Plosky Tolbachik Volcano. Bibliography
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Volkova Maria, Shapiro Nikolay, Melnik Oleg, Mikhailov Valentin, Plechov Pavel, Timoshkina Elena, Bergal-Kuvikas Olga Subsidence of the lava flows emitted during the 2012–2013 eruption of Tolbachik (Kamchatka, Russia): Satellite data and thermal model // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2022.107554.
Volynets A.O., Melnikov D.V., Yakushev A.I. First data on composition of the volcanic rocks of the IVS 50th anniversary Fissure Tolbachik eruption (Kamchatka) // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2013. Vol. 452. № 1. P. 953-957. doi:10.1134/S1028334X13090201.
   Annotation
First data on major, minor and trace element (XRF. ICP-MS) concentrations in the volcanic rocks of the IVS 50th anniversary Fissure Tolbachik eruption are reported for the period from 27.11.2012 to 25.01.2013; scheme of lava flows distribution by March 2013 is made. The volcanic rocks of the new eruption are substantially different from the other studied volcanic rocks of Tolbachinsky Dol by their higher alkalis and incompatible elements content. The rocks of the first three days of eruption (Menyailov Vent) have higher silica and alkalis content than all previously reported volcanic rocks of Tolbachinsky Dol. Volcanic rocks of the Naboko Vent, at silica content similar to high-Al basalts of Tolbachinsky Dol, have different concentrations of trace elements and some major elements (K2O, CaO, TiO2, P2O5). REE and other incompatible element concentrations in the rocks of the Menyailov Vent are higher than in the rocks of the Naboko Vent at the same element ratios. The differences of the volcanic rocks of the two vents of the new eruption may be caused by the fact that the erupted lavas came from the different levels of the same magma chamber.
Volynets Anna O., Edwards Benjamin R., Melnikov Dmitry, Yakushev Anton, Griboedova Irina Monitoring of the volcanic rock compositions during the 2012–2013 fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 120 - 132. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.014.
   Annotation
Abstract Here we present the results from monitoring of the composition of rocks produced during the 2012–2013 fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano (FTE). Major and trace element concentrations in 75 samples are reported. Products of this eruption are represented by high alumina basaltic trachyandesites with higher alkalis and titanium contents than in all previously studied rocks of the Tolbachik monogenetic volcanic field. Rocks erupted during the first three days (27–30 November) from the northern (also called Menyailov) group of vents are the most silica- and alkali-rich (SiO2 concentrations up to 55.35 wt. and {K2O} up to 2.67 wt.). From December onwards, when the eruptive activity switched from the Menyailov vents to the southern (Naboko) group of vents, silica content dropped by 2 wt., concentrations of MgO, FeO, TiO2 and Mg# increased, and {K2O} and Na2O concentrations and K2O/MgO ratio decreased. For the rest of the eruption the compositions of rocks remained constant and homogeneous; no systematic compositional differences between lava, bombs and scoria samples are evident. Trace element distributions in the rocks of the Menyailov and Naboko vent lavas are relatively uniform; Menyailov lavas have slightly higher Th, Nb, Hf, Y, and {HREE} concentrations than the Naboko vent lavas at more or less constant element ratios. We explain the initial change in geochemistry by tapping of a slightly cooler and fractionated (~ 3 Mt and 8 Cpx) upper part of the magma storage zone before the main storage area began to feed the eruption. Thermodynamic constraints show that apparent liquidus temperatures varied from 1142 °C to 1151 °C, and thermodynamic modeling shows that variations in compositions are consistent with a high degree of low pressure (100–300 MPa), nominally anhydrous fractionation of a parent melt compositionally similar to the 1975 Northern Breakthrough high-Mg basalt. Geochemistry, petrological observations and modeling are in agreement with the newly erupted material being derived from remnant high-Al magma from the 1975–76 Southern Breakthrough eruption with only slight amounts of cooling (less than 1 °C per year) during the intervening 36 years.
Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Griboedova Irina Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption // 8-th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes, JKASP 2014. 22-26 September, 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014.
   Annotation
The 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption started from lava gushing and effusion in the Menyailov vent on November 27 th , 2012; after three days the activity of this vent ceased and the eruption continued from the Naboko vent until its end in September 2013. The eruption produced about 0.7 km 3 of high-Al basaltic trachyandesites (Dvigalo et al., 2014). At Menyailov vent SiO2 concentrations were as high as 55.35 wt.% and K2O -2.67 wt.% -higher than in any previously erupted rocks in Tolbachik monogenetic area. From the beginning of December, SiO 2 concentration in lavas dropped by 2 wt.% and remained at this level until the end of eruption. MgO, TiO2, Mg# increased, K2O, Na2O decreased slightly. Most prominent change we observe in K2O/MgO ratio, which was about 0.7 in the Menyailov vent rocks and became 0.5 in the Naboko vent rocks. Details of the geochemical composition of the volcanic rocks produced by this eruption are reported elsewhere (Volynets et al., 2013, Volynets et al., 2014 a, b); here we present the results of the geochemical study of the main phenocrysts in the lavas – plagioclase. For the detailed geochemical study of the plagioclase we selected two samples from the Naboko vent (Pl-phyric lavas, erupted in February and August) and five crystal lapilli (two of them were erupted in December 2012, and three – during 2013, when the new cone has been already built). Plagioclases in these lavas are represented by two generations of labradorite and bytownite. Pl phenocrysts of the 1 st generation are large (up to 2 cm on the long axis) strongly resorbed at the edges and sometimes in the cores as well, containing lots of glass inclusions. Pl subphenocrysts of the 2 nd generation are smaller (less than 500 µm), usually nonresorbed and clean, having euhedral facets. Normal, reversed and patchy zoning are typical for all studied crystals (fig.1, I and II). Maximum concentrations of An (up to 83% at compositional variation between An50 and 74) has been measured in the patchy zones. Crystal lapilli are characterized by the oscillatory zoning with An fluctuations around An57-63 (fig. 1, III and IV). This kind of zoning is the result of the diffusion control of Pl growth at low growth rates (Sibley et al., 1976). The edges of lapilli are usually rich of glassy inclusions, tunnel-like dissolution structures, Ol, Px, Mt inclusions (fig. 1, III and IV). There are abundant resorption zones in lapilli, with plenty of glassy inclusions. These zones are characterized by the patchy zoning with An concentration jumps up to An74; usually these high-An areas are observed near the inclusions of glass. At the edges of lapilli there are zones with An gradual decrease towards the rim from An 74 to An61.

Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption.
Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Yakushev Anton, Tolstykh Maria Petrology and geochemistry of the New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption volcanic rocks and their evolution during the first two weeks of eruption // IAVCEI 2013 Scientific Assembly. July 20 - 24, Kagoshima, Japan. 2013. P. 743
Volynets O.N., Flerov G.B., Andreev V.N., Popolitov E.I., Abramov V.A., Petrov L.L., Shcheka S.A., Selivanova G.I. Geochemical features of the rocks of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption 1975–1976 in relation to petrogenesis / The Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983. P. 116-140.
Zelenski M., Malik N., Taran Yu. Emissions of trace elements during the 2012–2013 effusive eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka: enrichment factors, partition coefficients and aerosol contribution // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. Vol. 285. P. 136 - 149. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.08.007.
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Abstract Gases and aerosols from the 2012–13 effusive eruption of Tolbachik basaltic volcano, Kamchatka, were sampled in February and May, 2013, from a lava tube window located 300 m from the eruptive crater; temperature at the sampling point was 1060–1070 °C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of the sampled gases (92.4 H2O, 3.5 CO2, 2.3 SO2 on average; δD from − 25.0 to − 38.6‰) correspond to a typical volcanic arc gas without dilution by meteoric or hydrothermal water. Halogen contents in the gases (1.37 HCl, 0.5 HF) were higher than average arc values. The total amount of analyzed metallic and metalloid (trace) elements in the gas exceeded 665 ppm. Six most abundant trace elements, K (250 ppm), Na (220 ppm), Si (74 ppm), Br (48 ppm), Cu (21 ppm) and Fe (12 ppm), accounted for 95 of the total content of trace elements in the gas. The gases contained 24 ppb Re, 12 ppb Ag, 4.9 ppb Au and 0.45 ppb Pt. Refractory rock-forming elements (Mg, Al, Ca) and some other elements such as Ba and Th were transported mainly in the form of silicate microspheres and altered rock particles. The concentrations of metals in the eruptive Tolbachik gases are higher than the corresponding concentrations in high-temperature fumaroles worldwide, although the mutual ratios of the elements are approximately the same. The gas/magma partition coefficients of eleven elements exceed unity, including the non-metals F, S, Cl, Br, As, Se and Te and the rare metals Cd, Re, Tl and Bi. Despite the relatively low concentrations of trace elements in the volcanic gases at the highest temperatures, superficial magma degassing provides information on the sources and sinks of metals.
Zelenski M., Simakin A., Taran Yu., Kamenetsky V.S., Malik N.A. Partitioning of elements between high-temperature, low-density aqueous fluid and silicate melt as derived from volcanic gas geochemistry // Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2021. Vol. 295. P. 112-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2020.12.011.
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By comparing high-quality volcanic gas and whole rock compositions, we calculated the apparent (observed) mass partition coefficients Kd* for 58 elements on six basaltic volcanoes located in arc and rift/hotspot settings. The inferred Kd* vary from � 1100 for sulfur to 0.0001 for zirconium, i.e., within seven orders of magnitude. Only 14 elements have Kd* > 1, including highly volatile S, Se, Te and halogens, as well as Tl, Re, Os, Bi, Cd, Au, In and As. Alkali metals have Kd* in the rangefrom 0.1 for Cs to 0.01 for Na. Partition coefficients of other rock-forming elements are <0.001. The partition coefficients for elements depend on element speciation and concentrations of ligand-forming elements in the gas such as sulfur and chlorine.
Elements transported in the gas predominantly as halides have higher partition coefficients in HCl-rich arc gases, whereas elements preferably forming sulfides, hydrides and free atoms, have higher Kd* in sulfur-rich, HCl-poor and reduced rift/hot-spot gases. Degassing directly from the free melt surface is negligible; deep gas passing through the erupting vent is quickly overwhelmed by the signal of low-pressure degassing. Equilibration of rising bubbles with the surrounding melt almost eliminates the difference between Kd* calculated for degassing lava flows (no connection with deep magma) and for lava lakes and open-vent volcanoes (convective mass exchange with deep magma takes place). Diffusion does not strongly affect the apparent partitioning of magmas degassing at surface. Gas bubbles growing in near-surface silicate melts at atmospheric pressure have a large density difference compared to the surrounding melt of 12–15 thousand times. This leads to the rapid expansion of such bubbles and a decrease in the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer in the melt due to its stretching around the growing bubble, which sharply decreases diffusion fractionation. As a result, the apparent partition coefficients (Kd*) for degassing basaltic volcanoes are close to the equilibrium ones (Kd) for most of the elements. The partition coefficients of volatile elements (S and Cl) calculated from the comparison of volcanic gas and rock compositions are in agreement with the values determined previously via experiments or theoretical modeling.
Zobin V.M., Gorelchik V.I. Seismicity and source parameters of earthquakes in the region of the large Tolbachik fissure eruption // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1982. Vol. 45. Vol. 2. P. 99-113. 15 p. doi:10.1007/BF02600427.
Zubov A.G., Ananyev V.V. Testing of the Titanomagnetite Method to Detect Magmatic Chamber Depth at Avachinsky Stratovolcano and Tolbachik Fissure Eruption // 10th International Conference “PROBLEMS OF GEOCOSMOS”. Book of Abstracts. St. Petersburg, Petrodvorets, October 6-10, 2014. St. Peterburg: Физфак СПбГУ. 2014. P. 81
   Annotation
Two volcanoes were tested using the titanomagnetite method in order to detect the magma chamber depth. Curie temperature of andesite tephra shows that the magmatic chamber was situated on the depth of 18±7 km under Avachinsky Volcano ~5 Ka ago, but one of the basalt-andesite tephra from Avachinsky results the chamber depth of 32±6 km ~3 Ka ago. This method applied to the lava from Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (TFE) shows a chamber depth of 47±5 km. This result is inconsistent slightly with the depth of 35±6 km obtained by our microzond analysing of element composition of titanomagnetite grains into lava sample from earlier phase of the same eruption. This two different results between TFE lava samples may occur from magma differentiation or this is a methodical or occasional error. To know true it needs a sample statistics. At present, more microzond data from Tolbachik Fissure Eruption are being analyzed.