Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Melnikov Dmitry Observations on lava, snowpack and their interactions during the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption, Klyuchevskoy Group, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 107 - 119. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.010.
Abstract Observations made during January and April 2013 show that interactions between lava flows and snowpack during the 2012–13 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka, Russia, were controlled by different styles of emplacement and flow velocities. `A`a lava flows and sheet lava flows generally moved on top of the snowpack with few immediate signs of interaction besides localized steaming. However, lavas melted through underlying snowpack 1–4 m thick within 12 to 24 h, and melt water flowed episodically from the beneath flows. Pahoehoe lava lobes had lower velocities and locally moved beneath/within the snowpack; even there the snow melting was limited. Snowpack responses were physical, including compressional buckling and doming, and thermal, including partial and complete melting. Maximum lava temperatures were up to 1355 K (1082 °C; type K thermal probes), and maximum measured meltwater temperatures were 335 K (62.7 °C). Theoretical estimates for rates of rapid (e.g., radiative) and slower (conductive) snowmelt are consistent with field observations showing that lava advance was fast enough for `a`a and sheet flows to move on top of the snowpack. At least two styles of physical interactions between lava flows and snowpack observed at Tolbachik have not been previously reported: migration of lava flows beneath the snowpack, and localized phreatomagmatic explosions caused by snowpack failure beneath lava. The distinctive morphologies of sub-snowpack lava flows have a high preservation potential and can be used to document snowpack emplacement during eruptions.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna Introduction to the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 1 - 2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.001.
Egorova I.A. Age and Paleogeography of Formation of Volcano-Sedimentary Deposits in the Uzon-Geizernaya Caldera Depression, Kamchatka (According to Palynological Data) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1993. Vol. 15. № 2. P. 157-176.
Based on thepalynological studies, the age dismembering is made of volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits in the Uzon-Geysernaya Caldera Depression. The paleogeographical setting of the time of sedimentation is described. The age of deposits was established to be Late Pleitocene-Holocene. The dating was made of the main events of the post-caldera volcanic activity in the Uzon Caldera.
Falvard S., Paris R., Belousova M., Belousov A., Giachetti T., Cuven S. Scenario of the 1996 volcanic tsunamis in Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka, inferred from X-ray tomography of heavy minerals in tsunami deposits // Marine Geology. 2018. № 396. P. 160-170.
Fazlullin S.M., Ushakov S.V., Shuvalov R.A., Aoki M., Nikolaeva A.G., Lupikina E.G. The 1996 subaqueous eruption at Academii Nauk volcano (Kamchatka) and its effects on Karymsky lake // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2000. Vol. 97. № 1–4. P. 181 - 193. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00160-2.
A subaqueous eruption in Karymsky lake in the Academii Nauk caldera dramatically changed its water column structure, water chemistry and biological system in less than 24 h, sending major floodwaves down the discharging river and eruption plumes with ash and gases high into the atmosphere. Prior to the eruption, the lake had a pH of about 7, was dominated by bicarbonate, and well stocked with fish, but turned in early 1996 into a stratified, initially steaming waterbody, dominated by sulfate with high Na and K levels, and devoid of fish. Blockage of the outlet led to rising waterlevels, followed by dam breakage and catastrophic water discharge. The total energy input during the eruption is estimated at about 1016 J. The stable isotope composition of the lake water remained dominated by the meteoric meltwaters after the eruption.
Fedotov S.A. Crustal Deformations Related to the Formation of New Tolbachik Volcanoes in 1975-1976, Kamchatka // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1980. Vol. 43. № 1. P. 35-46.
The paper discusses the results of geodetic investigations performed in the region of the large 1975-1976 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka. Using data from repeated triangu-lation and trigonometric levelings, horizontal and vertical displacements have been detected in an area of 3,500 km2. Two zones have been recognized: the tension and uplift zone that is probably due to magma intrusion from depths to the surface along the line of new cones and the extensive compensative subsidence zone located at a distance of 20-50 km from the nearest newly-formed cones.??Measurements made with small distance measuring device showed the dynamics of feeding basalt dykes intrusion and made it possible to determine their width (a little greater than 1 m) and magma and gas overpressure (50-250 bar). Data have been obtained on dimensions and growth of cones and on vertical ground deformation in the area of new cones during and after the eruption.??
Fedotov S.A. Enterance magma temperature, formation, dimensions and evolution of magma chambers of volcanoes // Arc Volcanism: Physics and Tectonics. Proceedings of a 1981 IAVCEI Symposium, Arc Volcanism, August-September, 1981, Tokyo and Hakone. Tokyo: Terra Scientific Publishing Co. 1981. P. 90
Fedotov S.A. Eruption Forecasting of Volcanoes in Kamchatka and Kurile Islands // Kagoshima International Conference on Volcanoes: Proceedings of the International Conference on Volcanoes, Japan, Kagoshima, 19-23 July 1988. Kagoshima: Kagoshima Prefectural Government. 1988. P. 172-178.
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