Главная Вулканы Плоский Толбачик


Большая Удина Острый Толбачик
Вулкан Плоский Толбачик. Библиография

Количество записей: 221
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Albert Sarah, Fee David, Firstov Pavel, Makhmudov Evgeniy, Izbekov Pavel Infrasound from the 2012–2013 Plosky Tolbachik, Kamchatka fissure eruption // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 68 - 78. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.019.    Аннотация
Abstract We use both regional and local infrasound data to investigate the dynamics of the 2012–2013 eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia during select periods of time. Analysis of regional data recorded at the {IMS} array {IS44} in southern Kamchatka, ~ 384 km from the vent focuses on the eruption onset in November 2012, while analysis of local data focuses on activity in February and August 2013. Signals recorded from Tolbachik suggest a change in eruptive intensity possibly occurred from November 27–30, 2012. Local infrasound data recorded at distances of 100–950 m from the vent are characterized primarily by repeated, transient explosion signals indicative of gas slug bursts. Three methods are employed to pick slug burst events in February and August. The nature of slug bursts makes a monopole acoustic source model particularly fitting, permitting volume outflux and slug radius calculations for individual events. Volume outfluxes and slug radii distributions provide three possible explanations for the eruption style of Tolbachik Volcano from mid-February to late August. Cumulative outflux for slug bursts (i.e. mass of emissions from individual bursts) derived by infrasound for both February and August range from < 100 to ~ 3000 kg. These values are greater than infrasound-derived emissions calculated at Pacaya Volcano, but less than those calculated at Mt. Erebus Volcano. From this, we determine slug bursts at Tolbachik Volcano in February and August were larger on average than those at Pacaya Volcano in 2010, but smaller on average than those at Mt. Erebus in 2008. Our overall emissions estimates are in general agreement with estimates from satellite observations. This agreement supports the monopole source inversion as a potential method for estimating mass of emissions from slug burst events.
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Edwards Benjamin, Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry Overview of the precursors and dynamics of the 2012–13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 22 - 37. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.06.013.    Аннотация
Abstract We present a broad overview of the 2012–13 flank fissure eruption of Plosky Tolbachik Volcano in the central Kamchatka Peninsula. The eruption lasted more than nine months and produced approximately 0.55 km3 {DRE} (volume recalculated to a density of 2.8 g/cm3) of basaltic trachyandesite magma. The 2012–13 eruption of Tolbachik is one of the most voluminous historical eruptions of mafic magma at subduction related volcanoes globally, and it is the second largest at Kamchatka. The eruption was preceded by five months of elevated seismicity and ground inflation, both of which peaked a day before the eruption commenced on 27 November 2012. The batch of high-Al magma ascended from depths of 5–10 km; its apical part contained 54–55 wt. SiO2, and the main body 52–53 wt. SiO2. The eruption started by the opening of a 6 km-long radial fissure on the southwestern slope of the volcano that fed multi-vent phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive activity, as well as intensive effusion of lava with an initial discharge of > 440 m3/s. After 10 days the eruption continued only at the lower part of the fissure, where explosive and effusive activity of Hawaiian–Strombolian type occurred from a lava pond in the crater of the main growing scoria cone. The discharge rate for the nine month long, effusion-dominated eruption gradually declined from 140 to 18 m3/s and formed a compound lava field with a total area of ~ 36 km2; the effusive activity evolved from high-discharge channel-fed 'a'a lavas to dominantly low-discharge tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. On 23 August, the effusion of lava ceased and the intra-crater lava pond drained. Weak Strombolian-type explosions continued for several more days on the crater bottom until the end of the eruption around 5 September 2013. Based on a broad array of new data collected during this eruption, we develop a model for the magma storage and transport system of Plosky Tolbachik that links the storage zones of the two main genetically related magma types of the volcano (high-Al and high-Mg basalts) with the clusters of local seismicity. The model explains why precursory seismicity and dynamics of the 2012–13 eruption was drastically different from those of the previous eruption of the volcano in 1975–76.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Litasova S.N. The history reconstruction of volcanic activity in the Tolbachik regional zone of scoria cones deduced from detalled tephra and geochronological investications // Arc Volcanism: Physics and Tectonics. Proceedings of a 1981 IAVCEI Symposium, Arc Volcanism, August-September, 1981, Tokyo and Hakone. Tokyo: Terra Scientific Publishing Co. 1983. P. 47-48.
Braitseva O.A., Sulerzhitsky L.D., Litasova S.N., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V. Radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology in Kamchatka // Radiocarbon. 1993. V. 35. № 3. P. 463-476.    Аннотация
We discuss results of 14C dates obtained from areas of young volcanoes in Kamchatka. We apply these dates to reconstructing regional volcanic activity during the Holocene.
Caudron Corentin, Taisne Benoit, Kugaenko Yulia, Saltykov Vadim Magma migration at the onset of the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption revealed by Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 60 - 67. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.09.010.    Аннотация
Abstract In contrast of the 1975–76 Tolbachik eruption, the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption was not preceded by any striking change in seismic activity. By processing the Klyuchevskoy volcano group seismic data with the Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) method, we gain insights into the dynamics of magma movement prior to this important eruption. A clear seismic migration within the seismic swarm, started 20 hours before the reported eruption onset (05:15 UTC, 26 November 2012). This migration proceeded in different phases and ended when eruptive tremor, corresponding to lava flows, was recorded (at ~ 11:00 UTC, 27 November 2012). In order to get a first order approximation of the magma location, we compare the calculated seismic intensity ratios with the theoretical ones. As expected, the observations suggest that the seismicity migrated toward the eruption location. However, we explain the pre-eruptive observed ratios by a vertical migration under the northern slope of Plosky Tolbachik volcano followed by a lateral migration toward the eruptive vents. Another migration is also captured by this technique and coincides with a seismic swarm that started 16–20 km to the south of Plosky Tolbachik at 20:31 {UTC} on November 28 and lasted for more than 2 days. This seismic swarm is very similar to the seismicity preceding the 1975–76 Tolbachik eruption and can be considered as a possible aborted eruption.
Chaplygin Ilya, Yudovskaya Marina, Vergasova Lidiya, Mokhov Andrey Native gold from volcanic gases at Tolbachik 1975–76 and 2012–13 Fissure Eruptions, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 200 - 209. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.018.    Аннотация
Abstract Aggregates and euhedral crystals of native gold were found in sublimates formed during New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption in 2012–2013 (NTFE). Gold-bearing sublimate samples were taken from a red-hot (690 °C) degassing fracture in the roof of an active lava tunnel 1.5 km from active Naboko cinder cone in May 2013. The gas condensate collected at 690 °C in this site contains 16 ppb Au, 190 ppb Ag and 1180 ppm Cu compared to 3 ppb Au, 39 ppb Ag and 9.7 ppm Cu in the condensate of pristine magmatic gas sampled at 1030 °C. The 690 °C volcanic gas is most likely a mix of magmatic gas and local snow buried under the lava flows as indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the condensate. The lower-temperature gas enrichment in gold, copper and chlorine is resulted from evaporation of the 690 °C condensate during forced gas pumping at sampling. Native gold was also found in fumarolic encrustations collected from caverns in basalt lava flows with temperature up to 600 °C in June 2014, in a year after eruption finished. The native gold precipitation in newly formed Cu-rich sublimates together with the well known gold occurrences in cinder cones of 1975–1976 Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption manifest a transport capability of oxidized volcanic gas.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Iwamori H., Nakamura H., Ishizuka O., Nishizawa T., Haraguchi S., Yasukawa K., Miyazaki T., Vaglarov B., Ueki K., Toyama C., Chang Q., Kimura J.I. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // 26th IUGG General Assembly 2015. June 22 - July 2, 2015, Prague, Czech Republic. Prague, Czech Republic: IUGG. 2015. P. VS28p-487.    Аннотация
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of previously geochemically unstudied Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from Tolbachik volcanic massif (Central Kamchatka Depression, CKD) are presented. Two volcanic series – middle-K and high-K were erupted. The geochemical history of the massif was started earlier 86 ka (K-Ar dating) with the formation of the Tolbachik pedestal presented by middle-K series. During stratovolcanoes formation both series occur and the role of high-K melts was increasing with time. In Holocene high-K rocks are dominated but some cinder cone lavas are presented by middle-K high-Mg melts which suggest that both volcanic series are still exists. The computer modeling show that both series can be explained by the process of crystal fractionation at different water content from nearly or the same mantle source similar to high-Mg basalts of 1975 Northern Breakthrough. Middle-K rocks could crystallize at water-rich conditions (more than 2% of H2O) while the high-K rock could crystallize at dry conditions at the same pressure. However the existence of different mantle sources and possible magma mixing cannot be excluded. Our data show that fractional crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions can be one of the main processes responsible for rock variations at CKD. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest 2-4% of crustal assimilation to the magma chamber during pedestal and stratovolcanoes formation while lava-cinder cones are not show evidences of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K-Ar dating provide strong evidence that Povorotnaya mount located in 8 km NE of Plosky Tolbachik is the old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment the oldest known object (306 ka by K-Ar dating) in Klyuchevskaya group.

Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282656425_Geology_petrology_and_geochemistry_of_the_Tolbachik_volcanic_massif_Kamchatka_Russia [accessed Jun 19, 2017].
Churikova T.G., Gordeychik B.N., Edwards B.R., Ponomareva V.V., Zelenin E.A. The Tolbachik volcanic massif: A review of the petrology, volcanology and eruption history prior to the 2012–2013 eruption // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 3 - 21. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.016.    Аннотация
The primary goal of this paper is to summarize all of the published data on the Tolbachik volcanic massif in order to provide a clear framework for the geochronologic, petrologic, geochemical and to a lesser extent the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of the Tolbachik system established prior to the 2012–2013 eruption. The Tolbachik massif forms the southwestern part of the voluminous Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamchatka. The massif includes two large stratovolcanoes, Ostry (“Sharp”) Tolbachik and Plosky (“Flat”) Tolbachik, and a 70 km long zone of the basaltic monogenetic cones that form an arcuate rift-like structure running across the Plosky Tolbachik summit. The Tolbachik massif gained international attention after the 1975–1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE), which was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century and one of the six largest basaltic fissure eruptions in historical time. By the end of the GTFE, 2.2 km3 of volcanic products of variable basaltic compositions with MORB-like isotopic characteristics covered an area of > 1000 km2. During the following three decades more than 700 papers on various aspects of this eruption have been published both in national and international journals. Although the recent 2012–2013 eruption, which is the main topic of this volume, was not as long as the {GTFE} in duration or as large in area and volume of the erupted deposits, it brought to the surface a unique volcanic material never found before. In order to understand the data from new eruptions and make significant progress towards a better understanding of the Tolbachik magmatic system it is important to be able to put the new results into the historic context of previous research.
Churikova Tatiana G., Gordeychik Boris N., Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Ishizuka Osamu, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Miyazaki Takashi, Vaglarov Bogdan S. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 156 - 181. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.026.    Аннотация
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle–Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene–historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P–T–H2O–fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K–Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3 of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975–1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within the Tolbachik volcanic massif. Sr–Nd isotopes are consistent with 2–4 crustal assimilation during formation of the pedestal and stratovolcanoes, while the young lava fields do not show evidence of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K–Ar dating provide strong evidence that Mount Povorotnaya, located in 8 km northeast of Plosky Tolbachik, is an old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment it is the oldest (306 ka) known object in Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes.
Churikova Tatiana, Gordeychik Boris, Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Yasukawa Kazatuka, Ishizuka Osamu Petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik stratovolcano // 8th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes. Finding clues for science and disaster mitigation from international collaboration (JKASP-2014). 22-26 September 2014, Sapporo, Japan. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University. 2014. P. 1-3.    Аннотация
The numerous of national and international publications were dedicated to Plosky Tolbachik volcano eruptions and adjacent monogenetic cones, which were erupted repeatedly during Holocene, including historical time [i.e. Vlodavets, 1937; Popkov, 1946; Peep, 1946, 1954; Menyailov, 1953; Sirin and Farberov, 1963; Kirsanov et al., 1974; Ivanov and Khrenov, 1979; Fedotov, 1984; Krivenko, 1990; Kersting, 1995; Tatsumi et al., 1995; Hochstaedter et al., 1996; Kepezhinskas et al., 1997; Turner et al., 1998; Pineau et al., 1999; Volynets et al., 2000; Churikova et al., 2001; Münker et al., 2004; Portnyagin et al., 2007; Volynets et al., 2013]. However, all these data mainly relates to monogenetic cones, but the information on stratovolcanoes itself practically absent. There are only few papers on Ostry and Plosky Tolbachik stratovolcanoes focusing on geology [Ermakov and Vazheevskaya, 1973], petrography and some petrochemistry of the rocks [Ermakov, 1977; Flerov and Melekestsev, 2013]. The modern geochemical and isotope studies of the stratovolcanoes were never achieved. In this report we present geological, petrographical, petrochemical, geochemical and some K-Ar data on the rocks of Tolbachik massif. The present report based on representative collection of 154 samples from stratovolcanoes, dikes, monogenetic cones of different ages, including last 2012-2013 eruption. Additionally our study included samples separately standing edifice of Povorotnaya mount, which age according to K-Ar dating is 0.306±0.01 Ма.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Erster Teil. Historischer Bericht nach den Tagebüchern. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1890.    Аннотация
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1890 erschienene erste Teil seines Werkes enthält den ausführlichen Bericht seiner Reise nach den Tagebüchern, ein getrennt erscheinender zweiter Teil die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/566/ [связанный ресурс]
http://repo.kscnet.ru/831/ [связанный ресурс]
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Zweiter Teil. Allgemeines über Kamtschatka. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1900. 273 p.    Аннотация
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1900 erschienene zweite Teil seines Werkes enthält die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas sowie ein geografisches Lexikon.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/564/ [связанный ресурс]
Edwards B. , Belousov A., Belousova M. Propagation style controls lava-snow interactions // Nature Communications. 2014. V. 5. № 56666. P. 1-5. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6666.
Edwards Ben, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Chirkov Sergey, Senyukov Sergey, Gordeev Evgenii, Muraviev Yaroslav, Izbekov Pavel, Demianchuk Yury Another “Great Tolbachik” Eruption? // Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 2013. V. 94. № 21. P. 189-191. doi:10.1002/2013EO210002.    Аннотация
On 27 November 2012 at 1715 local time, a focused swarm of earthquakes was interpreted as the start of a new ongoing eruption on the south flank (Tolbachinsky Dol) of Plosky Tolbachik volcano in east central Kamchatka, Russia (Figure 1a) [Samoylenko et al., 2012]. Visual observations on 29 November showed ash shooting from two fractures as well as long, rapidly moving lava flows. Although the initial ash clouds reached 6 kilometers in height, subsequent ashfall has been limited to the area around the main vents, and no permanent settlements are in danger from advancing lava flows (the closest settlements are about 40 kilometers from the volcano). Including this eruption, six different volcanoes are presently active in Kamchatka.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Melnikov Dmitry Observations on lava, snowpack and their interactions during the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption, Klyuchevskoy Group, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 107 - 119. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.010.    Аннотация
Abstract Observations made during January and April 2013 show that interactions between lava flows and snowpack during the 2012–13 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka, Russia, were controlled by different styles of emplacement and flow velocities. `A`a lava flows and sheet lava flows generally moved on top of the snowpack with few immediate signs of interaction besides localized steaming. However, lavas melted through underlying snowpack 1–4 m thick within 12 to 24 h, and melt water flowed episodically from the beneath flows. Pahoehoe lava lobes had lower velocities and locally moved beneath/within the snowpack; even there the snow melting was limited. Snowpack responses were physical, including compressional buckling and doming, and thermal, including partial and complete melting. Maximum lava temperatures were up to 1355 K (1082 °C; type K thermal probes), and maximum measured meltwater temperatures were 335 K (62.7 °C). Theoretical estimates for rates of rapid (e.g., radiative) and slower (conductive) snowmelt are consistent with field observations showing that lava advance was fast enough for `a`a and sheet flows to move on top of the snowpack. At least two styles of physical interactions between lava flows and snowpack observed at Tolbachik have not been previously reported: migration of lava flows beneath the snowpack, and localized phreatomagmatic explosions caused by snowpack failure beneath lava. The distinctive morphologies of sub-snowpack lava flows have a high preservation potential and can be used to document snowpack emplacement during eruptions.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna Introduction to the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 1 - 2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.001.
Fedotov S.A. Crustal Deformations Related to the Formation of New Tolbachik Volcanoes in 1975-1976, Kamchatka // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1980. V. 43. № 1. P. 35-46.    Аннотация
The paper discusses the results of geodetic investigations performed in the region of the large 1975-1976 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka. Using data from repeated triangu-lation and trigonometric levelings, horizontal and vertical displacements have been detected in an area of 3,500 km2. Two zones have been recognized: the tension and uplift zone that is probably due to magma intrusion from depths to the surface along the line of new cones and the extensive compensative subsidence zone located at a distance of 20-50 km from the nearest newly-formed cones.??Measurements made with small distance measuring device showed the dynamics of feeding basalt dykes intrusion and made it possible to determine their width (a little greater than 1 m) and magma and gas overpressure (50-250 bar). Data have been obtained on dimensions and growth of cones and on vertical ground deformation in the area of new cones during and after the eruption.??
Fedotov S.A., Chirkov A.M. The large fissure eruption in the region of Plosky Tolbachik volcano in Kamchatka, 1975–1976 // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1980. V. 43. № 1. P. 47-60. doi: 10.1007/BF02597610.    Аннотация
The paper describes the course of the Large Tolbachik fissure eruption taking place in Kamchatka from July 6, 1975 to December 10, 1976. The eruption zone extended for 30 km. The formation of monogenic scoria cones nearly 300 m high, lava tubes and basalt sheets up to 80 m thick and more than 40 km2 in area and subsidence of the Plosky Tolbachik summit caldera to a depth of more than 400 m were observed during the eruption. The volume of eruption products amounted to more than 2 km3. It was the largest basalt eruption which has taken place in the Kurile-Kamchatka volcanic belt in historic time.
Fedotov S.A., Gorelchik V.I., Stepanov V.V. Seismological Studies on the Mechanism of the Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, 1975-1976 // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1980. V. 43. № 1. P. 73-84.    Аннотация
Seismological observations provided consistent information on the course and mechanism of the complicated large fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano in Kamchatka from July 6, 1975 to December 10, 1976. Seismicity indicates that the initial magnesian basalts were rising ten days before the eruption from depths of more than 20 km. The formation of new feeding dykes was accompanied by earthquake swarms which decreased sharply one to two days before the opening of new eruptive fissures. The seismological data indicate that the main source of the different erupted basalts (2 km) was a vast system (diameter ca. 80 km) of hydraulically connected magma
chambers located in the lower crustal layers or in the crust-mantle transition layer.
Fedotov S.A., Markhinin Ye.K. The Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption: Geological and Geophysical Data 1975–1976. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983. 354 p.    Аннотация
In 1975–1976 a remarkable volcanic eruption took place on the Kamchtka peninsula, part of the Soviet Union's arc of active volcanoes. Dr Fedotov and his colleagues studied the largest basaltic eruption in history, one of the most important volcanic events in the twentieth century. During this prolonged eruption they carried out extensive seismological, geophysical, geodetic and geochemical investigations. The results of this detailed and thorough investigation were collected as a series of papers under the editorship of S. A. Fedotov and collected into this volume, which was originally published by Cambridge in 1983. The result is a classic descriptive work of a major volcanic eruption.


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