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Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Kirianov V.Yu., Dan Miller C. Catastrophic eruptions of the directed-blast type at Mount St. Helens, Bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. Vol. 3. № 3-4. P. 189-218. doi:10.1016/0264-3707(85)90035-3.
This paper describes catastrophic eruptions of Mount St. Helens (1980), Bezymianny (1955–1956), and Shiveluch (1964) volcanoes. A detailed description of eruption stages and their products, as well as the quantitative characteristics of the eruptive process are given. The eruptions under study belong to the directed-blast type. This type is characterized by the catastrophic character of the climatic stage during which a directed blast, accompanied by edifice destruction, the profound ejection of juvenile pyroclastics and the formation of pyroclastic flows, occur. The climatic stage of all three eruptions has similar characteristics, such as duration, kinetic energy of blast (10^17−10^18 J), the initial velocity of debris ejection, morphology and size of newly-formed craters. But there are also certain differences. At Mount St. Helens the directed blast was preceeded by failure of the edifice and these events produced separable deposits, namely debris avalanche and directed blast deposits which are composed of different materials and have different volumes, thickness and distribution. At Bezymianny, failure did not precede the blast and the whole mass of debris of the old edifice was outburst only by blast. The resulting deposits, represented by the directed blast agglomerate and sand facies, have characteristics of both the debris avalanche and the blast deposit at Mount St. Helens. At Shiveluch directed-blast deposits are represented only by the directed-blast agglomerate; the directed-blast sand facies, or blast proper, seen at Mount St. Helens is absent. During the period of Plinian activity, the total volumes of juvenile material erupted at Mount St. Helens and at Besymianny were roughly comparable and exceeded the volume of juvenile material erupted at Shiveluch, However, the volume of pyroclastic-flow deposits erupted at Mount St. Helens was much less.
The heat energy of all three eruptions is comparable: 1.3 × 10^18, 3.8−4.8 × 10^18 and 1 × 10^17 J for Shiveluch, Bezymianny, and Mount St. Helens, respectively.
Fedotov S.A. Estimates of heat and pyroclast discharge by volcanic eruptions based upon the eruption cloud and steady plume observations // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. Vol. 3. № 3-4. P. 275-302. doi:10.1016/0264-3707(85)90039-0.
Fumarolic steam plumes and eruption clouds rise like convetive turbulent columns into the atmosphere. Formulae are presented here for estimating the heat power of plumes, the production rate of juvenile pyroclasts ejected during eruptions and the heat output of fumaroles. Their accuracy is tested using the well-studied examples of eruptions of Kamchatkan volcanoes.
The Briggs (1969) formula may be used in observing the ascending part of a plume in crosswinds. The best results have been obtained using the CONCAWE formula which permits estimation of the heat power in crosswinds based on the axis height of a horizontal part of a maintained plume. Three connected equations have been suggested for a stable atmosphere and calm weather conditions. The first one, which is applicable for heights ranging from 100 m to 1 km, is the formula proposed by Morton et al. (1956). This equation changes for higher layers of the troposphere (1–10 km) and stratosphere (10–55 km).
A classification scale was constructed allowing us to compare volcanic eruptions and fumarolic activity in terms of the intensity of their plumes.
The described method is useful for volcano surveillance; it helps in the study of the energetics and mechanics of volcanic and magmatic processes.
Menyailov I.A., Nikitina L.P., Shapar V.N. Results of geochemical monitoring of the activity of Ebeko volcano (Kurile Islands) used for eruption prediction // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. Vol. 3. № 3-4. P. 259 - 274. doi: 10.1016/0264-3707(85)90038-9.
The monitoring of the state of active volcanoes, carried out using different parameters, including geochemical, is very important for studies of deep processes and geodynamics. All changes which occur within the crater before eruptions reflect the magma activation and depend on the deep structure of volcano. This paper gives the results of prolonged monitoring of Ebeko volcano, located in the contact zone between the oceanic and continental plates (the Kurile Island Arc). The geochemical method has been used as the basis for eruption prediction because the increase in the activity of the Ebeko in the period from 1963 to 1967 that ended in a phreatic eruption was not preceded by seismic preparation. Investigations carried out at Ebeko volcano give evidence that change of all the chosen geochemical parameters is a prognostic indicator of a forthcoming eruption. This change depends on the type of eruption, and the deep structure and hydrodynamic regime of the volcano.
Sheymovich V.S. The geologic structure of stratovolcanoes // International Geology Review. 1985. Vol. 27. № 7. P. 798-809. doi:10.1080/00206818509466467.
Авдейко Г.П., Антонов В.С., Волынец О.Н., Гладков Н.Г., Марков И.А., Цветков А.А. Геохимическая зональность четвертичных лав Курильской островной дуги // Доклады АН СССР. 1985. Т. 282. № 4. С. 958-961.
Авдейко Г.П., Черткова Л.В., Краснов Г.С. Подводный вулканизм, гидротермы и сульфидное рудообразование в океане // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Вып. 3: Геотермия, действующие гидротермальные системы и рудообразование. Петропавловск-Камчатский: Институт вулканологии ДВНЦ АН СССР. 1985. Вып. 3. С. 115-117.
Андреев В.И., Гирина О.А., Шутова Г.С. Физико-механические свойства пирокластических отложений Толбачинской региональной зоны и причины их изменения // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Тезисы докладов VI Всесоюзного вулканологического совещания. Петропавловск-Камчатский, сентябрь 1985 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВ ДВНЦ АН. 1985. Вып. 1. С. 5-6.
Бахтиаров В.Ф., Виноградов В.Н., Лакотко М.И., Муравьев Я.Д., Сокоренко А.В. Опыт применения стационарного светодальномера для наблюдений за движением ледника Козельский // Вопросы географии Камчатки. 1985. № 9. С. 133-136.
Богоявленская Г.Е., Брайцева О.А., Жаринов Н.А., Пономарева В.В., Кирсанов И.Т., Мелекесцев И.В., Хренов А.П. Ключевская группа вулканов / Активные вулканы и гидротермальные системы Камчатки: путеводитель научных экскурсий. 1985. С. 6-59.
"Общая геологическая характеристика района" — также дана "Схематическая карта Ключевской группы вулканов";
"Организация Камчатской вулканостанции, ее задачи в прошлом и в настоящее время";
"Современные извержения Ключевского вулкана" — также дана "Схема расположения побочных прорывов Ключевского вулкана";
"Научные экскурсии":
"Маршрут № 1. Город Ключи" — также дан рисунок "Положение маркирующих горизонтов шивелучских пеплов в разрезах почвенно-пирокластических чехлов Ключевской группы вулканов";
"Маршрут № 2. Город Ключи — стационар «Подкова»" — также дана "Схема вулканических образований района стационара «Подкова»";
"Маршрут № 3. Город Ключи — стационар «Апахончич»" — также даны: рисунок "Опорный разрез почвенно-пирокластического чехла у стационара «Апахончич»" и "Схема вулканических образований в районе стационара «Апахончич»";
"Маршрут № 4. К вулкану Безымянному" — также дан рисунок "Вулкан Безымянный и отложения извержения 1956 г."
Богоявленская Г.Е., Брайцева О.А., Мелекесцев И.В., Кирьянов В.Ю., Миллер С.Д. Катастрофические извержения типа направленных взрывов на вулканах Сент-Хеленс, Безымянный, Шивелуч // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1985. № 2. С. 3-26.