Plosky Tolbachik Volcano. Bibliography
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Churikova T.G., Gordeychik B.N., Edwards B.R., Ponomareva V.V., Zelenin E.A. The Tolbachik volcanic massif: A review of the petrology, volcanology and eruption history prior to the 2012–2013 eruption // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 3 - 21. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.016.
   Annotation
The primary goal of this paper is to summarize all of the published data on the Tolbachik volcanic massif in order to provide a clear framework for the geochronologic, petrologic, geochemical and to a lesser extent the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of the Tolbachik system established prior to the 2012–2013 eruption. The Tolbachik massif forms the southwestern part of the voluminous Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamchatka. The massif includes two large stratovolcanoes, Ostry (“Sharp”) Tolbachik and Plosky (“Flat”) Tolbachik, and a 70 km long zone of the basaltic monogenetic cones that form an arcuate rift-like structure running across the Plosky Tolbachik summit. The Tolbachik massif gained international attention after the 1975–1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE), which was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century and one of the six largest basaltic fissure eruptions in historical time. By the end of the GTFE, 2.2 km3 of volcanic products of variable basaltic compositions with MORB-like isotopic characteristics covered an area of > 1000 km2. During the following three decades more than 700 papers on various aspects of this eruption have been published both in national and international journals. Although the recent 2012–2013 eruption, which is the main topic of this volume, was not as long as the {GTFE} in duration or as large in area and volume of the erupted deposits, it brought to the surface a unique volcanic material never found before. In order to understand the data from new eruptions and make significant progress towards a better understanding of the Tolbachik magmatic system it is important to be able to put the new results into the historic context of previous research.
Churikova Tatiana G., Gordeychik Boris N., Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Ishizuka Osamu, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Miyazaki Takashi, Vaglarov Bogdan S. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 156 - 181. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.026.
   Annotation
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle–Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene–historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P–T–H2O–fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K–Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3 of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975–1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within the Tolbachik volcanic massif. Sr–Nd isotopes are consistent with 2–4 crustal assimilation during formation of the pedestal and stratovolcanoes, while the young lava fields do not show evidence of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K–Ar dating provide strong evidence that Mount Povorotnaya, located in 8 km northeast of Plosky Tolbachik, is an old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment it is the oldest (306 ka) known object in Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes.
Churikova Tatiana, Gordeychik Boris, Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Yasukawa Kazatuka, Ishizuka Osamu Petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik stratovolcano // 8th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes. Finding clues for science and disaster mitigation from international collaboration (JKASP-2014). 22-26 September 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014. P. 1-3.
   Annotation
The numerous of national and international publications were dedicated to Plosky Tolbachik volcano eruptions and adjacent monogenetic cones, which were erupted repeatedly during Holocene, including historical time [i.e. Vlodavets, 1937; Popkov, 1946; Peep, 1946, 1954; Menyailov, 1953; Sirin and Farberov, 1963; Kirsanov et al., 1974; Ivanov and Khrenov, 1979; Fedotov, 1984; Krivenko, 1990; Kersting, 1995; Tatsumi et al., 1995; Hochstaedter et al., 1996; Kepezhinskas et al., 1997; Turner et al., 1998; Pineau et al., 1999; Volynets et al., 2000; Churikova et al., 2001; Münker et al., 2004; Portnyagin et al., 2007; Volynets et al., 2013]. However, all these data mainly relates to monogenetic cones, but the information on stratovolcanoes itself practically absent. There are only few papers on Ostry and Plosky Tolbachik stratovolcanoes focusing on geology [Ermakov and Vazheevskaya, 1973], petrography and some petrochemistry of the rocks [Ermakov, 1977; Flerov and Melekestsev, 2013]. The modern geochemical and isotope studies of the stratovolcanoes were never achieved. In this report we present geological, petrographical, petrochemical, geochemical and some K-Ar data on the rocks of Tolbachik massif. The present report based on representative collection of 154 samples from stratovolcanoes, dikes, monogenetic cones of different ages, including last 2012-2013 eruption. Additionally our study included samples separately standing edifice of Povorotnaya mount, which age according to K-Ar dating is 0.306±0.01 Ма.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Erster Teil. Historischer Bericht nach den Tagebüchern. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1890. 257 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1890 erschienene erste Teil seines Werkes enthält den ausführlichen Bericht seiner Reise nach den Tagebüchern, ein getrennt erscheinender zweiter Teil die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Zweiter Teil. Allgemeines über Kamtschatka. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1900. 273 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1900 erschienene zweite Teil seines Werkes enthält die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas sowie ein geografisches Lexikon.
Edwards B. , Belousov A., Belousova M. Propagation style controls lava-snow interactions // Nature Communications. 2014. Vol. 5. № 56666. P. 1-5. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6666.
Edwards Ben, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Chirkov Sergey, Senyukov Sergey, Gordeev Evgenii, Muraviev Yaroslav, Izbekov Pavel, Demianchuk Yury Another “Great Tolbachik” Eruption? // Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 2013. Vol. 94. № 21. P. 189-191. doi:10.1002/2013EO210002.
   Annotation
On 27 November 2012 at 1715 local time, a focused swarm of earthquakes was interpreted as the start of a new ongoing eruption on the south flank (Tolbachinsky Dol) of Plosky Tolbachik volcano in east central Kamchatka, Russia (Figure 1a) [Samoylenko et al., 2012]. Visual observations on 29 November showed ash shooting from two fractures as well as long, rapidly moving lava flows. Although the initial ash clouds reached 6 kilometers in height, subsequent ashfall has been limited to the area around the main vents, and no permanent settlements are in danger from advancing lava flows (the closest settlements are about 40 kilometers from the volcano). Including this eruption, six different volcanoes are presently active in Kamchatka.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Melnikov Dmitry Observations on lava, snowpack and their interactions during the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption, Klyuchevskoy Group, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 107 - 119. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.010.
   Annotation
Abstract Observations made during January and April 2013 show that interactions between lava flows and snowpack during the 2012–13 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka, Russia, were controlled by different styles of emplacement and flow velocities. `A`a lava flows and sheet lava flows generally moved on top of the snowpack with few immediate signs of interaction besides localized steaming. However, lavas melted through underlying snowpack 1–4 m thick within 12 to 24 h, and melt water flowed episodically from the beneath flows. Pahoehoe lava lobes had lower velocities and locally moved beneath/within the snowpack; even there the snow melting was limited. Snowpack responses were physical, including compressional buckling and doming, and thermal, including partial and complete melting. Maximum lava temperatures were up to 1355 K (1082 °C; type K thermal probes), and maximum measured meltwater temperatures were 335 K (62.7 °C). Theoretical estimates for rates of rapid (e.g., radiative) and slower (conductive) snowmelt are consistent with field observations showing that lava advance was fast enough for `a`a and sheet flows to move on top of the snowpack. At least two styles of physical interactions between lava flows and snowpack observed at Tolbachik have not been previously reported: migration of lava flows beneath the snowpack, and localized phreatomagmatic explosions caused by snowpack failure beneath lava. The distinctive morphologies of sub-snowpack lava flows have a high preservation potential and can be used to document snowpack emplacement during eruptions.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna Introduction to the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 1 - 2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.001.
Fedotov S.A. Crustal Deformations Related to the Formation of New Tolbachik Volcanoes in 1975-1976, Kamchatka // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1980. Vol. 43. Vol. 1. P. 35-45. doi: 10.1007/BF02597609.
   Annotation
The paper discusses the results of geodetic investigations performed in the region of the large 1975-1976 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka. Using data from repeated triangu-lation and trigonometric levelings, horizontal and vertical displacements have been detected in an area of 3,500 km2. Two zones have been recognized: the tension and uplift zone that is probably due to magma intrusion from depths to the surface along the line of new cones and the extensive compensative subsidence zone located at a distance of 20-50 km from the nearest newly-formed cones.??Measurements made with small distance measuring device showed the dynamics of feeding basalt dykes intrusion and made it possible to determine their width (a little greater than 1 m) and magma and gas overpressure (50-250 bar). Data have been obtained on dimensions and growth of cones and on vertical ground deformation in the area of new cones during and after the eruption.??