Opala Volcano. Bibliography
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Records: 50
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Ponomareva Vera V., Melekestsev Ivan V., Dirksen Oleg V. Sector collapses and large landslides on Late Pleistocene–Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. Vol. 158. № 1-2. P. 117-138. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.04.016.    Annotation
On Kamchatka, detailed geologic and geomorphologic mapping of young volcanic terrains and observations on historical eruptions reveal that landslides of various scales, from small (0.001 km3) to catastrophic (up to 20–30 km3), are widespread. Moreover, these processes are among the most effective and most rapid geomorphic agents. Of 30 recently active Kamchatka volcanoes, at least 18 have experienced sector collapses, some of them repetitively. The largest sector collapses identified so far on Kamchatka volcanoes, with volumes of 20–30 km3 of resulting debris-avalanche deposits, occurred at Shiveluch and Avachinsky volcanoes in the Late Pleistocene. During the last 10,000 yr the most voluminous sector collapses have occurred on extinct Kamen' (4–6 km3) and active Kambalny (5–10 km3) volcanoes. The largest number of repetitive debris avalanches (> 10 during just the Holocene) has occurred at Shiveluch volcano. Landslides from the volcanoes cut by ring-faults of the large collapse calderas were ubiquitous. Large failures have happened on both mafic and silicic volcanoes, mostly related to volcanic activity. Orientation of collapse craters is controlled by local tectonic stress fields rather than regional fault systems.

Specific features of some debris avalanche deposits are toreva blocks — huge almost intact fragments of volcanic edifices involved in the failure; some have been erroneously mapped as individual volcanoes. One of the largest toreva blocks is Mt. Monastyr' — a ∼ 2 km3 piece of Avachinsky Somma involved in a major sector collapse 30–40 ka BP.

Long-term forecast of sector collapses on Kliuchevskoi, Koriaksky, Young Cone of Avachinsky and some other volcanoes highlights the importance of closer studies of their structure and stability.
Siebert L., Simkin T., Kimberly P. Volcanoes of the World. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2010. 568 p.    Annotation
This impressive scientific resource presents up-to-date information on ten thousand years of volcanic activity on Earth. In the decade and a half since the previous edition was published new studies have refined assessments of the ages of many volcanoes, and several thousand new eruptions have been documented. This edition updates the book's key components: a directory of volcanoes active during the Holocene; a chronology of eruptions over the past ten thousand years; a gazetteer of volcano names, synonyms, and subsidiary features; an extensive list of references; and an introduction placing these data in context. This edition also includes new photographs, data on the most common rock types forming each volcano, information on population densities near volcanoes, and other features, making it the most comprehensive source available on Earth's dynamic volcanism.
VONA/KVERT Information Releases. 2005.
Volcano observatory notification to aviation (VONA/KVERT). 2011.
Zaretskaya N.E., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitsky L.D. Radiocarbon dating of large Holocene volcanic events within South Kamchatka (Russian Far East) // Radiocarbon. 2007. Vol. 49. № 2. P. 1065-1078.    Annotation
Radiocarbon dating is widely used when studying recent volcanic activity in the Kamchatka Peninsula due to the abundance of organic matter that is associated with the volcanic deposits. Here, we present the results of 14C dating of major volcanic events within the active South Kamchatka volcanic zone. South Kamchatka includes 8 recently active volcanic centers (stratovolcanoes, calderas, and large craters) that have been erupting during the Holocene. Their tephras represent useful markers for both the southern part of the peninsula and the Northern Kurile Islands. Since these marker tephra layers facilitate stratigraphic and tephrochronological studies in this area, it was important to determine their ages. We have obtained 73 new individual 14C dates on paleosol, peat, charcoal, and wood associated with the marker tephra layers, then complemented these data with 37 earlier published dates and analyzed the resulting data set. We selected the reliable dates and then obtained average 14C ages of marker tephra layers. The details of these procedures, as well as brief descriptions of South Kamchatka Holocene eruptions and their tephra beds, are presented in the paper.
Zubov A.G., Kirianov V.Yu., Hughes S.R., Kurbatov A. To use of thermomagnetic parameters to identify tephra // AGU Meeting-99. Abstracts., 1999 г. 1999.    Annotation
О возможности использования термомагнитных параметров для идентификации вулканических пеплов
Апродов В.А. Вулканы. М.: Мысль. 1982. 367 с.    Annotation
Справочник содержит характеристику около трех тысяч вулканов земного шара, сгруппированных по вулканическим поясам и другим районам проявления вулканизма. Этим поясам и районам предшествует их общая геолого-географическая характеристика. Сведения о вулканах включают географическое положение, морфологию, геологическую структуру, активность и т.д. Книга рассчитана не только на специалистов, но и на более широкий круг читателей.
Базанова Л.И., Брайцева О.А., Дирксен О.В., Сулержицкий Л.Д., Данхара Т. Пеплопады крупнейших голоценовых извержений на траверсе Усть-Большерецк - Петропавловск-Камчатский: источники, хронология, частота // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2005. № 6. С. 30-46.
Влодавец В.И. Вулканы Советского Союза / Отв. ред. Головко И.Г. М.: Гос. изд-во географической литературы. 1949. 164 с.    Annotation
Среди разнообразных явлений природы вулканическая деятельность во все времена особо привлекала внимание человека. Мощные, величественные, порой мрачные, иногда грозные, но всегда прекрасные, а в древности мало или совсем непонятные картины вулканических извержений производили на людей всегда сильное впечатление. И неудивительно поэтому, что деятельность вулканов вызывала в человеке, с одной стороны, безотчетную тревогу, а с другой — поэтическое восхищение.
Люди различно воспринимают деятельность вулканов. Одни видят в них величественные и грозные явления природы, другие интересуются ими с точки зрения внешней красоты проявления внутренних сил земли, третьих поражает мощь вулканических сил, а четвертые стремятся разобраться во всех вулканических явлениях и выявить причины их— познать их.
Влодавец В.И., Пийп Б.И. Каталог действующих вулканов Камчатки // Бюллетень вулканологических станций. 1957. № 25. С. 5-95.    Annotation
"Каталог действующих вулканов Камчатки" является сводкой наших знаний на 1 января 1957 г. по действующим вулканам Камчатки.

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