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Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Girina O.A. Discriminations in Generation of pyroclastic deposit types from andesitic volcanoes of Kamchatka (in the Bezymianny volcano case) // IUGG. XXI General Assembly. Colorado. 1995. P. B 410
Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Ozerov A.Yu., Khubunaya S.A. The Klyuchevskoy Volcano Eruption in 1993 and 1994 and Its Activity During the Last Decade // IUGG XXI General Assembly, 1995, (Abstract VB11B-03). 1995. P. 410
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Kirianov V.Yu. The last caldera-forming eruption in Kamchatka: Ksudach volcano, 1700-1800 14C-years ago // Volcanology and Seismology. 1995. V. 17. № 2. P. 147-168.    Annotation
A catastrophic explosive eruption occurred 1700-1800 14C-years ago at Ksudach Volcano in Kamchatka. It was one of the AD greatest Plinian-type eruptions. It erupted 18-19 km3 of pyroclastic material and produced a collapse caldera 4 × 6.5 km in size and 6.5-7 km3 in volume. The eruptive column rose to a height of 23 km. It was the last caldera-forming eruption in the Kuril-Kamchatka region. It resembled an eruption that occurred at Krakatau in 1883 in type and size. The eruption was bound to have a climatic impact, impaired the Earth's ozone layer, and produced an acid peak in the Greenland ice sheet. -from Journal summary
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskii L.D. The ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1995. V. 57. № 6. P. 383-402. doi: 10.1007/BF00300984.    Annotation
The ages of most of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region have been determined by extensive geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological and isotopic geochronological studies, including more than 600 14C dates. Eight ‘Krakatoa-type’ and three ‘Hawaiian-type’ calderas and no less than three large explosive craters formed here during the Holocene. Most of the Late Pleistocene Krakatoa-type calderas were established around 30 000–40 000 years ago. The active volcanoes are geologically very young, with maximum ages of about 40 000–50 000 years. The overwhelming majority of recently active volcanic cones originated at the very end of the Late Pleistocene or in the Holocene. These studies show that all Holocene stratovolcanoes in Kamchatka were emplaced in the Holocene only in the Eastern volcanic belt. Periods of synchronous, intensified Holocene volcanic activity occurred within the time intervals of 7500–7800 and 1300–1800 14C years BP.
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskiy L.D., Litasova S.N. Ages of active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region // Volcanology and Seismology. 1995. V. 16. № 4-5. P. 341-369.    Annotation
The births (ages) of most of the active volcanoes, calderas, and large craters produced by caldera-resembling eruptions (subcaldera craters) were dated as a result of geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological, and isotopic studies. The dated active volcanoes were found to be fairly young formations, the age of the oldest being 40-50 thousand years. Most of the presently highly active volcanoes had been born at the very end of the late Pleistocene or during the Holocene. Carbon-14 ages were determined for the majority of the Holocene volcanoes. The periods of time when Holocene volcanoes had been synchronously active were 7500-7800 and 1300-1800 years ago. -from Journal summary

По результатам геолого-геоморфологических, тефрохронологических и изотопно-геохронологических исследований на базе более 600 14С-дат определено время возникновения (возраст) большинства действующих вулканов, кальдер и кратеров субкальдерных извержений Курило-Камчатского региона. Установлено, что действующие вулканы являются достаточно молодыми образованиями с максимальным возрастом 40-50 тыс. лет. Подавляющее большинство наиболее активных в настоящее время вулканов начало формироваться в самом конце позднего плейстоцена и в голоцене. Для большинства вулканов, возникших в голоцене, определен их 14С-возраст. Установлено, что все полигенные стратовулканы Камчатки в голоцене возникали только в пределах ее Восточной вулканической зоны. Определен 14С-возраст большинства позднеплейстоценовых кальдер, которые сформировались Преимущественно к интервале времени 30-40 тыс. лет назад. Датированы все голоценовые кальдеры и ряд кратеров субкальдерных извержений. Выявлены периоды синхронной активизации действующих вулканов в голоцене в интервале времени 7500-7800 и 1300-1800 лет назад.
Girina O.A. Convective Differentiation of Pyroclastic from Andesitic Volcanoes // IUGG. XXI General Assembly. Colorado. 1995. P. B 419
Girina O.A. Granulometric composition of pyroclastics from andesite volcanoes of Kamchatka // 5 Zonenshain conference on plate tectonics. Moscow. 1995. P. 11
Girina O.A. Pyroclastic deposits of the different stages the Bezymianny volcano activity // The ’95 International workshop on volcanoes commemorating the 5-th anniversary of Mt. Showa-Shinzan. 1995. P. P 43
Girina O.A. Pyroclastic surge deposits of Bezymianny volcano // IUGG. XXI General Assembly. Colorado. 1995. P. B 419
Kersting Annie B., Arculus Richard J. Pb isotope composition of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka and North Pacific sediments: Implications for magma genesis and crustal recycling in the Kamchatkan arc // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 1995. V. 136. № 3–4. P. 133 - 148. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(95)00196-J.    Annotation
Pb isotope data are used to constrain the chemical contribution of the subducted components in the recycling beneath Klyuchevskoy volcano, the most active volcano in the Kamchatkan arc. The Pb isotope ratios of Klyuchevskoy basalts (206Pb/204Pb= 18.26–18.30, 207/Pb204Pb= 15.45–15.48, 208/Pb204Pb= 37.83–37.91) define a narrow range that falls within the Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) field and are among the least radiogenic island arc basalts measured to date. These data are similar to data from three other Quaternary Kamchatkan volcanoes: Tolbachik, Kumroch-Shish, and Maly Semiachik. In contrast, North Pacific sediments (primarily siliceous oozes) collected parallel to the Kamchatkan trench during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 145, have Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb= 18.51–18.78, 207Pb/204Pb= 15.56–15.64, 208Pb/204Pb= 38.49–38.75) that are more radiogenic than either the Klyuchevskoy basalts or Pacific MORB. Incorporation of even a small amount of sediment in the source of the Klyuchevskoy magmas would shift the Pb isotope ratios of the erupted basalts from the MORB field to more radiogenic values. The absence of 10Be and elevated Pb isotope ratios in the Kamchatkan volcanic lavas, despite the presence of distinctively radiogenic Pb in the North Pacific sediments makes it unlikely that sediments or sediment-derived fluids are involved in the source magmas beneath Kamchatka. The Kamchatkan arc thus represents an “end-member” whereby little or no sediment is involved in terms of elemental recycling and arc magma genesis. The major and trace elements, Pb, Sr and Nd isotope data of the Kamchatkan basalts are most consistently explained if derived from a fluid-fluxed, peridotitic mantle wedge source, wherein the fluid composition is dominantly controlled by dehydration of altered oceanic crust, imparting a radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, and MORB-like Pb isotope signature to the mantle source. The erupted Klyuchevskoy lavas preserve a slab signature derived from incompatible elements that are strongly partitioned into the fluid. The 30 km of arc crust through which the Klyuchevskoy magmas traverse prior to eruption is not composed of older crust, but must be juvenile, similar in isotopic composition to MORB.

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