the generation and evolution of magma chambers in the mantle
and in the Earth’s crust. Basalt melts of the mantle chambers transport the deep heat to the Earth’s surface through plane magmatic
channels without significant losses. The heat flow of these volcanic centers is short-lived and is characterized by a significant
capacity of ~8,000 kcal/km2s. The long-lived volcanic centers are characterized by the presence of magma chambers in the Earth's
crust. They shield the part of the mantle heat flow. Their thermal capacity on the Earth's surface is estimated from 1000 kcal/km2s
to 5000 kcal/km2s. It is assumed that a significant amount of thermal energy is retained in the long-lived volcanic centers. It is
spent on formation and activity of the chambers as well as the convective hydrothermal ore-forming systems. The evolution of such
centers is accompanied by the formation of complexes of metamorphic rocks which interaction with high-temperature mantle melts
is accompanied by redox reactions like combustion. As a result of these reactions, thermal energy is produced in such magma
chambers. A long-lived jet magmatic system is formed, and it provides the transfer of mantle heat. Heat transfer in the system is
accompanied by minimization of heat losses, accumulation of heat and its additional generation which is necessary for the heat
transfer in the structures with low thermal conductivity. The formation, evolution and extinction of magma chambers and reservoirs
in such heat-conducting structures are controlled by the thermophysical properties of the rocks, their geological structure and redox processes in them.
Bindeman I.N., Leonov V.L., Izbekov P.E., Ponomareva V.V., Watts K.E., Shipley N.K., Perepelov A.B., Bazanova L.I., Jicha B.R., Singer B.S., Schmitt A.K., Portnyagin M.V., Chen C.H. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2010. Vol. 189. № 1-2. P. 57-80. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.10.009.
   Annotation
The Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia represents the most volcanically active arc in the world in terms of magma production and the number of explosive eruptions. We investigate large-scale silicic volcanism in the past several million years and present new geochronologic results from major ignimbrite sheets exposed in Kamchatka. These ignimbrites are found in the vicinity of morphologically-preserved rims of partially eroded source calderas with diameters from ∼ 2 to ∼ 30 km and with estimated volumes of eruptions ranging from 10 to several hundred cubic kilometers of magma. We also identify and date two of the largest ignimbrites: Golygin Ignimbrite in southern Kamchatka (0.45 Ma), and Karymshina River Ignimbrites (1.78 Ma) in south-central Kamchatka. We present whole-rock geochemical analyses that can be used to correlate ignimbrites laterally. These large-volume ignimbrites sample a significant proportion of remelted Kamchatkan crust as constrained by the oxygen isotopes. Oxygen isotope analyses of minerals and matrix span a 3‰ range with a significant proportion of moderately low-δ18O values. This suggests that the source for these ignimbrites involved a hydrothermally-altered shallow crust, while participation of the Cretaceous siliceous basement is also evidenced by moderately elevated δ18O and Sr isotopes and xenocryst contamination in two volcanoes. The majority of dates obtained for caldera-forming eruptions coincide with glacial stages in accordance with the sediment record in the NW Pacific, suggesting an increase in explosive volcanic activity since the onset of the last glaciation 2.6 Ma. Rapid changes in ice volume during glacial times and the resulting fluctuation of glacial loading/unloading could have caused volatile saturation in shallow magma chambers and, in combination with availability of low-δ18O glacial meltwaters, increased the proportion of explosive vs effusive eruptions. The presented results provide new constraints on Pliocene–Pleistocene volcanic activity in Kamchatka, and thus constrain an important component of the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskii L.D. The ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1995. Vol. 57. № 6. P. 383-402. doi: 10.1007/BF00300984.
   Annotation
The ages of most of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region have been determined by extensive geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological and isotopic geochronological studies, including more than 600 14C dates. Eight ‘Krakatoa-type’ and three ‘Hawaiian-type’ calderas and no less than three large explosive craters formed here during the Holocene. Most of the Late Pleistocene Krakatoa-type calderas were established around 30 000–40 000 years ago. The active volcanoes are geologically very young, with maximum ages of about 40 000–50 000 years. The overwhelming majority of recently active volcanic cones originated at the very end of the Late Pleistocene or in the Holocene. These studies show that all Holocene stratovolcanoes in Kamchatka were emplaced in the Holocene only in the Eastern volcanic belt. Periods of synchronous, intensified Holocene volcanic activity occurred within the time intervals of 7500–7800 and 1300–1800 14C years BP.
Braitseva O.A., Sulerzhitsky L.D., Litasova S.N., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V. Radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology in Kamchatka // Radiocarbon. 1993. Vol. 35. № 3. P. 463-476.
   Annotation
We discuss results of 14C dates obtained from areas of young volcanoes in Kamchatka. We apply these dates to reconstructing regional volcanic activity during the Holocene.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Erster Teil. Historischer Bericht nach den Tagebüchern. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1890.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1890 erschienene erste Teil seines Werkes enthält den ausführlichen Bericht seiner Reise nach den Tagebüchern, ein getrennt erscheinender zweiter Teil die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Zweiter Teil. Allgemeines über Kamtschatka. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1900. 273 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1900 erschienene zweite Teil seines Werkes enthält die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas sowie ein geografisches Lexikon.
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Romanova I.M., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bartalev S.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Uvarov I.A., Korolev S.P., Malkovsky S.I., Kramareva L.S. Information Technologies for the Analyzing of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands Volcanoes Activity in 2019-2020 // Short Paper Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Information Technologies and High-Performance Computing (ITHPC 2021), Khabarovsk, Russia, September 14-16, 2021. Khabarovsk: CEUR-WS.org. 2021. Vol. 2930. P. 112-118.
   Annotation
The work is devoted to the activity analysis of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes in 2019-2020.The activity of the volcanoes was estimated based on the processing of data from daily satellite monitoring carried out using the information system “Remote monitoring of Kamchatkan and the Kuriles volcanoes activity (VolSatView)”. The activity of the Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes considered based on the analysis of their thermal anomalies. Analysis of the characteristics of thermal anomalies over volcanoes was carried out in KVERT IS. Analysis of the temperature of thermal anomalies of volcanoes in the Kuril - Kamchatka region in 2019-2020 shows a significantly higher activity of the Kamchatka volcanoes in comparison with the Kuril volcanoes.
Global Volcanism Program. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.11.0 (08 Jun 2022). 2013. doi: 10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013.
   Annotation
The Volcanoes of the World database is a catalog of Holocene and Pleistocene volcanoes, and eruptions from the past 12,000 years.
Kochegura V.V., Zubov A.G., Braytseva O.A. Magnetostratigraphy of Kamchatkan Holocene formations of soil and pyroclastics // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 8. № 6. P. 825-849.
   Annotation
An account is given of magnetostratigraphic studies of Kamchatkan Holocene formations: the cover of soil and pyroclastics and the rocks of the cinder cones from the flank eruptions of Klyuchevskoi Volcano. А study was made of seven sections of the soil and pyroclastics and of samples from 17 cinder cones. А detailed account is given of the data processing procedure. Consideration is given to the reasons for the established incompleteness of the paleomagnetic record in the sections and it is demonstrated that adequately detailed reconstruction of the history of the geomagnetic 1ield is possible only provided that а study is made of а series of рагаllеl sections. The trajесtory of the geomagnetic field vector over the last 4000 years is determined on the basis of the material on radiocarbon datings. Seven cycles of paleosecular variations are distinguished in the age range investigated; each of these cycles has individual features by which they can be recognised and used for stratigraphic correlation. The, features taken were the direction of rotation of the vector, the shape and size of its loops, and the length of the cycles. Correlation of the sections based on paleomagnetic data was found to be in good agreement with the tephrostratigraphic correlation and enabled corrections to be made to the age of some horizons, including the archeological layers of the primitive settlement at Zhupanovo and the cinder cones. The metachronous magnetization present in some tephra layers was found to be an obstacle to any improvement in the accuracy and detail of magnetochronological reconstructions.