Karymsky Volcano. Bibliography
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Portnyagin Maxim, Hoernle Kaj, Plechov Pavel Yu., Mironov Nikita, Khubunaya Sergey Constraints on mantle melting and composition and nature of slab components in volcanic arcs from volatiles (H2O, S, Cl, F) and trace elements in melt inclusions from the Kamchatka // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2007. V. 255. № 1-2. P. 53-69. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.005.    Annotation
New and published data on the composition of melt inclusions in olivine (Fo73_yi) from volcanoes of the Kamchatka and northern Kurile Arc are used 1) to evaluate the combined systematics of volatiles (H2O, S, Cl, F) and incompatible trace elements in their parental magmas and mantle sources, 2) to constrain thermal conditions of mantle melting, and 3) to estimate the composition of slab-derived components. We demonstrate that typical Kamchatkan arc-type magmas originate through 5-14% melting of sources similar or slightly more depleted in HFSE (with up to -1 wt.% previous melt extraction) compared to MORB-source mantle, but strongly enriched in H2O,B, Be, Li, Cl. F, LILE, LREE, Th and U. Mean H2O in parental melts f 1.8-2.6 wt.%) decreases with increasing depth to the subducting slab and correlates negatively with both 'fluid-immobile* (e.g. Ti, Na, LREE) and most 'fluid-mobile' (e.g. LILE, S, Cl, F) incompatible elements, implying that solubility in hydrous fluids or amount of water does not directly control the abundance of 'fluid-mobile' incompatible elements. Strong correlation is observed between H2O/Ce and B/Zr (or B/LREE) ratios. Both, calculated H2O in mantle sources (0.1-0.4%) and degrees of melting (5-14%) decrease with increasing depth to the slab indicating that the ultimate source of water in the sub-arc mantle is the subducting oceanic plate and that water flux (together with mantle temperature) governs theextent of mantle melting beneath Kamchatka. A parameterized hydrous melting model [Katzetal. 2003, G3,4(9), 1073] is utilized to estimate that mantle melting beneath Kamchatka occurs at or below the dry peridotite solidus (1245-1330 °C at 1.5-2.0 GPa). Relatively high mantle temperatures (yet lower than beneath back-arc basins and ocean ridges) suggest substantial corner flow driven mantle upwelling beneath Kamchatka in agreement with numerical models implying non-isoviscous mantle wedge rheology. Data from Kamchatka, Mexico and Central America indicate that <5% melting would lake place beneath continental arcs without water flux from the subducting slab. A broad negative correlation appears to exist between crustal thickness and the temperature of magma generation beneath volcanic arcs with larger amounts of decompression melting occurring beneath thinner arc crust (Uihosphere). In agreement with the high mantle temperatures, we observe a systematic change in the composition of slab components with increasing slab depth from solute-poor hydrous fluid beneath the volcanic front to solute-rich hydrous melt or supercritical liquid at deeper depths beneath the rear arc. The solute-rich slab component dominates the budget of LILE, LREE,Th and U in the magmas and originates through wet-melting of subducted sediments and/or altered oceanic crust at > 120 km depth. Melting of the upper parts of subducting plates under water flux from deeper luhosphere (e.g. serpentinites), combined with high .emperatures in the mantie wedge, may be a more common process beneath volcanic arcs than has been previously recognized. 0 2006 Klsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Portnyagin Maxim, Hoernle Kaj, Plechov Pavel, Mironov Nikita, Khubunaya Sergey Constraints on mantle melting and composition and nature of slab components in volcanic arcs from volatiles (H2O, S, Cl, F) and trace elements in melt inclusions from the Kamchatka Arc // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2007. Т. 255. № 1-2. С. 53-69. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.005.
Rowell Colin R., Fee David, Szuberla Curt A.L., Arnoult Ken, Matoza Robin S., Firstov Pavel P., Kim Keehoon, Makhmudov Evgeniy Three-dimensional volcano-acoustic source localization at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. V. 283. P. 101 - 115. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.06.015.    Annotation
Abstract We test two methods of 3-D acoustic source localization on volcanic explosions and small-scale jetting events at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Recent infrasound studies have provided evidence that volcanic jets produce low-frequency aerodynamic sound (jet noise) similar to that from man-made jet engines. For man-made jet noise, noise sources localize along the turbulent jet flow downstream of the nozzle. Discrimination of jet noise sources along the axis of a volcanic jet requires high resolution in the vertical dimension, which is very difficult to achieve with typical volcano-acoustic network geometries. At Karymsky Volcano, an eroded edifice (Dvor Caldera) adjacent to the active cone provided a platform for the deployment of five infrasound sensors in July 2012 with intra-network relief of ~ 600 m. The network was designed to target large-scale jetting, but unfortunately only small-scale jetting and explosions were recorded during the 12-day experiment. A novel 3-D inverse localization method, srcLoc, is tested and compared against a more common grid-search semblance technique. Simulations using synthetic signals show that srcLoc is capable of determining vertical solutions to within ± 150 m or better (for signal-to-noise ratios ≥ 1) for this network configuration. However, srcLoc locations for explosions and small-scale jetting at Karymsky Volcano show a persistent overestimation of source elevation and underestimation of sound speed. The semblance method provides more realistic source locations, likely because it uses a fixed, realistic sound speed of ~ 340 m/s. Explosion waveforms exhibit amplitude relationships and waveform distortion strikingly similar to those theorized by modeling studies of wave diffraction around the crater rim. We suggest that the delay of acoustic signals and apparent elevated source locations are due to raypaths altered by topography and/or crater diffraction effects, implying that topography in the vent region must be accounted for when attempting 3-D volcano acoustic source localization. Though the data presented here are insufficient to resolve small-scale jet noise sources, similar techniques may be successfully applied to large volcanic jets in the future.
Siebert L., Simkin T. Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. 2013.
Siebert L., Simkin T., Kimberly P. Volcanoes of the World. 2010. 568 p.    Annotation
This impressive scientific resource presents up-to-date information on ten thousand years of volcanic activity on Earth. In the decade and a half since the previous edition was published new studies have refined assessments of the ages of many volcanoes, and several thousand new eruptions have been documented. This edition updates the book's key components: a directory of volcanoes active during the Holocene; a chronology of eruptions over the past ten thousand years; a gazetteer of volcano names, synonyms, and subsidiary features; an extensive list of references; and an introduction placing these data in context. This edition also includes new photographs, data on the most common rock types forming each volcano, information on population densities near volcanoes, and other features, making it the most comprehensive source available on Earth's dynamic volcanism.
Taran Yuri, Inguaggiato Salvatore, Cardellini Carlo, Karpov Gennady Posteruption chemical evolution of a volcanic caldera lake: Karymsky Lake, Kamchatka // Geophysical Research Letters. 2013. V. 40. № 19. P. 5142-5146. doi:10.1002/grl.50961.    Annotation
The 1996 short-lived subaqueous eruption at the Karymsky caldera lake suddenly changed the composition of the lake water. The lake, with a surface area of ∼10 km^2 and a volume of ∼0.5 km^3, became acidic, increased its salinity to ∼1000 mg/kg, and became dominated by SO4^2- and Ca^2+. Since the eruption, the lake chemistry has evolved in a predictable manner described by simple box model. As a result of dilution by incoming SO4-Ca-Mg-poor water, SO4, Ca, and Mg concentrations follow a simple exponential decrease with a characteristic time close to the residence time of the lake. Na, K, and Cl decrease relatively significantly slower, indicating a continuing input of these constituents into the lake that was initiated during the eruption. Thus, the dynamics of two groups of lake water solutes can be predicted by a simple box model for water and solute mass balance. Key Points Karymsky lake suddenly changed chemistry as a result of the 1996 eruption One-box dynamic model correctly describes the evolution of the lake chemistry The calculated fluxes of chemicals are in a good agreement with the field data
Tolstykh M.L., Naumov V.B., Ozerov A.Yu., Kononkova N.N. Composition of Magmas of the 1996 Eruption at the Karymskii Volcanic Center, Kamchatka: Evidence from Melt Inclusions // Geochemistry International. 2001. V. 39. № 5. P. 447-458.
VONA/KVERT Information Releases. 2005.
Volcano observatory notification to aviation (VONA/KVERT). 2011.
Walter Thomas R. How a tectonic earthquake may wake up volcanoes: Stress transfer during the 1996 earthquake–eruption sequence at the Karymsky Volcanic Group, Kamchatka // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2007. V. 264. № 3–4. P. 347 - 359. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.09.006.    Annotation
A large tectonic earthquake occurred on Kamchatka peninsular on New Year's Day of 1996 along a SW–NE trending fracture system. Just two days after the earthquake and at a distance of about 10–20 km to the north, a simultaneous eruption of two separate volcanoes followed. These were Karymsky Volcano and Akademia Nauk Volcano, the latter having its first eruption in historical records. In this paper I use numerical models in order to elaborate the static stress transfer between the earthquake and the volcanic system during the sequence that culminated in the January 1996 volcano-tectonic events. The models were designed to consider (i) the geodetically identified pre-eruptive period of doming in order to calculate stress changes at the nearby SW–NE trending fracture zone, and (ii) the January 1996 Mw 7.1 earthquake in order to calculate the dilatation and stress changes at the magma plumbing system. The results suggest that stress changes related to year-long inflation under the volcanic centers increased the Coulomb failure stress at the active faults and thus encouraged the earthquake. The earthquake, in turn, prompted dilatation at the magmatic system together with extensional normal stress at intruding N–S trending dikes. Also, field measurements confirmed the presence of N–S oriented fractures above the dike. Unclamping of the N–S oriented fractures allowed magma to propagate and eventually to trigger the twin-eruption at the volcanoes Karymsky and Akademia Nauk. These findings imply that successful hazard evaluations at volcanoes elsewhere require consideration of the seismo-tectonic framework and large earthquake cycles.


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