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Satellite monitoring of the Kamchatkan active volcanoes (2014)
Girina O.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A. Satellite monitoring of the Kamchatkan active volcanoes // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proceedings of the International Conference, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, September 8-13, 2014. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 2014. P. 51-52.
Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia (2006)
Ponomareva Vera V., Melekestsev Ivan V., Dirksen Oleg V. Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. V. 158. № 1-2. P. 117-138. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.04.016.    Аннотация
On Kamchatka, detailed geologic and geomorphologic mapping of young volcanic terrains and observations on historical eruptions reveal that landslides of various scales, from small (0.001 km3) to catastrophic (up to 20–30 km3), are widespread. Moreover, these processes are among the most effective and most rapid geomorphic agents. Of 30 recently active Kamchatka volcanoes, at least 18 have experienced sector collapses, some of them repetitively. The largest sector collapses identified so far on Kamchatka volcanoes, with volumes of 20–30 km3 of resulting debris-avalanche deposits, occurred at Shiveluch and Avachinsky volcanoes in the Late Pleistocene. During the last 10,000 yr the most voluminous sector collapses have occurred on extinct Kamen' (4–6 km3) and active Kambalny (5–10 km3) volcanoes. The largest number of repetitive debris avalanches (> 10 during just the Holocene) has occurred at Shiveluch volcano. Landslides from the volcanoes cut by ring-faults of the large collapse calderas were ubiquitous. Large failures have happened on both mafic and silicic volcanoes, mostly related to volcanic activity. Orientation of collapse craters is controlled by local tectonic stress fields rather than regional fault systems.

Specific features of some debris avalanche deposits are toreva blocks — huge almost intact fragments of volcanic edifices involved in the failure; some have been erroneously mapped as individual volcanoes. One of the largest toreva blocks is Mt. Monastyr' — a ∼ 2 km3 piece of Avachinsky Somma involved in a major sector collapse 30–40 ka BP.

Long-term forecast of sector collapses on Kliuchevskoi, Koriaksky, Young Cone of Avachinsky and some other volcanoes highlights the importance of closer studies of their structure and stability.
Seismic tomography of the Pacific slab edge under Kamchatka (2009)
Jiang Guoming, Zhao Dapeng, Zhang Guibin Seismic tomography of the Pacific slab edge under Kamchatka // Tectonophysics. 2009. V. 465. № 1–4. P. 190 - 203. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.11.019.    Аннотация
We determine a 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the mantle down to 700 km depth under the Kamchatka peninsula using 678 P-wave arrival times collected from digital seismograms of 75 teleseismic events recorded by 15 portable seismic stations and 1 permanent station in Kamchatka. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly that is visible in the upper mantle and extends below the 660-km discontinuity under southern Kamchatka, while it shortens toward the north and terminates near the Aleutian–Kamchatka junction. Low-velocity anomalies are visible beneath northern Kamchatka and under the junction, which are interpreted as asthenospheric flow. A gap model without remnant slab fragment is proposed to interpret the main feature of high-V anomalies. Combining our tomographic results with other geological and geophysical evidences, we consider that the slab loss may be induced by the friction with surrounding asthenosphere as the Pacific plate rotated clockwise at about 30 Ma ago, and then it was enlarged by the slab-edge pinch-off by the asthenospheric flow and the presence of Meiji seamounts. As a result, the slab loss and the subducted Meiji seamounts have jointly caused the Pacific plate to subduct under Kamchatka with a lower dip angle near the junction, which made the Sheveluch and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes shift westward.
Seismicity observed during the precursory process and the actual eruption of Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka in 2009-2013 (2014)
Firstov P.P., Shakirova A.A. Seismicity observed during the precursory process and the actual eruption of Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka in 2009-2013 // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2014. V. 8. № 4. P. 203-217. doi: 10.1134/S0742046314040022.    Аннотация
Kizimen Volcano began to erupt in December 2010. The eruption was preceded by a precursory period of seismicity that lasted for 20 months. This paper discusses the space-time features of the precursory seismicity. We provide a brief description of this explosive and effusive eruption between December 2010 and March 2013. The eruption started with some explosive activity followed by extrusion of a viscous lava flow. The extrusion of viscous andesitic magma and the motion of the lava flow down the slope were accompanied by unusual seismicity in the form of the quasiperiodic occurrence of microearthquakes, the so-called drumbeat phenomenon. It is shown that the occurrence of a drumbeat was first recorded during the extrusion process at the volcano's summit. Subsequently, the drumbeat mode of activity was caused by the front of the viscous lava flow as it was moving down the slope. The dynamic parameters of the microearthquakes varied in accordance with the dimensions of the lava flow front. The motion of the main tongue of the lava flow (March to September 2011) gave rise to drumbeat I with energy classes of microearthquakes K = 3-5.5, while the second tongue, which was smaller than the first, produced drumbeat II with microearthquakes of K < 3 during its motion down the slope. In January 2013 we saw a phenomenon similar to the drumbeat that was recorded at the start of the eruption. This was caused by an obelisk being extruded at the volcano's summit. В© 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Seismological Studies on the Mechanism of the Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, 1975-1976 (1980)
Fedotov S.A., Gorelchik V.I., Stepanov V.V. Seismological Studies on the Mechanism of the Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, 1975-1976 // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1980. V. 43. № 1. P. 73-84.    Аннотация
Seismological observations provided consistent information on the course and mechanism of the complicated large fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano in Kamchatka from July 6, 1975 to December 10, 1976. Seismicity indicates that the initial magnesian basalts were rising ten days before the eruption from depths of more than 20 km. The formation of new feeding dykes was accompanied by earthquake swarms which decreased sharply one to two days before the opening of new eruptive fissures. The seismological data indicate that the main source of the different erupted basalts (2 km) was a vast system (diameter ca. 80 km) of hydraulically connected magma
chambers located in the lower crustal layers or in the crust-mantle transition layer.
Shiveluch volcano: seismicity, deep structure and forecasting eruptions (Kamchatka) (1997)
Gorelchik V.I., Shirokov V.A., Firstov P.P., Chubarova O.S. Shiveluch volcano: seismicity, deep structure and forecasting eruptions (Kamchatka) // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 1997. V. 78. № 1–2. P. 121 - 137. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(96)00108-4.    Аннотация
The deep structure, Wadati-Benioff zone (focal zone) geometry and the magma feeding system of Shiveluch volcano are investigated based on 1962–1994 detailed seismic surveillance. A focal zone beneath Shiveluch is dipping at an angle of 70° at depths of 100–200 km. Based on the revealed interrelations between seismicity at depths of 105–120 km and an extrusive phase of its eruptions in 1980 through 1994, it is inferred that primary magmas, periodically feeding the crustal chamber, are melted at depths of at least 100 km. An upsurge of extrusive-explosive activity at the volcano is preceded and accompanied by the increasing number and energy of both volcanic earthquakes beneath the dome and tectonic or volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the zones of NW-striking crustal faults near the volcano.The eruption of April 1993 has been the most powerful since 1964. It was successfully predicted based on interactive use of all seismic data. At the same time the influence of seismicity at depths of 105–120 km under the volcano on the style (and consequently on prediction) of its activity is decisive.
Solubility of H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids in tholeiitic basalts at pressures up to 500 MPa (2010)
Shishkina T.A., Botcharnikov R.E., Holtz F., Almeev R.R., Portnyagin M.V. Solubility of H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids in tholeiitic basalts at pressures up to 500 MPa // Chemical Geology. 2010. V. 277. № 1–2. P. 115 - 125. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.07.014.    Аннотация
The solubility of H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids in tholeiitic basalts has been investigated experimentally at temperature of 1250 °C and pressures of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa. The concentrations of dissolved H2O and CO2 have been determined using FTIR spectroscopy with an accurate calibration of the absorption coefficients for hydrogen- and carbon-bearing species using synthesized standards of the same tholeiitic composition. The absorption coefficients are 0.65 ± 0.08 and 0.69 ± 0.08 L/(mol cm) for molecular H2O and OH groups by Near-Infrared (NIR), respectively, and 68 ± 10 L/(mol cm) for bulk H2O by Mid-Infrared (MIR). The carbonate groups determined by MIR have an absorption coefficient of 317 ± 23 L/(mol cm) for the band at 1430 cm−1.The solubility of H2O in the melt in equilibrium with pure H2O fluid increases from about 2.3 ± 0.12 wt.% at 50 MPa to about 8.8 ± 0.16 wt.% at 500 MPa, whereas the concentration of CO2 increases from about 175 ± 15 to 3318 ± 276 ppm in the melts which were equilibrated with the most CO2-rich fluids (with mole fraction of CO2 in the fluid, XflCO2, from 0.70 to 0.95). In melts coexisting with H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids, the concentrations of dissolved H2O and CO2 in basaltic melt show a non-linear dependence on both total pressure and mole fraction of volatiles in the equilibrium fluid, which is in agreement with previous studies. A comparison of new experimental data with existing numerical solubility models for mixed H2O–CO2 fluids shows that the models do not adequately predict the solubility of volatiles in basaltic liquids at pressures above 200 MPa, in particular for CO2, implying that the models need to be recalibrated.

The experimental dataset presented in this study enables a quantitative interpretation of volatile concentrations in glass inclusions to evaluate the magma storage conditions and degassing paths of natural island arc basaltic systems. The experimental database covers the entire range of volatile compositions reported in the literature for natural melt inclusions in olivine from low- to mid-K basalts indicating that most melt inclusions were trapped or equilibrated at intermediate to shallow levels in magmatic systems (< 12–15 km).
Some result of seismometric investigations at the Kamchatka Volcanological Station (1960)
Gorshkov G.S. Some result of seismometric investigations at the Kamchatka Volcanological Station // Bulletin Volcanologique, organe de IAV. 1960. V. 23. V. 2. P. 121-128.
Spaceborne and field-based observations of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka from 2000-2008 (2008)
Carter A.J., Ramsey M.S., Girina O.A., Belousov A.B., Durant A., Skilling I., Wolfe A. Spaceborne and field-based observations of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka from 2000-2008 // Abstracts. AGU Fall Meeting, 14-19 December. San-Francisco, USA: AGU. 2008. doi: V43A-2140.
Spaceborne observations of the 2000 Bezymianny, Kamchatka eruption: the integration of high-resolution ASTER data into near real-time monitoring using AVHRR (2004)
Ramsey Michael, Dehn Jonathan Spaceborne observations of the 2000 Bezymianny, Kamchatka eruption: the integration of high-resolution ASTER data into near real-time monitoring using AVHRR // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2004. V. 135. № 1-2. P. 127-146. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2003.12.014.    Аннотация
Since its launch in December 1999, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has been observing over 1300 of the world's volcanoes during the day and night and at different times of the year. At the onset of an eruption, the temporal frequency of these regularly scheduled observations can be increased to as little as 1–3 days at higher latitudes. However, even this repeat time is not sufficient for near real-time monitoring, which is on the order of minutes to hours using poorer spatial resolution (>1 km/pixel) instruments. The eruption of Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatkan Peninsula, Russia) in March 2000 was detected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and also initiated an increased observation frequency for ASTER. A complete framework of the eruptive cycle from April 2000 to January 2001 was established, with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data used to monitor the large eruptions and produce the average yearly background state for the volcano. Twenty, nearly cloud-free ASTER scenes (2 days and 18 nights) show large thermal anomalies covering tens to hundreds of pixels and reveal both the actively erupting and restive (background) state of the volcano. ASTER short-wave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data were also used to validate the recovered kinetic temperatures from the larger AVHRR pixels, as well as map the volcanic products and monitor the thermal features on the summit dome and surrounding small pyroclastic flows. These anomalies increase to greater than 90 °C prior to a larger eruption sequence in October 2000. In addition, ASTER has the first multispectral spaceborne TIR capability, which allowed for the modeling of micrometer-scale surface roughness (vesicularity) on the active lava dome. Where coupled with ongoing operational monitoring programs like those at AVO, ASTER data become extremely useful in discrimination of small surface targets in addition to providing enhanced volcanic mapping capabilities.
Spatial compositional variations in Quaternary volcanic from the Northern Kuril Islands, Russia. (2011)
Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Nakagawa Mitsuhiro, Avdeiko Gennady, Rashidov V.A. Spatial compositional variations in Quaternary volcanic from the Northern Kuril Islands, Russia. // 7th Biannual workshop on JKASP 2011: Mitigating risk through international volcano, earthquake and tsunami science.. 2011, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. 2011.
Sr-Nd isotopic composition of Shiveluch volcanic massif, Kamchatka (2014)
Gorbach Natalia, Portnyagin Maxim, Hauff Folkmar Sr-Nd isotopic composition of Shiveluch volcanic massif, Kamchatka // 8-th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes, JKASP 2014. 22-26 September, 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014.
Strong Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 (2014)
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Petrova E. Strong Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 // Abstracts. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting. Yokohama, Japan: JpGU. 2014. № 00275.
Studies of secular paleomagnetic variations in Kamchatka using Holocene tephra (1984)
Nechaeva T.B., Kochegura V.V., Zubov A.G. Studies of secular paleomagnetic variations in Kamchatka using Holocene tephra // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 1984. V. 5. № 2. P. 213-218.    Аннотация
Analysis of paleomagnetic variations along parallel sections across the Holocene soil-pyroclastic cover of Ма1уĭ Semyachek Volcano in Kamchatka has shown that directions of magnetization were similar during а period of 350 — 6000 В.P. This proves that magnetization is primary and applicable for reconstruction of the history of the Earth's magnetic field. Paleomagnetic variations that occurred in the interval of 1000 — 4000 В.P. have been investigated in the contemporaneous tephra section of Klyuchevskoĭ Volcano 240 km to the north.
It is known that since some of the tephra horizons may be missing in this section owing to specific conditions of tephra deposition, а more detailed knowledge of paleomagnetic variations requires the study of two or more parallel sections.

Проведено сравнение палеовариаций магнитного поля Земли, полученных по параллельным разрезам голоценового почвенно-пирокластического чехла вулкана Малый Семячик на Камчатке. Показано, что в интервале возраста 300 — 6000 лет назад наблюдается подобие изменений направления остаточной намагниченности подтверждающее первичность этой намагниченности и пригодность ее для реконструкции истории геомагнитного поля. Палеовариации, выделенные для интервала 1000 — 4000 лет назад, прослежены в одновозрастных слоях в 240 км к северу, в разрезе тефры Ключевского вулкана.
Выяснено, что вследствие связанной со спецификой формирования отложений тефры возможности выпадения из разрезов отдельных горизонтов для получения достаточно детальной картины палеовариаций необходимо изучение двух или более параллельных разрезов.
Рис. 6, библ. 3 назв.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/275/ [связанный ресурс]
Study of the Kamchatkan active volcanoes with help of the information system VolSatView (2014)
Gordeev E.I., Lupian E.A., Girina O.A., Efremov V.Yu., Sorokin A.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Romanova I.M., Korolev S.P., Kramareva L.S. Study of the Kamchatkan active volcanoes with help of the information system VolSatView // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proceedings of the International Conference, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, September 8-13, 2014. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 2014. P. 52-53.
Surface deformation of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, recorded by GPS: The eruptions from 2005 to 2010 and long-term, long-wavelength subsidence (2013)
Grapenthin Ronni, Freymueller Jeffrey T., Serovetnikov Sergey S. Surface deformation of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, recorded by GPS: The eruptions from 2005 to 2010 and long-term, long-wavelength subsidence // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. V. 263. P. 58-74. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.11.012.    Аннотация
Since Bezymianny Volcano resumed its activity in 1956, eruptions have been frequent; recently with up to 1–2 explosive events per year. To investigate deformation related to this activity we installed a GPS network of 8 continuous and 6 campaign stations around Bezymianny. The two striking observations for 2005–2010 are (1) rapid and continuous network-wide subsidence between 8 and 12 mm/yr, which appears to affect KAMNET stations more than 40 km away where we observe 4–5 mm/yr of subsidence, and (2) only the summit station BZ09 shows slight deviations from the average motion in the north component at times of eruptions.
The network-wide subsidence cannot be explained by tectonic deformation related to the build-up of interseismic strain due to subduction of the Pacific plate. A first order model of surface loading by eruptive products of the Kluchevskoy Group of Volcanoes also explains only a fraction of the subsidence. However, a deep sill at about 30 km under Kluchevskoy that constantly discharges material fits our observations well. The sill is constrained by deep seismicity which suggests 9.5 km width, 12.7 km length, and a 13° dip-angle to the south-east. We infer a closing rate of 0.22 m/yr, which implies a volume loss of 0.027 km3/yr (0.16 m/yr and 0.019 km3/yr considering surface loading). Additional stations in the near and far field are required to uniquely resolve the spatial extent and likely partitioning of this source.
We explain the eruption related deformation at BZ09 with a very shallow reservoir, likely within Bezymianny's edifice at a depth between 0.25 km and 1.5 km with a volume change of 1–4 × 10− 4 km3. Much of the material erupted at Bezymianny may be sourced from deeper mid-crustal reservoirs with co-eruptive volume changes at or below the detection limit of the GPS network. Installation of more sensitive instruments such as tiltmeters would allow resolving of subtle co-eruptive motion.





 

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