Kochegura V.V., Zubov A.G., Braytseva O.A. Magnetostratigraphy of Kamchatkan Holocene formations of soil and pyroclastics // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 8. № 6. P. 825-849.
An account is given of magnetostratigraphic studies of Kamchatkan Holocene formations: the cover of soil and pyroclastics and the rocks of the cinder cones from the flank eruptions of Klyuchevskoi Volcano. А study was made of seven sections of the soil and pyroclastics and of samples from 17 cinder cones. А detailed account is given of the data processing procedure. Consideration is given to the reasons for the established incompleteness of the paleomagnetic record in the sections and it is demonstrated that adequately detailed reconstruction of the history of the geomagnetic 1ield is possible only provided that а study is made of а series of рагаllеl sections. The trajесtory of the geomagnetic field vector over the last 4000 years is determined on the basis of the material on radiocarbon datings. Seven cycles of paleosecular variations are distinguished in the age range investigated; each of these cycles has individual features by which they can be recognised and used for stratigraphic correlation. The, features taken were the direction of rotation of the vector, the shape and size of its loops, and the length of the cycles. Correlation of the sections based on paleomagnetic data was found to be in good agreement with the tephrostratigraphic correlation and enabled corrections to be made to the age of some horizons, including the archeological layers of the primitive settlement at Zhupanovo and the cinder cones. The metachronous magnetization present in some tephra layers was found to be an obstacle to any improvement in the accuracy and detail of magnetochronological reconstructions.
Muravyev Y.D., Salamatin A.N. Mass balance and thermal regime of a crater glacier at Ushkovskii volcano // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 11. № 3. P. 411-424.
Построена теплофизическая модель стационарного состояния ледника в активном кратере Ушковского вулкана. Анализ составляющих баланса массы льда показал повышенный геотермический поток (среднее значение 10 Вт/м¤) в пределах вершинного конуса и слабую его изменчивость за последние 40 лет. По измеренной скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежнофирновой скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежно-фирновой толще в центре кратера Горшкова предполагается существование значительного поднятия (вложенного малого кратера), перекрытого ледником.
Полученные расчетные формулы помогут оценить параметры критических состояний нестационарных ледяных масс на склонах Ключевского вулкана.
Vinogradov V.N., Muravyev Y.D., Nikitina I.M., Salamatin A.N. Production of phreatic explosions in the interaction of lava and ice // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 9. № 1. P. 89-98.
A matematical model is given of the formation of phreatic explosions in lava flows coming into contact with ice formations. Quantitative characteristics are derived for the various stages in the development of the explosion; by means of wich its strength and other parameters may be evaluated. The theoretical calculation results are in agreement with empirical data.
Абдурахманов А.И., Злобин Т.К., Мархинин Е.К., Тараканов Р.З. Извержение вулкана Иван Грозный в 1989 г. // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1990. № 4. С. 3-9.
Recent activity of the volcano is associated with its multiaction central effusion dome. The N—N—E top of this dome has a crater of the specific shape with a radial fissure 250—270 m long and 15—70 m wide. Small phreatic eruptions were noted in 1951, 1968, 1970, and 1973. The eruption of 1989 started on May 3. Explosions produced ash-gas cloud which rose to a height of 1,5 km on May 8. The very first explosions were followed by formation of a new fissure on the northern flank of the volcano, its length being about 70 m. The eruption was preceded by earthquakes which occurred beneath the volcano and were oriented across the strike of the Kuril Island arc. These earthquakes can be subdivided into two groups with focal depths close to 30 km and 60— 80 km. The layer between the depths from 30 to 55—60 km seems to be aseismic indicating that in the depth range of 30—60 km beneath the volcano a magma chamber can be present. It is suggested that current intensified activity of the volcano has been caused by tectonic movements associated with transverse faulting. A sort-term forecast of the volcano activity is presented.