Sheveluch Volcano. Bibliography
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Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Horváth Á, Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bril A.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Kramareva L.S., Sorokin A.A. Analysis of the Development of the Paroxysmal Eruption of the Sheveluch Volcano on April 10–13, 2023, Based on Data from Various Satellite Systems // Cosmic Research. 2023. Vol. 61. Vol. 1. P. S182-S187. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0010952523700533.
   Annotation
The Sheveluch volcano is the most active volcano in Kamchatka. The paroxysmal explosive eruption of the volcano that destroyed the lava dome in the volcanic crater continued on April 10–13, 2023. According to various satellite data, the height of the separate eruptive clouds probably exceeded 15 km above sea level. A powerful cyclone, which dominated the entire Kamchatka Peninsula, pulled the eruptive cloud to the west, turned it to the south, stretched it to the north, and directed it to the east from the volcano. The dynamics of the development of ash and aerosol clouds of this eruption is reflected in the animations made from a series of Himawari-9 satellite images in the VolSatView IS from 08:00 UTC on April 10 to 07:00 UTC on April 14 (http://d33.infospace.ru/jr_d33/materials/2023v20n2/283-291/1683110898.webm) and of the Arctica-M1 satellite from 16:00 to 21:30 UTC on April 10 (http://d33.infospace.ru/jr_d33/materials/2023v20n2/283-291/1683821166.webm). It was noted that the eruptive column was not vertical: for example, at the initial moment of the eruption on April 10 at 13:20 UTC, it deviated to the north–northeast; on April 11, at 12:00 UTC to the northwest; and, on April 12, at 7:00 UTC to the southwest. During the paroxysmal eruption, sulfur dioxide continuously entered the atmosphere, the maximum amount of which was released on April 10–11, as a result of the explosive destruction of the lava dome of the Sheveluch volcano. Ash clouds along with aerosol clouds on April 10–13 were stretched into a strip more than 3500 km long from west to northeast. On April 21–22, the Sheveluch aerosol cloud was observed in the region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The total area of the territory of Kamchatka and the Pacific Ocean where ash and aerosol plumes and clouds were observed during the April 10–13 eruption was about 3280000 km2. The paroxysmal eruption of Sheveluch volcano belongs to the sub-Plinian type because it is characterized by a large height of the eruptive cloud and a long event duration. For this eruption, the Volcanic Explosivity Index is estimated to be 3–4. A detailed description of the paroxysmal explosive eruption of the Sheveluch volcano and the spread of the eruptive cloud was performed based on data from various satellite systems (Himawari-9, NOAA-18/19, GOES-18, Terra, Aqua, JPSS-1, Suomi NPP, Arctica-M1, etc.) in the information system “Remote Monitoring of Kamchatka and Kuril Islands Volcanic Activity” (VolSatView, http://kamchatka.volcanoes.smislab.ru).
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Petrova E.G. The Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and theirs Danger to Human Society (oral report) // JpGU - AGU Joint Meeting 2021: Virtual. 30 May - 06 July, 2021, Japan, Tokyo. 2021. № C001019.
   Annotation
There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In the XX-XXI centuries 17 volcanoes of Kamchatka erupted. During this time, 183 volcanic eruptions occurred, including three catastrophic eruptions (Ksudach, 1907; Bezymianny, 1956; Sheveluch, 1964). Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes were the most dangerous for human society because they produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere till 2-3 cubic kilometers of volcanic products. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruptions, the strength and wind speed, to traveled thousands of kilometers from the volcanoes for several days. Any territory of the Kamchatka Peninsula has repeatedly been exposed to ash falls, the thickness of ash in settlements was from less than 1 mm to 4-5 cm. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Kizimen, Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, Avachinsky, Kambalny were the most dangerous for air travel not only over Kamchatka, but also hundreds of kilometers away from the peninsula.
The strong explosive and effusive eruptions of Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Kizimen and the other were often accompanied by the formation of hot mud flows (lahars), which sometimes disrupted transport communications (roads, bridges) of nearby settlements.
Scientists of KVERT monitor Kamchatkan volcanoes since 1993. Thanks to satellite monitoring of volcanoes carried out by KVERT, several explosive eruptions were predicted in the XXI century, and early warnings were made to the population about possible ashfalls in settlements and about hazard to aviation.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Romanova I.M., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bartalev S.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Uvarov I.A., Korolev S.P., Malkovsky S.I., Kramareva L.S. Information Technologies for the Analyzing of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands Volcanoes Activity in 2019-2020 // Short Paper Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Information Technologies and High-Performance Computing (ITHPC 2021), Khabarovsk, Russia, September 14-16, 2021. Khabarovsk: CEUR-WS.org. 2021. Vol. 2930. P. 112-118.
   Annotation
The work is devoted to the activity analysis of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes in 2019-2020.The activity of the volcanoes was estimated based on the processing of data from daily satellite monitoring carried out using the information system “Remote monitoring of Kamchatkan and the Kuriles volcanoes activity (VolSatView)”. The activity of the Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes considered based on the analysis of their thermal anomalies. Analysis of the characteristics of thermal anomalies over volcanoes was carried out in KVERT IS. Analysis of the temperature of thermal anomalies of volcanoes in the Kuril - Kamchatka region in 2019-2020 shows a significantly higher activity of the Kamchatka volcanoes in comparison with the Kuril volcanoes.
Girina O.A., Malkovsky S.I., Sorokin A.A., Loupian E.A., Korolev S.P. Numerical Modeling of the Ash Cloud Movement from the Catastrophic Eruption of the Sheveluch Volcano in November 1964 // Remote Sensing. 2022. Вып. 14. № 3449. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143449.
   Annotation
This paper reconstructs, for the first time, the motion dynamics of an eruptive cloud formed during the catastrophic eruption of the Sheveluch volcano in November 1964 (Volcanic Explosivity Index 4+). This became possible due to the public availability of atmospheric reanalysis data from the ERA-40 archive of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the development of numerical modeling of volcanic ash cloud propagation. The simulation of the eruptive cloud motion process, which was carried out using the FALL3D and PUFF models, made it possible to clarify the sequence of events of this eruption (destruction of extrusive domes in the crater and the formation of an eruptive column and pyroclastic flows), which lasted only 1 h 12 min. During the eruption, the ash cloud consisted of two parts: the main eruptive cloud that rose up to 15,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.), and the co-ignimbrite cloud that formed above the moving pyroclastic flows. The ashfall in Ust-Kamchatsk (Kamchatka) first occurred out of the eruptive cloud moving at a higher speed, then out of the co-ignimbrite cloud. In Nikolskoye (Bering Island, Commander Islands), ash fell only out of the co-ignimbrite cloud. Under the turbulent diffusion, the forefront of the main eruptive cloud rose slowly in the atmosphere and reached 16,500 m a.s.l. by 04:07 UTC on November 12. Three days after the eruption began, the eruptive cloud stretched for 3000 km over the territories of the countries of Russia, Canada, the USA, Mexico, and over both the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It is assumed that the well-known long-term decrease in the solar radiation intensity in the northern latitudes from 1963–1966, which was established according to the world remote sensing data, was associated with the spread of aerosol clouds formed not only by the Agung volcano, but those formed during the 1964 Sheveluch volcano catastrophic eruption
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Loupian E.A., Uvarov I.A., Korolev S.P., Sorokin A.A., Romanova I.M., Kramareva L.S., Burtsev M.A. Monitoring the Thermal Activity of Kamchatkan Volcanoes during 2015–2022 Using Remote Sensing // Remote Sensing. 2023. Vol. 15. Vol. 19. № 4775. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15194775.
   Annotation
The powerful explosive eruptions with large volumes of volcanic ash pose a great danger to the population and jet aircraft. Global experience in monitoring volcanoes and observing changes in the parameters of their thermal anomalies is successfully used to analyze the activity of volcanoes and predict their danger to the population. The Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, with its 30 active volcanoes, is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world. The article considers the thermal activity in 2015–2022 of the Klyuchevskoy, Sheveluch, Bezymianny, and Karymsky volcanoes, whose rock composition varies from basaltic andesite to dacite. This study is based on the analysis of the Value of Temperature Difference between the thermal Anomaly and the Background (the VTDAB), obtained by manual processing of the AVHRR, MODIS, VIIRS, and MSU-MR satellite data in the VolSatView information system. Based on the VTDAB data, the following “background activity of the volcanoes” was determined: 20 °C for Sheveluch and Bezymianny, 12 °C for Klyuchevskoy, and 13–15 °C for Karymsky. This study showed that the highest temperature of the thermal anomaly corresponds to the juvenile magmatic material that arrived on the earth’s surface. The highest VTDAB is different for each volcano; it depends on the composition of the eruptive products produced by the volcano and on the character of an eruption. A joint analysis of the dynamics of the eruption of each volcano and changes in its thermal activity made it possible to determine the range of the VTDAB for different phases of a volcanic eruption.
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Malik N.A., Melnikov D.V., Ushakov S.V., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Kotenko L.V. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka and Northern Kurils in 2005 // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2007. Vol. 1. № 4. P. 237-247. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0742046307040021.
   Annotation
In 2005, six major eruptions of four Kamchatka volcanoes (Bezymyannyi, Klyuchevskoy, Shiveluch, and Karymskii) occurred and the Avachinskii, Mutnovskii, and Gorelyi Kamchatka volcanoes and the Ebeko and Chikurachki volcanoes in northern Kurils were in a state of increased activity. Owing to a close collaboration between the KVERT project, Elizovo airport meteorological center, and volcanic ash advisory centers in Tokyo, Anchorage, and Washington (Tokyo, Anchorage, and Washington VAACs), all necessary measures for safe airplane flights near Kamchatka were taken and fatal accidents related to volcanic activity did not occur.
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E. Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and Danger to Aviation // Geophysical Research Abstracts. EGU2015-3174. // EGU2015-3174, Vienna, Austria, 2015. Vienna, Austria: EGU General Assembly 2015. 2015. Vol. 17.
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Petrova E. Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 and Danger to Aviation // EGU2014. Abstracts. Vienna, Austria: 2014. P. 1468
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V. Activity of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2012-2013 and Danger to Aviation // Abstracts. International Workshop “JKASP-8”. Sapporo. Japan. September 22-26. 2014. 2014.
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Petrova E. Strong Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 // Abstracts. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting. Yokohama, Japan: JpGU. 2014. № 00275.