Sheveluch Volcano. Bibliography
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Dirksen O., Humphreys M.C.S., Pletchov P., Melnik O., Demyanchuk Y., Sparks R.S.J., Mahony S. The 2001–2004 dome-forming eruption of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka: Observation, petrological investigation and numerical modelling // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. Vol. 155. № 3–4. P. 201 - 226. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.03.029.
   Annotation
There have been three episodes of lava dome growth at Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka since the Plinian explosive eruption in 1964. The episodes in 1980–1981, 1993–1995 and 2001–2004 have discharged at least 0.27 km3 of silicic andesite magma. A time-averaged mean extrusion rate of 0.2 m3/s is thus estimated for the last 40 years. Here the 2001–2004 activity is described and compared with the earlier episodes. The recent activity involved three pulses in extrusion rate and a transition to ongoing lava extrusion. Estimated magma temperatures are in the range 830 to 900 °C, with 850 °C as the best estimate, using the plagioclase−amphibole phenocryst assemblage and Fe−Ti oxides. Melt inclusions in amphibole and plagioclase have maximum water contents of 5.1 wt.%, implying a minimum pressure of ∼ 155 MPa for water-saturated conditions. The magma chamber depth is estimated to be about 5–6 km or more, a result consistent with geophysical data. The thicknesses of opx–mt–amph reaction rims on olivine xenocrysts are used to estimate the residence time of olivine crystals in the shallow chamber in the range 2 months to 4 years, suggesting replenishment of deeper magma into the shallow chamber contemporaneous with eruption. The absence of decompression-driven breakdown rims around amphiboles indicates ascent times of less than 7 days. Volcanological observations of the start of the 2001–2004 episode suggest approximately 16 days for the ascent time and a conduit equivalent to a cylinder of diameter approximately 53–71 m. Application of a conduit flow model indicates that the magma chamber was replenished during the 2001–2004 eruption, consistent with the results of olivine reaction rims, and that the chamber has an estimated volume of order 7 km3.
Dirksen O., van den Bogaard C., Danhara T., Diekmann B. Tephrochronological investigation at Dvuh-yurtochnoe lake area, Kamchatka: Numerous landslides and lake tsunami, and their environmental impacts // Quaternary International. 2011. Vol. 246. № 1-2. P. 298 - 311. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2011.08.032.
   Annotation
Distal volcanic tephras in soil sections and lake sediments in the Dvuh-yurtochnoe (Two-Yurts) lake area, central Kamchatka, were investigated in order to provide a chronological framework for the reconstruction of late Quaternary landscape development. Mineralogical and geochemical data point to sources from 5 volcanoes. Ten tephra layers were identified and correlated to known eruptive events. The ages were corroborated by radiocarbon dating of the soil sections around Two-Yurts lake. These findings allow the reconstruction of regional paleoenvironmental change, recorded in the soil sections around Two-Yurts lake. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) time, the area was affected by glacial advances that produced the glacial moraines at the eastern outlet of the lake. A large landslide, ca. 15,000–18,000 14C BP, dammed the valley and led to formation of Two-Yurts lake. Several more landslide events can be recognized in the Holocene, and one affected Two-Yurts lake ca. 3000 14C BP. This event produced a “tsunami”, documented by poorly sorted deposits with rounded pebbles in the onshore sections around the lake. In contrast to the soil sections, tephras buried in the “soupy” lacustrine sediments of Two-Yurts lake are not well preserved and show inconsistent age-depth relationships compared to those suggested by radiocarbon dating, due to sinking through the lake sediments. Nevertheless, tephrochronological data revealed the strong impact of terrestrial landslides on lake sedimentation.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Erster Teil. Historischer Bericht nach den Tagebüchern. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1890. 257 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1890 erschienene erste Teil seines Werkes enthält den ausführlichen Bericht seiner Reise nach den Tagebüchern, ein getrennt erscheinender zweiter Teil die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Zweiter Teil. Allgemeines über Kamtschatka. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1900. 273 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1900 erschienene zweite Teil seines Werkes enthält die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas sowie ein geografisches Lexikon.
Fedotov S.A., Ivanov B.V., Dvigalo V.N., Kirsanov I.T., Muravyev Y.D., Ovsyannikov A.A., Razina A.A., Seliverstov N.I., Stepanov V.V., Khrenov A.P., Chirkov A.M. Activity of the Volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands // Volcanology and Seismology. 1989. Vol. 7. № 5. P. 647-682.
Felitsyn S.B., Kirianov V.Yu. Areal variability of tephra composition as indicated by bulk silicate analysis data // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 9. № 1. P. 1-20.
Gavrilenko M., Herzberg C., Vidito C., Carr M., Tenner T., Ozerov A. A Calcium-in-Olivine Geohygrometer and its Application to Subduction Zone Magmatism // Journal of Petrology. 2016. Vol. 57. № 9. P. 1811-1832. doi:10.1093/petrology/egw062.
   Annotation
High-precision electron microprobe analyses were obtained on olivine grains from Klyuchevskoy, Shiveluch and Gorely volcanoes in the Kamchatka Arc; Irazu, Platanar and Barva volcanoes of the Central American Arc; and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) from the Siqueiros Transform. Calcium contents of these subduction zone olivines are lower than those for olivines from modern MORB, Archean komatiite and Hawaii. A role for magmatic H2O is likely for subduction zone olivines, and we have explored the suggestion of earlier workers that it has affected the partitioning of CaO between olivine and silicate melt. We provide a provisional calibration of DCaO Ol/L as a function of magmatic MgO and H2O, based on nominally anhydrous experiments and minimally degassed H2O contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Application of our geohygrometer typically yields 3–4 wt % magmatic H2O at the Kamchatka and Central American arcs for olivines having 1000 ppm Ca, which agrees with H2O maxima from melt inclusion studies; Cerro Negro and Shiveluch volcanoes are exceptions, with about 6% H2O. High-precision electron microprobe analyses with 10–20 lm spatial resolution on some olivine grains from Klyuchevskoy and Shiveluch show a decrease in Ca content from the core centers to the rim contacts, and a sharp increase in Ca in olivine rims. We suggest that the zoning of Ca in olivine from subduction zone lavas may provide the first petrological record of temporal changes that occur during hydration of the mantle wedge and dehydration during ascent, and we predict olivine H2O contents that can be tested by secondary ionization mass spectrometry analysis.
Girina O.A., Chubarova O.S., Senyukov S.L. The Recent Activity of Sheveluch Volcano // Abstracts. 3rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-3). Fairbanks. June 2002. 2002. P. 121-122.
Girina O.A., Gorbach N.V., Nuzhdaev A.A. Geological Effect of 2005 Eruptions of Sheveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Abstracts. 5rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Japan-Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-5). 2006. P. 43
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.