Girina O.A., Gorbach N.V., Davydova V.O., Melnikov D.V., Manevich T.M, Manevich A.G., Demyanchuk Yu.V. The 15 March 2019 Bezymianny Volcano Explosive Eruption and Its Products // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2020. Vol. 14. № 6. P. 394-409. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0742046320060032.
Bezymianny Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka and in the world. This paper describes the preparation, behavior, products, dynamics, and the geological effect of the March 15, 2019 explosive eruption of the volcano, which was predicted 6.5 h before it began. The sequence of eruptive events was analyzed using data provided by video and satellite-based monitoring of the volcano; the quantitative characteristics for the distribution of pyroclastic deposits were obtained in the information system “Remote Monitoring of Activity of Volcanoes in Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands”. The explosions lifted ash to heights of 15 km above sea level (up to 12 km above the volcano), the eruptive cloud was moving northeastward and east from the volcano, the main ashfall area was 210 400 km2, including 15 000 km2 on land. Apart from tephra, the eruption produced pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surges covering an area of 30 km2. The total volume of explosive products is estimated as 0.1–0.2 km3. The eruptive rocks are calc-alkaline moderate-K basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 54.84–56.29 wt %), they are the most mafic among all rocks of the current Bezymianny eruption cycle.
Girina O.A., Gorbach N.V., Nuzhdaev A.A. Geological Effect of 2005 Eruptions of Sheveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Abstracts. 5rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-5). 2006. P. 43
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I. Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Russia // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proc. of the VI International Conference, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, August 7-11, 2016. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 2016. P. 29
Girina O.A., Ladygin V.М. Monogenetic cones of Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (Kamchatka, Russia) // Abstract volume of the 8th International Maar Conference. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2020. P. 56-57.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Efremov V.Yu., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Gordeev E.I., Sorokin A.A., Kramareva L.S., Uvarov I.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Burtsev M.A. The VolSatView for Satellite Monitoring and Kamchatkan Volcanoes Study // AGU Abstracts. Washington D.C.: 2018. № 358489.
Annually, from 3 to 6 Kamchatkan volcanoes produce eruptions, during which the explosions eject ash to 10-15 km a.s.l., and ash clouds spread thousands of kilometers from volcanoes. Ash clouds pose a serious threat to the modern jet aviation. Scientists of KVERT have conduct daily monitoring of Kamchatka volcanoes since 1993, to mitigate volcanic hazards to airline operations and population. Since 2014, satellite monitoring of volcanoes they carried out with the VolSatView (Remote monitoring of active volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands) (http://volcanoes.smislab.ru) IS. The system utilize all the available satellite data, weather and video observations to ensure continues monitoring and study of volcanic activity in Kamchatka. The VolSatView work with distributed information resources and computation systems. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 16-17-00042.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Petrova E.G. The Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and theirs Danger to Human Society (oral report) // JpGU - AGU Joint Meeting 2021: Virtual. 30 May - 06 July, 2021, Japan, Tokyo. 2021. № C001019.
There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In the XX-XXI centuries 17 volcanoes of Kamchatka erupted. During this time, 183 volcanic eruptions occurred, including three catastrophic eruptions (Ksudach, 1907; Bezymianny, 1956; Sheveluch, 1964). Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes were the most dangerous for human society because they produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere till 2-3 cubic kilometers of volcanic products. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruptions, the strength and wind speed, to traveled thousands of kilometers from the volcanoes for several days. Any territory of the Kamchatka Peninsula has repeatedly been exposed to ash falls, the thickness of ash in settlements was from less than 1 mm to 4-5 cm. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Kizimen, Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, Avachinsky, Kambalny were the most dangerous for air travel not only over Kamchatka, but also hundreds of kilometers away from the peninsula.
The strong explosive and effusive eruptions of Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Kizimen and the other were often accompanied by the formation of hot mud flows (lahars), which sometimes disrupted transport communications (roads, bridges) of nearby settlements.
Scientists of KVERT monitor Kamchatkan volcanoes since 1993. Thanks to satellite monitoring of volcanoes carried out by KVERT, several explosive eruptions were predicted in the XXI century, and early warnings were made to the population about possible ashfalls in settlements and about hazard to aviation.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Manevich T.M Satellite and Ground-Based Observations of Explosive Eruptions on Zhupanovsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia in 2013 and in 2014–2016 // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2018. Vol. 12. № 1. P. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0742046318010049.
The active andesitic Zhupanovsky Volcano consists of four coalesced stratovolcano cones. The historical explosive eruptions of 1940, 1957, and 2014‒2016 discharged material from the Priemysh Cone. The recent Zhupanovsky eruptions were studied using satellite data supplied by the Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Kamchatka and on the Kuril Islands information system (VolSatView), as well as based on video and visual observations of the volcano. The first eruption started on October 22 and lasted until October 24, 2013. Fumaroles situated on the Priemysh western slope were the centers that discharged gas plumes charged with some amount of ash. The next eruption started on June 6, 2014 and lasted until November 20, 2016. The explosive activity of Zhupanovsky was not uniform in 2014–2016, with the ash plumes being detected on satellite images for an approximate total duration of 112 days spread over 17 months. The most vigorous activity was observed between June and October, and in November 2014, with a bright thermal anomaly being nearly constantly seen on satellite images around Priemysh between January and April 2015 and in January–February 2016. The 2014–2016 eruption culminated in explosive events and collapse of parts of the Priemysh Cone on July 12 and 14, November 30, 2015, and on February 12 and November 20, 2016.