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Auer Sara, Bindeman Ilya, Wallace Paul, Ponomareva Vera, Portnyagin Maxim The origin of hydrous, high-δ18O voluminous volcanism: diverse oxygen isotope values and high magmatic water contents within the volcanic record of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2009. V. 157. № 2. P. 209-230. doi:10.1007/s00410-008-0330-0.    Аннотация
Klyuchevskoy volcano, in Kamchatka’s subduction zone, is one of the most active arc volcanoes in the world and contains some of the highest δ18O values for olivines and basalts. We present an oxygen isotope and melt inclusion study of olivine phenocrysts in conjunction with major and trace element analyses of 14C- and tephrochronologically-dated tephra layers and lavas spanning the eruptive history of Klyuchevskoy. Whole-rock and groundmass analyses of tephra layers and lava samples demonstrate that both high-Mg (7–12.5 wt% MgO) and high-Al (17–19 wt% Al2O3, 3–6.5 wt% MgO) basalt and basaltic andesite erupted coevally from the central vent and flank cones. Individual and bulk olivine δ18O range from normal MORB values of 5.1‰ to values as high as 7.6‰. Likewise, tephra and lava matrix glass have high-δ18O values of 5.8–8.1‰. High-Al basalts dominate volumetrically in Klyuchevskoy’s volcanic record and are mostly high in δ18O. High-δ18O olivines and more normal-δ18O olivines occur in both high-Mg and high-Al samples. Most olivines in either high-Al or high-Mg basalts are not in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with their host glasses, and Δ18Oolivine–glass values are out of equilibrium by up to 1.5‰. Olivines are also out of Fe–Mg equilibrium with the host glasses, but to a lesser extent. Water concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five tephra samples range from 0.4 to 7.1 wt%. Melt inclusion CO2 concentrations vary from below detection (<50 ppm) to 1,900 ppm. These values indicate depths of crystallization up to ~17 km (5 kbar). The variable H2O and CO2 concentrations likely reflect crystallization of olivine and entrapment of inclusions in ascending and degassing magma. Oxygen isotope and Fe–Mg disequilibria together with melt inclusion data indicate that olivine was mixed and recycled between high-Al and high-Mg basaltic melts and cumulates, and Fe–Mg and δ18O re-equilibration processes were incomplete. Major and trace elements in the variably high-δ18O olivines suggest a peridotite source for the parental magmas. Voluminous, highest in the world with respect to δ18O, and hydrous basic volcanism in Klyuchevskoy and other Central Kamchatka depression volcanoes is explained by a model in which the ascending primitive melts that resulted from the hydrous melt fluxing of mantle wedge peridotite, interacted with the shallow high-δ18O lithospheric mantle that had been extensively hydrated during earlier times when it was part of the Kamchatka forearc. Following accretion of the Eastern Peninsula terrains several million years ago, a trench jump eastward caused the old forearc mantle to be beneath the presently active arc. Variable interaction of ascending flux-melting-derived melts with this older, high-δ18O lithospheric mantle has produced mafic parental magmas with a spectrum of δ18O values. Differentiation of the higher δ18O parental magmas has created the volumetrically dominant high-Al basalt series. Both basalt types incessantly rise and mix between themselves and with variable in δ18O cumulates within dynamic Klyuchevskoy magma plumbing system, causing biannual eruptions and heterogeneous magma products.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G., Ivanov B., Maximov A. Mineralogy and petrology of Kamen volcano rocks, Kamchatka // Mitigating natural hazards in active arc environments. Linkages among tectonism, earthquakes, magma genesis and eruption in volcanic arcs, with a special focus on hazards posed by arc volcanism and great earthquakes. June 22-26, 2009, Fairbanks, Alaska. 2009. P. 117-118.
Girina O.A., Carter A.J. 2006-2008 Eruptions of Bezymianny Volcano // Mitigating natural hazards in active arc environments. Abstracts. 6rd Biennial Workshop on Japan- Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP-2009). Fairbanks. June 22-26. Fairbanks: 2009. С. 75
Girina O.A., Neal C.A. Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Respouns Team (KVERT) Project in 2006-2009 // Mitigating natural hazards in active arc environments. Abstracts. 6rd Biennial Workshop on Japan- Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP-2009). Fairbanks. June 22-26. 2009. P. 265
Girina O.A., Ushakov S.V., Malik N.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Kotenko L.V. The active volcanoes of Kamchatka and Paramushir Island, North Kurils in 2007 // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2009. V. 3. № 1. P. 1-17. doi: 10.1134/S0742046309010011.    Аннотация
Eight strong eruptions of four Kamchatka volcanoes (Bezymyannyi, Klyuchevskoi, Shiveluch, and Karymskii) and Chikurachki Volcano on Paramushir Island, North Kurils took place in 2007. In addition, an explosive event occurred on Mutnovskii Volcano and increased fumarole activity was recorded on Avacha and Gorelyi volcanoes in Kamchatka and Ebeko Volcano on Paramushir Island, North Kurils. Thanks to close cooperation with colleagues involved in the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) project from the Elizovo Airport Meteorological Center and volcanic ash advisory centers in Tokyo, Anchorage, and Washington (Tokyo VAAC, Anchorage VAAC, and Washington VAAC), all necessary precautions were taken for flight safety near Kamchatka.
Girina O.A., Ushakov S.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Melnikov D.V., Malik N.A. KVERT Project: Danger for Aviation during Eruptions of Kamchatkan and Northern Kuriles Volcanoes in 2006-2008 // Mitigating natural hazards in active arc environments. Abstracts. 6rd Biennial Workshop on Japan- Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP-2009). Fairbanks. June 22-26. 2009. P. 54
Ishimaru Satoko, Arai Shoji Highly silicic glasses in peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka arc; implications for melting and metasomatism within the sub-arc mantle // Lithos. 2009. V. 107. № 1–2. P. 93 - 106. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2008.07.005.    Аннотация
Silicate glasses in peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano have high SiO2 (up to 72 wt.) and highly SiO2-oversaturated characteristics; normative quartz content is up to 50 wt.. The glasses represent secondary melts solidified after interaction with mantle peridotite, i.e. crystallization of secondary orthopyroxene at the expense of olivine. We identified two kinds of silicate glasses in Avacha peridotites; one is higher in K2O and enriched in Rb, Ba, U, and Pb than the other. The glasses show basically similar chemical characteristics to the host basaltic andesite to andesite of the Avacha volcano. These chemical characteristics are inherited from slab-derived fluids/melts, which metasomatize the mantle wedge and induce partial melting. The differences of chemical features among the Avacha glasses are attributed to chemical difference of the slab-derived fluids/melts, possibly due to the difference of sediments/basalt ratio of the relevant slab. The low-degree partial melt of peridotite assisted by these fluids/melts, is primarily SiO2-oversaturated, and can conduct silicate metasomatism, evolving through interaction with surrounding mantle peridotite, i.e. formation of orthopyroxene at the expense of olivine. Highly silicic glasses, also reported from peridotite xenoliths from oceanic hotspots and continental rift zones, mostly result from assimilation of orthopyroxene by SiO2-undersaturated melts, which crystallize clinopyroxene and olivine. The glasses also show similar trace-element patterns to their host alkali basaltic magmas, as in the case of arc glasses/calc-alkali magmas. If the glasses in peridotite xenoliths are of silicate metasomatism origin, they are similar in chemistry to host magmas. Reaction between carbonatite melts and peridotites shows the same petrographical feature as that of SiO2-undersaturated silicate melts with peridotites. The glasses originated from carbonatite metasomatism, however, exhibit clearly different trace-element patterns from their host alkali basaltic magmas.
Ishimaru Satoko, Arai Shoji, Shukuno Hiroshi Metal-saturated peridotite in the mantle wedge inferred from metal-bearing peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2009. V. 284. № 3–4. P. 352 - 360. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.04.042.    Аннотация
Lithospheric mantle is inferred to be more oxidized than the asthenosphere, and mantle-wedge peridotites are characterized by high oxidation state relative to abyssal and continental peridotites due to addition of slab-derived fluids or melts. We found metals (native Ni, Fe silicides, native Fe and possible native Ti) from otherwise oxidized sub-arc mantle peridotite xenoliths from Avacha volcano, Kamchatka. This is contrary to the consensus and experimental results that the metals are stable only in deeper parts of the mantle (> 250 km). The metals from Avacha are different in chemistry and petrography from those in serpentinized peridotites. The Avacha metals are characteristically out of chemical equilibrium between individual grains as well as with surrounding peridotite minerals. This indicates their independent formation from different fluids. Some of the Avacha metals form inclusion trails with fluids and pyroxenes, leading to the inference that very local metal saturation resulted from rapid supply (‘flashing’) of reducing fluids from deeper levels. The fluids, possibly rich in H2, are formed by serpentinization at the cold base of the mantle wedge just above the slab, and they reduce overlying peridotites. We propose a metal-saturated peridotite layer, underlying the main oxidized portion, within the mantle wedge beneath the volcanic front to fore-arc region.
Jiang Guoming, Zhao Dapeng, Zhang Guibin Seismic tomography of the Pacific slab edge under Kamchatka // Tectonophysics. 2009. V. 465. № 1–4. P. 190 - 203. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.11.019.    Аннотация
We determine a 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the mantle down to 700 km depth under the Kamchatka peninsula using 678 P-wave arrival times collected from digital seismograms of 75 teleseismic events recorded by 15 portable seismic stations and 1 permanent station in Kamchatka. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly that is visible in the upper mantle and extends below the 660-km discontinuity under southern Kamchatka, while it shortens toward the north and terminates near the Aleutian–Kamchatka junction. Low-velocity anomalies are visible beneath northern Kamchatka and under the junction, which are interpreted as asthenospheric flow. A gap model without remnant slab fragment is proposed to interpret the main feature of high-V anomalies. Combining our tomographic results with other geological and geophysical evidences, we consider that the slab loss may be induced by the friction with surrounding asthenosphere as the Pacific plate rotated clockwise at about 30 Ma ago, and then it was enlarged by the slab-edge pinch-off by the asthenospheric flow and the presence of Meiji seamounts. As a result, the slab loss and the subducted Meiji seamounts have jointly caused the Pacific plate to subduct under Kamchatka with a lower dip angle near the junction, which made the Sheveluch and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes shift westward.
Krasheninnikov Stepan, Portnyagin Maxim, Ponomareva V.V., Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Mironov Nikita Periodic volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoy and Ushkovsky volcanoes during the early Holocene inferred from tephra study 2009.
Neal C.A., Girina O.A., Senyukov S.L., Rybin A.V., Osiensky J., Izbekov P., Ferguson G. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation // Natural Hazards. 2009. V. 51. № 2. P. 245-262. doi: 10.1007/s11069-009-9347-6.    Аннотация
More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded.
Базанова Л.И., Дирксен О.В., Кулиш Р.В., Карташева Е.В. Эволюция новейшего вулканизма Жупанова хребта (Камчатка) // Вулканизм и геодинамика. Материалы IV Всероссийского симпозиума по вулканологии и палеовулканологии, Петропавловск-Камчатский, 22-27 сентября 2009 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2009. Т. 1. С. 265-268.
Базанова Л.И., Сулержицкий Л.Д. Вулкан Корякский: реконструкция динамики эруптивной активности за последние 10-12 тысяч лет // Вулканизм и геодинамика. Материалы IV Всероссийского симпозиума по вулканологии и палеовулканологии, Петропавловск-Камчатский, 22-27 сентября 2009 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2009. Т. 1. С. 269-272.
Белоусов А.Б., Белоусова М.Г., Miller T. Kurile Islands // Encyclopedia of Islands. 2009. P. 520-524.
Бергаль-Кувикас О.В., Рогозин А.Н. Первые результаты изучения 500 – метрового разреза игнимбритов (река Кавыча, Восточная Камчатка) // Материалы VII региональной молодежной научной конференции «Исследования в области наук о Земле». 25 ноября 2009 г. г. Петропавловск – Камчатский: КамГУ им. В. Беринга. 2009. С. 39-49.    Аннотация
В работе представлены новые данные об игнимбритах, распространённых в верховьях реки Кавыча (Восточная Камчатка). Уточнены северо-восточные и северные границы области распространения игнимбритов. Изучен 500-метровый разрез вулканогенной толщи, в котором выделено 16 слоёв различных пород, главным образом игнимбритов. Они детально опробованы, сделаны и описаны шлифы каждого слоя, выявлены особенности их минерального состава, получены данные по валовому химическому составу.
Блох Ю.И., Бондаренко В.И., Рашидов В.А., Трусов А.А. Геофизические исследования плосковершинных подводных вулканов Курильской островной дуги // IX Международная конференция «Новые идеи в науках о земле». Российский государственный геологоразведочный университет имени Серго Орджоникидзе (РГГРУ) 14-17 апреля 2009 года. М.: РГГРУ. 2009. Т. 2. С. 4
Бычков А.Ю. Геохимическая модель современного рудообразования в кальдере Узон (Камчатка). 2009. 124 с.    Аннотация
В работе приводятся результаты исследования современного рудообразования в кальдере Узон (Камчатка). Исследовано строение рудного тела, распределение элементов в разрезах. При помощи оригинальной аппаратуры измерены интенсивные параметры рудообразования: температура, кислотность растворов, окислительно-восстановительный потенциал, активность растворенного сероводорода. Исследовано соотношение дебитов газовой и жидкой фаз и их теплосодержание. На основе природных наблюдений построена термодинамическая модель гидротермального процесса в кальдере Узон, в которой учтены возможные факторы рудообразования: кипение, смешение и охлаждение и окисления. Анализ результатов термодинамического моделирования сопоставлен с данными по минералогической зональности и концентрации форм серы, что позволило установить роль различных факторов рудоотложения в формировании рудной залежи. Предложена новая модель рудоотложения, которая объясняет формирование полного рудного разреза как следствие саморазвития системы в условиях разгрузки термальных вод. Расчетные концентрации растворенных форм серы и рудных компонентов находятся в хорошем согласии с природными данными.

Результаты проведенных работ могут быть полезны при исследовании гидротермальных месторождений и современных геотермальных систем.

The study of present-day hydrothermal ore-forming process in Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia) is reported. The structure of ore body and the distribution components are described. Parameters of ore-forming process (temperature, pH, Eh and activity of dissolved hydrogen sulfide) are measured with original experimental devices. Parameters of gas and liquid phase flow and heat of hydrothermal fluid are studied in details. Base on this investigation results, the thermodynamic model of ore-forming process in Uzon caldera is designed. This model includes several ore-forming mechanisms: boiling, cooling and mixing and oxidization of hydrothermal solution. The analysis of thermodynamic simulation results of is compared with the data on mineralogical data and concentration of forms of sulfur that has allowed establishing a role of various ore-forming factors in ore deposition. The new model of hydrothermal ore process which explains formation of the full ore structure as consequence of self-development of thermal solutions is offered. Calculated concentration of the dissolved forms of sulphur and ore components are in the good consent with the natural data. Results of the spent works can be useful at research of hydrothermal deposits and modern geothermal systems.
Вергасова Л.П., Филатов С.К., Философова Т.М. Минералы изоморфного ряда ключевскит-алюмоключевскит из отложений фумарол Северного прорыва БТТИ // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2009. Вып. 13. № 1.    Аннотация
В продуктах деятельности фумарол Большого трещинного Толбачинского извержения (БТТИ, Камчатка 1975-1976 гг.) установлен изоморфный ряд соединений с общей формулой K3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)O2(SO4)4. В изоморфном ряду четко различаются члены, находящиеся по разную сторону от условно разделяющей их 50 мол.% границы по содержанию Fe и Al, что, наряду с отличиями в важных для диагностики физических свойствах минералов, явилось основанием для разделения ряда на два минеральных вида. За Fe-членами ряда было закреплено название ключевскит, за Al-членами ряда — алюмоключевскит. Алюмоключевскит является алюминиевым аналогом ключевскита, по сравнению с которым в позициях Fe3+ располагается преимущественно Al.

We determined an isomorphic group of compounds with common formula K3Cu3(Fe3+, Al)O2(SO4)4 in products from fumarole activity of the Great Tolbatchik Fissure Eruption (GTFE, Kamchatka, 1975-1976). Within the isomorphic group, based on Fe and Al concentration we distinguished members on both sides of nominal 50 mol.% border. This fact along with variations in typical and diagnostically important physical characteristics of minerals was a factor for us to divide the group into two mineral species. Fe-members we called as "klyuchevskite", while Al-members were called as "alumoklyuchevskite". The latter is an aluminum analogue of klyuchevskite, compared to which Al is predominantly placed in Fe3+ positions.
Викулин А.В., Акманова Д.Р., Осипова Н.А., Чебанюк С.В., Залипина Т.В., Фирсова Ю.О., Ященко И.А. Периодичность катастрофических извержений и их миграция вдоль окраины тихого океана // Вестник Камчатского государственного технического университета. 2009. Вып. 10. С. 7-25.    Аннотация
С помощью созданной базы данных извержений вулканов мира выявлены периодичности вулканического процесса как в мировом масштабе, так и в локальном: для отдельных районов окраины Тихого океана и отдельно взятого вулкана. Оказалось, что выявленные периоды близки периодам сейсмического процесса (в годах): T1 ≈ 198±17, T2 ≈ 2*T1 ≈ 376±12 и T3 ≈ 4*T1 ≈ 762±17. «Четность» этих периодов может свидетельствовать о «замкнутости» окраины Тихого океана. Кроме того, изучалось пространственно-временное распределение вулканической активности в пределах окраины Тихого океана. Показано, что вулканические извержения с W ≥ 4 (объем изверженного материала составляет 0,01 км^3 и более) за последние 12 тыс. лет имеют тенденцию мигрировать по часовой стрелке в направлении от Новой Зеландии до Южной Америки со скоростью около 10 км/год, и это подтверждает ранее полученные результаты.

By means of world’s volcanoes eruptions database periodicity of volcanic process in separate areas of suburb of Pacific Ocean and for separately taken volcano is revealed. It has appeared that the revealed periods are close to the periods of seismic process: T1 ≈ 198±17, T2 ≈ 2T1 ≈ 376±12 and T3 ≈ 4T1 ≈ 762±17 years. "Parity" of these periods can testify to "isolation" of suburb of Pacific ocean. Existential distribution of volcanic activity within suburb of Pacific Ocean was studied. It has been shown, that volcanic eruptions with W ≥ 4 (the volume of erupted is material 0.01 км^3 and more) for last 12 thousand years tend to migrate clockwise in the direction from New Zealand to the South America with a speed about 10 km/year, confirming earlier received results.
Викулин А.В., Мелекесцев И.В., Гусяков В.К., Акманова Д.Р., Осипова Н.А. Комплексная (катастрофические вулканические + сильнейшие сейсмические события) электронная база данных как основа для модифициро­ванной геодинамической парадигмы (на примере Пацифики) // Проблемы комплексного геофизического мониторинга Дальнего Востока России. Труды Второй региональной научно-технической конференции. Петропавловск-Камчатский, 11-17 октября 2009 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ГС РАН. 2009. С. 13


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