Ushkovsky Volcano. Bibliography
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Churikova T., Dorendorf F., Wörner G. Sources and Fluids in the Mantle Wedge below Kamchatka, Evidence from Across-arc Geochemical Variation // Journal of Petrology. 2001. Vol. 42. № 8. P. 1567-1593. doi:10.1093/petrology/42.8.1567.
   Annotation
Major and trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic variations in mafic volcanic rocks hve been studied in a 220 km transect across the Kamchatka arc from the Eastern Volcanic Front, over the Central Kamchatka Depression to the Sredinny Ridge in the back-arc. Thirteen volcanoes and lava fields, from 110 to 400 km above the subducted slab, were sampled. This allows us to characterize spatial variations and the relative amount and composition of the slab fluid involved in magma genesis. Typical Kamchatka arc basalts, normalized for fractionation to 6% MgO, display a strong increase in large ion lithophile, light rare earth and high field strength elements from the arc front to the back-arc. Ba/Zr and Ce/Pb ratios, however, are nearly constant across the arc, which suggests a similar fluid input for Ba and Pb. La/Yb and Nb/Zr increase from the arc front to the back-arc. Rocks from the Central Kamchatka Depression range in 87Sr/86Sr from 0·70334 to 0·70366, but have almost constant Nd isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd 0·51307–0·51312). This correlates with the highest U/Th ratios in these rocks. Pb-isotopic ratios are mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like but decrease slightly from the volcanic front to the back-arc. The initial mantle source ranged from N-MORB-like in the volcanic front and Central Kamchatka Depression to more enriched in the back-arc. This enriched component is similar to an ocean-island basalt (OIB) source. Variations in (CaO)6·0–(Na2O)6·0 show that degree of melting decreases from the arc front to the Central Kamchatka Depression and remains constant from there to the Sredinny Ridge. Calculated fluid compositions have a similar trace element pattern across the arc, although minor differences are implied. A model is presented that quantifies the various mantle components (variably depleted N-MORB-mantle and enriched OIB-mantle) and the fluid compositions added to this mantle wedge. The amount of fluid added ranges from 0·7 to 2·1%. The degree of melting changes from ∼20% at the arc front to <10% below the back-arc region. The rocks from volcanoes of the northern part of the Central Kamchatka Depression—to the north of the transect considered in this study—are significantly different in their trace element compositions compared with the other rocks of the transect and their source appears to have been enriched by a component derived from melting of the edge of the ruptured slab.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G. Mantle and fluid sources below Klyuchevskoy-Kamen-Bezymianny line (Kamchatka) / Geofluid-3. Nature and Dynamics of fluids in Subduction Zones. Tokyo, Japan, February 28 - March 3, 2014. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Institute of Technology. 2014. P. 72
   Annotation
Kamen volcano is an extinct volcanic complex located in the central part of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) between active Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes. Kamen volcano was mapped by V.A. Ermakov only in the 1970s. However the modern geochemical studies of Kamen volcano have not been previously carried out and its relationship and petrogenesis in comparison to other active neighbors are unknown. A modern geochemical study of Kamen volcano is needed because it will shed light not only on the history of the volcano itself and its closest neighbors, but also on the history and magmatic evolution of the KGV melts in general. The distance between the summits of Kamen and Klyuchevskoy is only 5 km, the same as between Kamen and Bezymianny. The close relationship in space and time of the KGV and the common zone of seismicity below them suggests a common source and a possible genetic relationship between their magmas. However, the Late-Pleistocene-Holocene lavas of all these neighboring volcanoes are very different: high-Mg and high-Al Ol-Cpx-Pl basalts and basaltic andesites occur at Klyuchevskoy volcano, and Hbl-bearing andesites and dаcites dominate at Bezymianny volcano. The rocks of Ploskie Sopky volcano, situated only 10 km NW of Kamen, are represented by medium-high-K subalkaline lavas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Erster Teil. Historischer Bericht nach den Tagebüchern. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1890. 257 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1890 erschienene erste Teil seines Werkes enthält den ausführlichen Bericht seiner Reise nach den Tagebüchern, ein getrennt erscheinender zweiter Teil die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas.
Ditmar von Karl Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamtschatka in den Jahren 1851–1855. Zweiter Teil. Allgemeines über Kamtschatka. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften. 1900. 273 p.
   Annotation
Der Geologe Karl von Ditmar erkundete von 1851 bis 1855 im Auftrag der russischen Regierung die Bodenschätze Kamčatkas. Dabei erforschte er das Land und seine Bevölkerung aber weit über diesen Autrag hinaus, was seine eindrucksvollen Reisebeschreibungen zeigen. So verbrachte er im Sommer 1853 als erster Forscher längere Zeit bei den Korjaken auf der Halbinsel Tajgonos. Der 1900 erschienene zweite Teil seines Werkes enthält die systematische Darstellung der Natur und der Geschichte Kamčatkas sowie ein geografisches Lexikon.
Flerov G.B., Churikova T.G., Anan'ev V.V. The Ploskie Sopki volcanic massif: Geology, petrochemistry, mineralogy, and petrogenesis (Klyuchevskoi Volcanic Cluster, Kamchatka) // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2017. Vol. 11. Vol. 4. P. 266-284. doi: 10.1134/S0742046317040030.
   Annotation
This paper is concerned with the geological history and petrology of a major polygenic volcanic edifice dating back to Upper Pleistocene to Holocene time. This long-lived volcanic center is remarkable in that it combines basaltic and trachybasaltic magmas which are found in basaltic andesite and trachybasaltic– trachyandesite series. The inference is that the coexisting parent magmas are genetically independent and are generated at different sources at depth in an upper mantle volume. The associated volcanic rocks have diverse compositions, stemming from a multi-stage spatio–temporal crystallization differentiation of the magmas and mixing of these in intermediate chas.
Girina O.A., Gordeev E.I., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M. The 25 Anniversary Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, August 20-26. // 10th Biennual workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska subduction processes (JKASP-2018). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: IVS FEB RAS. 2018. P. 80-82.
Global Volcanism Program. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.11.0 (08 Jun 2022). 2013. doi: 10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013.
   Annotation
The Volcanoes of the World database is a catalog of Holocene and Pleistocene volcanoes, and eruptions from the past 12,000 years.
Ivanov B.V., Chirkov A.M., Dubik Y.M., Khrenov A.P., Dvigalo V.N., Razina A.A., Stepanov V.V., Chubarova O.S. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka and Kuril Islands: Status in 1982 // Volcanology and Seismology. 1988. Vol. 6. № 4. P. 623-634.
Krasheninnikov Stepan, Portnyagin Maxim, Ponomareva V.V., Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Mironov Nikita Periodic volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoy and Ushkovsky volcanoes during the early Holocene inferred from tephra study 2009.
Muravyev Y.D., Salamatin A.N. Mass balance and thermal regime of a crater glacier at Ushkovskii volcano // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 11. № 3. P. 411-424.
   Annotation
Построена теплофизическая модель стационарного состояния ледника в активном кратере Ушковского вулкана. Анализ составляющих баланса массы льда показал повышенный геотермический поток (среднее значение 10 Вт/м¤) в пределах вершинного конуса и слабую его изменчивость за последние 40 лет. По измеренной скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежнофирновой скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежно-фирновой толще в центре кратера Горшкова предполагается существование значительного поднятия (вложенного малого кратера), перекрытого ледником.
Полученные расчетные формулы помогут оценить параметры критических состояний нестационарных ледяных масс на склонах Ключевского вулкана.