Mutnovsky Volcano. Bibliography
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Belousov Vladimir, Belousova Irina, Khubaeva Olga Long-lived Volcanic Centers of Kamchatka Geothermal Areas // World Geothermal Congress 2020+1. Reykjavik, Iceland: 2020. С. 1-8.    Annotation
The current problems of hydrothermal processes and ore-forming systems are volcanic heat sources and mechanisms of heat
transfer. In Pauzhetsky, Semyachik and Mutnovsky geothermal areas in Kamchatka, active long-lived volcanic centers have been
studied, with which high-temperature hydrothermal systems are associated. In the Banno-Paratunsky geothermal area the Paleogene
and Neogene long-lived volcanic centers were identified, with which low-temperature hydrothermal systems are associated. The
geological history of the long-lived volcanic centers development is characterized by changes in their structure as a result of
hydrothermal-magmatic activity. These changes are manifested in the generation and evolution of magma chambers in the mantle
and in the Earth’s crust. Basalt melts of the mantle chambers transport the deep heat to the Earth’s surface through plane magmatic
channels without significant losses. The heat flow of these volcanic centers is short-lived and is characterized by a significant
capacity of ~8,000 kcal/km2s. The long-lived volcanic centers are characterized by the presence of magma chambers in the Earth's
crust. They shield the part of the mantle heat flow. Their thermal capacity on the Earth's surface is estimated from 1000 kcal/km2s
to 5000 kcal/km2s. It is assumed that a significant amount of thermal energy is retained in the long-lived volcanic centers. It is
spent on formation and activity of the chambers as well as the convective hydrothermal ore-forming systems. The evolution of such
centers is accompanied by the formation of complexes of metamorphic rocks which interaction with high-temperature mantle melts
is accompanied by redox reactions like combustion. As a result of these reactions, thermal energy is produced in such magma
chambers. A long-lived jet magmatic system is formed, and it provides the transfer of mantle heat. Heat transfer in the system is
accompanied by minimization of heat losses, accumulation of heat and its additional generation which is necessary for the heat
transfer in the structures with low thermal conductivity. The formation, evolution and extinction of magma chambers and reservoirs
in such heat-conducting structures are controlled by the thermophysical properties of the rocks, their geological structure and redox processes in them.
Bessonova E.P., Bortnikova S.B., Gora M.P., Manstein Yu.A., Shevko A.Ya., Panin G.L., Manstein A.K. Geochemical and geo-electrical study of mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano (South Kamchatka, Russia): Behavior of elements, structures of feeding channels and a model of origin // Applied Geochemistry. 2012. Vol. 27. № 9. P. 1829 - 1843. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.02.018.    Annotation
This study presents data on the geochemical composition of boiling mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano. The physicochemical characteristics of the pools and the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in pool solutions vary widely. A comparison of the geochemical compositions of host rocks and solutions indicates that leaching from rocks is not the only source of chemicals in thermal solutions. Geophysical studies reveal the inner structure of thermal fields, which reflect the shapes of the underground reservoirs and feed channels. Using geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and frequency domain investigations), it was shown that the vertical structure and complex geochemical zonation of the feed channels leads to a high contrast in the compositions of the mud solutions. These findings answer questions about the origin and composition of surface manifestations. To elucidate the mechanisms of solution formation, an attempt was made to describe the magmatic fluid evolution and the resulting mixing of waters by physical and mathematical models. The model illustrates fluid migration from a magma chamber to the surface. It is shown that the formation of brines corresponding to the mud pool composition is possible during secondary boiling.
Braitseva Olga A., Ponomareva Vera V., Sulerzhitsky Leopold D., Melekestsev Ivan V., Bailey John Holocene Key-Marker Tephra Layers in Kamchatka, Russia // Quaternary Research. 1997. Vol. 47. № 2. P. 125-139. doi:10.1006/qres.1996.1876.    Annotation
Detailed tephrochronological studies in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, permitted documentation of 24 Holocene key-marker tephra layers related to the largest explosive eruptions from 11 volcanic centers. Each layer was traced for tens to hundreds of kilometers away from the source volcano; its stratigraphic position, area of dispersal, age, characteristic features of grain-size distribution, and chemical and mineral composition confirmed its identification. The most important marker tephra horizons covering a large part of the peninsula are (from north to south; ages given in 14C yr B.P.) SH2(≈1000 yr B.P.) and SH3(≈1400 yr B.P.) from Shiveluch volcano; KZ (≈7500 yr B.P.) from Kizimen volcano; KRM (≈7900 yr B.P.) from Karymsky caldera; KHG (≈7000 yr B.P.) from Khangar volcano; AV1(≈3500 yr B.P.), AV2(≈4000 yr B.P.), AV4(≈5500 yr B.P.), and AV5(≈5600 yr B.P.) from Avachinsky volcano; OP (≈1500 yr B.P.) from the Baraniy Amfiteatr crater at Opala volcano; KHD (≈2800 yr B.P.) from the “maar” at Khodutka volcano; KS1(≈1800 yr B.P.) and KS2(≈6000 yr B.P.) from the Ksudach calderas; KSht3(A.D. 1907) from Shtyubel cone in Ksudach volcanic massif; and KO (≈7700 yr B.P.) from the Kuril Lake-Iliinsky caldera. Tephra layers SH5(≈2600 yr B.P.) from Shiveluch volcano, AV3(≈4500 yr B.P.) from Avachinsky volcano, OPtr(≈4600 yr B.P.) from Opala volcano, KS3(≈6100 yr B.P.) and KS4(≈8800 yr B.P.) from Ksudach calderas, KSht1(≈1100 yr B.P.) from Shtyubel cone, and ZLT (≈4600 yr B.P.) from Iliinsky volcano cover smaller areas and have local stratigraphic value, as do the ash layers from the historically recorded eruptions of Shiveluch (SH1964) and Bezymianny (B1956) volcanoes. The dated tephra layers provide a record of the most voluminous explosive events in Kamchatka during the Holocene and form a tephrochronological timescale for dating and correlating various deposits.
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Romanova I.M., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bartalev S.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Uvarov I.A., Korolev S.P., Malkovsky S.I., Kramareva L.S. Information Technologies for the Analyzing of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands Volcanoes Activity in 2019-2020 // Short Paper Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Information Technologies and High-Performance Computing (ITHPC 2021), Khabarovsk, Russia, September 14-16, 2021. Khabarovsk: 2021. Vol. 2930. P. 112-118.    Annotation
The work is devoted to the activity analysis of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes in 2019-2020.The activity of the volcanoes was estimated based on the processing of data from daily satellite monitoring carried out using the information system “Remote monitoring of Kamchatkan and the Kuriles volcanoes activity (VolSatView)”. The activity of the Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes considered based on the analysis of their thermal anomalies. Analysis of the characteristics of thermal anomalies over volcanoes was carried out in KVERT IS. Analysis of the temperature of thermal anomalies of volcanoes in the Kuril - Kamchatka region in 2019-2020 shows a significantly higher activity of the Kamchatka volcanoes in comparison with the Kuril volcanoes.
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Petrova E. Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 and Danger to Aviation // EGU2014. Abstracts. Vienna, Austria: 2014. P. 1468
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V. Activity of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2012-2013 and Danger to Aviation // Abstracts. International Workshop “JKASP-8”. Sapporo. Japan. September 22-26. 2014. 2014.
Global Volcanism Program. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.9.1 (17 Sep 2020). 2013. doi: 10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013.
Gusev A.A., Ponomareva V.V., Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Sulerzhitsky L.D. Great explosive eruptions on Kamchatka during the last 10,000 years: Self-similar irregularity of the output of volcanic products // Journal of Geophysical Research. 2003. Vol. 108. № B2. doi:10.1029/2001JB000312.    Annotation
Temporal irregularity of the output of volcanic material is studied for the sequence of large (V ≥ 0.5 km3, N = 29) explosive eruptions on Kamchatka during the last 10,000 years. Informally, volcanic productivity looks episodic, and dates of eruptions cluster. To investigate the probable self-similar clustering behavior of eruption times, we determine correlation dimension Dc. For intervals between events 800 and 10,000 years, Dc ≈ 1 (no self-similar clustering). However, for shorter delays, Dc = 0.71, and the significance level for the hypothesis Dc < 1 is 2.5%. For the temporal structure of the output of volcanic products (i.e., for the sequence of variable-weight points), a self-similar “episodic” behavior holds over the entire range of delays 100–10,000 years, with Dc = 0.67 (Dc < 1 at 3.4% significance). This behavior is produced partly by the mentioned common clustering of event dates, and partly by another specific property of the event sequence, that we call “order clustering”. This kind of clustering is a property of a time-ordered list of eruptions, and is manifested as the tendency of the largest eruptions (as opposed to smaller ones) to be close neighbors in this list. Another statistical technique, of “rescaled range” (R/S), confirms these results. Similar but weaker-expressed behavior was also found for two other data sets: historical Kamchatka eruptions and acid layers in Greenland ice column. The episodic multiscaled mode of the output of volcanic material may be a characteristic property of a sequence of eruptions in an island arc, with important consequences for climate forcing by volcanic aerosol, and volcanic hazard.
Maximov A.P., Firstov P.P., Chernev I.I., Shapar V.N. Gas composition in Mutnovsky geothermal field: Role of meteoric water // 11th Gas Workshop. 1-10 September 2011, Kamchatka, Russia. 2011. P. 31

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