Bibliography
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Records: 2300
 1986
Мелекесцев И.В., Семенцов А.А., Сулержицкий Л.Д. О возможной причине температурного оптимума голоцена // Доклады АН СССР. 1986. Т. 289. № 5. С. 1199-1202.
Меняйлов И.А., Никитина Л.П., Шапарь В.Н. Состояние активных вулканов Никарагуа в январе 1985 г. по данным о температуре и составе фумарольных газов // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1986. № 4. С. 43-48.
Меняйлов И.А., Никитина Л.П., Шапарь В.Н. Химический состав и содержание металлов газовых выделений из кратера вулкана Алаид при извержении 1981 г. // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1986. № 1. С. 26-31.
Меняйлов И.А., Никитина Л.П., Шапарь В.Н., Гриненко В.А., Буачидзе Г.И., Стойбер Р., Уильямс С. Химический состав, металлоносность и изотопия фумарольных газов вулкана Момотомбо (Никарагуа) в 1982 г. // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1986. № 2. С. 60-70.
Остапенко В.Ф., Вольнев В.М., Кичина Е.Н., Калинин А.И. Подводный вулкан Крылатка (Охотское море) // Геологические и геохимические исследования Охотоморского региона и его обрамления. Сб. науч. тр.. 1986. С. 18-24.
Федотов С.А. Вулканология: история, развитие, задачи // Вестник АН СССР. 1986. № 9. С. 100-105.
Федотов С.А., Иванов Б.В., Гущенко И.И., Двигало В.Н., Жаринов Н.А., Хренов А.П., Чирков А.М. Вулканическая деятельность в Курило-Камчатской зоне в 1980-1984 гг. // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1986. № 2. С. 3-20.
Черткова Л.В., Гавриленко Г.М., Ерофеева Е.А. Природная модель смешения кислых речных и морских вод // Геология океанов и морей. 1986. Т. 3. С. 75-76.
 1985
Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Kirianov V.Yu., Dan Miller C. Catastrophic eruptions of the directed-blast type at Mount St. Helens, Bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. V. 3. № 3-4. P. 189-218. doi:10.1016/0264-3707(85)90035-3.    Annotation
This paper describes catastrophic eruptions of Mount St. Helens (1980), Bezymianny (1955–1956), and Shiveluch (1964) volcanoes. A detailed description of eruption stages and their products, as well as the quantitative characteristics of the eruptive process are given. The eruptions under study belong to the directed-blast type. This type is characterized by the catastrophic character of the climatic stage during which a directed blast, accompanied by edifice destruction, the profound ejection of juvenile pyroclastics and the formation of pyroclastic flows, occur. The climatic stage of all three eruptions has similar characteristics, such as duration, kinetic energy of blast (10^17−10^18 J), the initial velocity of debris ejection, morphology and size of newly-formed craters. But there are also certain differences. At Mount St. Helens the directed blast was preceeded by failure of the edifice and these events produced separable deposits, namely debris avalanche and directed blast deposits which are composed of different materials and have different volumes, thickness and distribution. At Bezymianny, failure did not precede the blast and the whole mass of debris of the old edifice was outburst only by blast. The resulting deposits, represented by the directed blast agglomerate and sand facies, have characteristics of both the debris avalanche and the blast deposit at Mount St. Helens. At Shiveluch directed-blast deposits are represented only by the directed-blast agglomerate; the directed-blast sand facies, or blast proper, seen at Mount St. Helens is absent. During the period of Plinian activity, the total volumes of juvenile material erupted at Mount St. Helens and at Besymianny were roughly comparable and exceeded the volume of juvenile material erupted at Shiveluch, However, the volume of pyroclastic-flow deposits erupted at Mount St. Helens was much less.
The heat energy of all three eruptions is comparable: 1.3 × 10^18, 3.8−4.8 × 10^18 and 1 × 10^17 J for Shiveluch, Bezymianny, and Mount St. Helens, respectively.
Fedotov S.A. Estimates of heat and pyroclast discharge by volcanic eruptions based upon the eruption cloud and steady plume observations // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. V. 3. № 3-4. P. 275-302. doi:10.1016/0264-3707(85)90039-0.    Annotation
Fumarolic steam plumes and eruption clouds rise like convetive turbulent columns into the atmosphere. Formulae are presented here for estimating the heat power of plumes, the production rate of juvenile pyroclasts ejected during eruptions and the heat output of fumaroles. Their accuracy is tested using the well-studied examples of eruptions of Kamchatkan volcanoes.
The Briggs (1969) formula may be used in observing the ascending part of a plume in crosswinds. The best results have been obtained using the CONCAWE formula which permits estimation of the heat power in crosswinds based on the axis height of a horizontal part of a maintained plume. Three connected equations have been suggested for a stable atmosphere and calm weather conditions. The first one, which is applicable for heights ranging from 100 m to 1 km, is the formula proposed by Morton et al. (1956). This equation changes for higher layers of the troposphere (1–10 km) and stratosphere (10–55 km).
A classification scale was constructed allowing us to compare volcanic eruptions and fumarolic activity in terms of the intensity of their plumes.
The described method is useful for volcano surveillance; it helps in the study of the energetics and mechanics of volcanic and magmatic processes.



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