Khangar Volcano. Bibliography
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Маренина Т.Ю. Вулкан Хангар в Срединном хребте Камчатки // Труды Лаборатории вулканологии АН СССР. 1959. Вып. 17. С. 3-63.
Мелекесцев И.В. Действующие и потенциально активные вулканы Курило - Камчатской островной дуги в начале XXI в.: этапы исследований, определение термина "действующий вулкан", будущие извержения и вулканическая опасность // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2006. Вып. 7. № 1. С. 15-35.
Three stages of study of active and potentially active volcanoes on Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands were distinguished: the anterior stage (1700-1935), the new stage (1935-1962) and the recent stage (from 1962 till present time).
This paper provides a new, for the first time scientifically based term of «active volcano». Updated catalogues display active and potentially active volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands. Here we propose a long-term forecast of behavior and parameters of impending eruptions and related volcanic hazards for the typical volcanoes of the 1st and the 2nd stages of evolution.
Мелекесцев И.В., Брайцева О.А., Базанова Л.И., Пономарева В.В., Сулержицкий Л.Д. Особый тип катастрофических эксплозивных извержений - голоценовые субкальдерные извержения Хангар, Ходуткинский "маар", Бараний Амфитеатр (Камчатка) // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1996. № 2. С. 3-24.
The devestating explosive eruptions at Khangar (about 7000 14C BP), Khodutkinskiy "maar" (about 2800 14C BP), and Baraniy Amphitheater (about 1500 14C BP) are classified into a special type, subcaldera eruptions. They were analogues of caldera-forming eruptions by their dynamics, erupted volume (1.5-15 km^3), aspect, facies family, and the composition {from dacites to rhyolites) of the pyroclastics, but were not followed by the development of collapse calderas whose cavity volumes would fit the volume of discharge pyroclastics when converted to solid rock (magma). The discrepancy between a "caldera-like" aspect of the pyroclastics and the type of erupting vent can probably be explained by the greal depths of reservoirs of silicic magma which were "galvanized" when hot basaltic magma was injected into them. A subcaldera eruption usually began with a violent discharge of tephra, much greater in volume than the other volcanic products, to be followed by the formation of pyroclastic flows associated with pyrociastic surges. This sequence of events repeated itself several times during the eruption. No major explosion breccias were formed. Intensive ashfall involved areas of n * 10^4 ... n * 10^5 km^2, so that dated tephra beds have been excellent regional marker horizons. Subcaldera eruptions are hypothesized to have influenced the Earth's climate and are reflected as synchronous acid peaks in the Greenland glacier shield.
Мелекесцев И.В., Брайцева О.А., Пономарева В.В., Базанова Л.И., Пинегина Т.К., Дирксен О.В. 0-650 гг. - этап сильнейшего природного катастрофизма нашей эры на Камчатке // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2003. Вып. 6. № 6. С. 3-23.
We have identified, and describe in this paper, a phase of multifactor natural catastrophism that has been the greatest during our era in Kamchatka, to be dated 0-650 A. D. Its chief components were. The last catastrophic eruptions to have occurred (a caldera-generating one at about 240 A. D., the pyroclastics volume being 18-19 km3 and a subcaldera one around 600 A. D. with the volume of lava and pyroclastics 9.5-10.5 km3) which were followed by irreversible relief changes over areas of hundreds of square kilometers and have affected rather injuriously many other environmental components. An exceptionally intensive activity of the other volcanoes (at least 75-80% of all active and potebtially active Kamchatkan volcanoes were erupting, tens of large and catastrophic eruptions occurred). Regional catastrophic and large ashfalls. A sharp, large-amplitude (between 1.5-2 and 12-15 m) tectonic uplift of various blocks in Kamchatka. Large earthquakes accompanied by large-volume rockfalls, landslides, large and frequent tsunamis. The catastrophic events of that time are argued to have been part of a worldwide phase of natural catastrophism that we hypothesize to have occurred at the beginning of our era.
Набоко С.И. Современные вулканы и газо-гидротермальная деятельность / Геология СССР. М.: Недра. 1964. Т. 31. С. 303-372.
Новейший и современный вулканизм на территории России / Отв. ред. Лаверов Н.П. М.: Наука. 2005. 604 с.
The actual collective monograph presents the results of both theoretical and experimental studies of the multi-disciplinary problem on volcanic hazard assessment and development of techniques for prediction of catastophic eruptions. The volcanism of Kamchatka and other regions of Russia has been analyzed. On the basis of geological, volcanological and tephrachronological studies including radiocarbon dating, there have been defined certain groups of volcanoes on different stages of evolution. At the same time the problem of determination of the internal structure of volcanic dome using modem theoretical methods and technologies is well investigated. The new techniques of estimation of volcanic hazard were developed. Whenever ti is required, theoretical approaches are confirmed by results of in-field observations.

The book will satisfy the needs of Earth sciences specialists from a variety of backgrounds, volcanology, geo-mechanics, ecology, industrial constuction applications and hazard assessment.
Новограбленов П.Т. Каталог вулканов Камчатки // Известия Государственного географического общества. 1932. Т. 64. Вып. 1. С. 88-99.
Певзнер М.М. Голоценовый вулканизм Срединного хребта Камчатки Труды Геологического института. / Отв. ред. Федонкин М.А. М.: ГЕОС. 2015. Вып. 608. 252 с.
The monograph is devoted to the spatio-temporal activation of Holocene volcanism within the Miocene-Quaternary volcanic zone of the Sredinny Range of Kamchatka. The pattern of volcanic activation, grouping elements and periodic pulses of endogenous activity, as well as their chronological relationship with episodes of endogenous activity increasing of the North Pacific. The characteristics of individual volcanic centers and the largest eruptions are provided. Age determinations of eruptions are based on detailed tephrochronological research and extensive radiocarbon dating.
For a wide range of professionals in the field of geology, geochronology, volcanology, petrology, geography,
geomorphology, paleoclimatology, ecology and geobotany.
Певзнер М.М., Волынец А.О. Голоценовый вулканизм Срединного хребта Камчатки // Проблемы эксплозивного вулканизма (к 50-летию катастрофического извержения вулкана Безымянный). Материалы первого международного симпозиума. Петропавловск-Камчатский, 25-30 марта 2006 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2006. С. 124-132.
Numerous Holocene volcanic centres (5 stratovolcanoes, including 4 active and potentially dangerous, and 12 monogenetic centres) are discovered within Sredinny Range of Kamchatka. Their exact ages are determined. Spatial and temporal characteristics, as well as composition of Holocene volcanic rocks witness against direct connection of magma genesis with contemporary Pacific plate subduction. Sub-meridional chronological trends and elements of grouping, identified for Holocene volcanic activity of Sredinny Range of Kamchatka, may indicate seismo-geodynamical nature of young volcanic activity and associated with it advection in the extinct island arc system.
Певзнер М.М., Пономарева В.В., Мелекесцев И.В. Черный Яр - реперный разрез голоценовых маркирующих пеплов северо-восточного побережья Камчатки // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1997. № 4. С. 3-18.
Tephrochronological and radiocarbon investigations of soil-pyroclastic depositsalong the line Shiveluch Volcano - Chernyi Yar - Bering I. have detected and identified the ashes oflargest (for the past 6500 years) eruptions on Shiveluch Volcano in the southeastern sector of the ashabundance area, as well as the ashes of Bezymyannyi, Ksudach, Klyuchevskoi, Avacha and Khangarvolcanoes. A detailed radiocarbon dating of peat deposits in Chernyi Yar has not only improved the agedeterminations of the eruptions themselves but also helped in the determination of ash fall rate for thelower Kamchatka R. valley, namely, once in 191 years. Apart from the 1964 tephra, we suggest for useas regional geochronological markers the ash horizons of Shiveluch Volcano having the followingrounded radiocarbon dates: 265 (SH1), 965 (SH2), 1450, 2800, 3600 (SP), 4105 (SHDV), 4800, as well asthe ashes from Ksudach 1806 (KS1) and Avacha 5489 (AV2) volcanoes.