Kudryavy Volcano. Bibliography
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Bocharnikov R.E., Shmulovich K I., Tkachenko S.I., Korzhinskii M.A., Steinberg G.S. Gas metasomatism: Experiments on natural Fumaroles of Kudryavyi Volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands // Geochemistry International. 2000. Vol. 38. P. 186-193.
Direct experiments on high-temperature (910 and 620°C) fumaroles of Kudryavy Volcano have demonstrated that low-density volcanic gas interacts with rock-forming and ore minerals (12 minerals were studied). The mechanism of the interaction is determined by gas metasomatism reactions: (a) at given conditions, sphalerite, calcite, barite, and gypsum are either dissolved and removed by gas or replaced with other minerals (calcite → anhydrite); (b) reactions with silicates (feldspars, olivine, and biotite) proceed owing to diffusion cation exchange. Structural rearrangements in biotite are possible due to dehydration and loss of alkalis and aluminum. The kinetics of interaction between hot gas and silicates is governed by the rate of cation diffusion in the mineral at given conditions. Precipitation of sublimates on the surfaces of minerals does not affect much the process of reactions. Interaction between volcanic gas and minerals results in albitization of feldspars and ferruginization of olivine and biotite. The scale of metasomatism in the crystalline rocks of Kudryavyi Volcano has been estimated as about 3 mm in 115 years.
Botcharnikov Roman E., Shmulovich Kirill I., Tkachenko Sergey I., Korzhinsky Mikhail A., Rybin Alexander V. Hydrogen isotope geochemistry and heat balance of a fumarolic system: Kudriavy volcano, Kuriles // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2003. Vol. 124. № 1-2. P. 45-66. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00043-X.
The temperature and hydrogen isotope composition of the fumarolic gases have been studied at Kudriavy volcano, Kurile Islands, which is unique for investigating the processes of magma degassing because of the occurrence of numerous easily accessible fumaroles with a temperature range of 100–940°C. There are several local fumarolic fields with a total surface area of about 2600 m2 within the flattened crater of 200×600 m. Each fumarolic field is characterized by the occurrence of high- and low-temperature fumaroles with high gas discharges and steaming areas with lower temperatures. We have studied the thermal budget of the Kudriavy fumarolic system on the basis of the quantitative dependences of the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) and tritium concentration on the temperature of fumarolic gases and compared them with the calculated heat balance of mixing between hot magmatic gas and cold meteoric water. Hydrogen isotope composition (δD and 3H) shows a well expressed correlation with the gas temperature. Since D/H ratio and 3H are good indicators of water sources in volcanic areas, it suggests that the thermal budget of the fumarolic system is mostly controlled by the admixing of meteoric waters to magmatic gases. The convective mechanism of heat transfer in the hydrothermal system governs the maximum temperatures of local fumaroles and fumarolic fields. Low-temperature fumaroles at Kudriavy are thermally buffered by the boiling processes of meteoric waters in the mixing zone at pressures of 3–12 bar. These values may correspond to the hydrostatic pressure of water columns about 30–120 m in height in the volcanic edifice and hence to the depth of a mixing/boiling zone. Conductive heat transfer is governed by conductive heat exchange between gases and country rocks and appears to be responsible for the temperature distribution around a local fumarolic vent. The temperature and pressure of shallow degassing magma are estimated to be 1050°C and 2–3 bar, respectively. The length of the ‘main’ fumarolic gas conduit is estimated to be about 80 m from the linear correlation between maximal temperatures of fumarolic fields and distances to the highest-temperature ‘F-940’ fumarole. This value may correspond to the depth of an apical part of the magmatic chamber. The geometry of the crater zone at the Kudriavy summit and the model of convective gas cooling suggest different hydrostatic pressures in the hydrothermal system at the base of high- and low-temperature gas conduits. The depths of gas sources for low-temperature fumaroles are evaluated to be about 200 m at the periphery of the magma chamber.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Romanova I.M., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bartalev S.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Uvarov I.A., Korolev S.P., Malkovsky S.I., Kramareva L.S. Information Technologies for the Analyzing of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands Volcanoes Activity in 2019-2020 // Short Paper Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Information Technologies and High-Performance Computing (ITHPC 2021), Khabarovsk, Russia, September 14-16, 2021. Khabarovsk: CEUR-WS.org. 2021. Vol. 2930. P. 112-118.
The work is devoted to the activity analysis of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes in 2019-2020.The activity of the volcanoes was estimated based on the processing of data from daily satellite monitoring carried out using the information system “Remote monitoring of Kamchatkan and the Kuriles volcanoes activity (VolSatView)”. The activity of the Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes considered based on the analysis of their thermal anomalies. Analysis of the characteristics of thermal anomalies over volcanoes was carried out in KVERT IS. Analysis of the temperature of thermal anomalies of volcanoes in the Kuril - Kamchatka region in 2019-2020 shows a significantly higher activity of the Kamchatka volcanoes in comparison with the Kuril volcanoes.
Global Volcanism Program. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.11.0 (08 Jun 2022). 2013. doi: 10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013.
The Volcanoes of the World database is a catalog of Holocene and Pleistocene volcanoes, and eruptions from the past 12,000 years.
Gorshkov G.S. Kurile Islands / Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields. Rome: IAVCEI, 7. 1958. P. 1-99.
Gorshkov G.S. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle: Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. New York-London: Plenum Press. 1970. 385 p. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684-1767-8.
The present volume seems to me to be a particularly im­ portant one for several reasons. Not least among these is the fact that it summarizes the work of two decades by G. S. Gorshkov, one of the world's leading volcanologists. In addition, it is the first general work of this length on the volcanism of what might be called a "narrow" island arc, a relatively simple megastructure as com­ pared with the "wide" arcs such as Japan and Indonesia. Finally, in this volume Gorshkov has summarized and cited extensive evi­ dence for his general ideas on the relation between volcanism and the earth's crust and mantle. A few potentially troublesome items should be noted here. In the translation the Russian terms "suite" and "series" have been retained, though for American readers these might better have been translated as "formation" and "group. " In almost all cases Russian place names have simply been transliterated rather than translated (e. g. , "Yuzhnyi Isthmus" rather than "South Isthmus"); in a few cases the English equivalent has been given in brackets where this is essential to the understanding of the author's com­ ments. The adjectives have retained their Russian case endings in the process (masculine -yi or -ii, feminine -aya or -'ya, neuter -oe) and this may occasionally lead to some slight confusion, for example, when the author calls a given feature Severnyi Volcano at one point and Severnaya Mountain at another.
Korzhinsky M. A., Tkachenko S. I., Shmulovich K. I., Steinberg G. S. Native AI and Si formation // Nature. 1995. Vol. 375. № 6532. P. 544 doi:10.1038/375544a0.
Korzhinsky M. A., Tkachenko S. I., Shmulovich K. I., Taran Y. A., Steinberg G. S. Discovery of a pure rhenium mineral at Kudriavy volcano // Nature. 1994. Vol. 369. P. 51-52. doi: 10.1038/369051a0.
KUDRIAVY volcano on Iturup island in the Kuril arc is an active calc-alkaline volcano. It has not erupted this century; its current volcanic activity is characterized by hot (up to 910oC) gas jets which have been stable for at least 30 years. The composition of the gaseous emissions is typical of high-temperature fumaroles, but we report here the discovery of unusual subsurface sublimates associated with one gas jet—a sulphide mineral containing rhenium as the only cation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of a pure rhenium mineral. The concentration of rhen-ium in the fumarole gas is only 2–10 p.p.b., so the condensation of pure rhenium sulphide from this gas requires both enrichment of rhenium by eight orders of magnitude and remarkable selectivity. Rhenium is generally believed to exist in only trace amounts at the Earth's surface, but our findings demonstrate that it can be readily mobilized, dispersed and concentrated by degassing magmas.
Korzhinsky Mikhail A., Botcharnikov Roman E., Tkachenko Sergey I., Steinberg Genrikh S. Decade-long study of degassing at Kudriavy volcano, Iturup, Kurile Islands (1990–1999): Gas temperature and composition variations, and occurrence of 1999 phreatic eruption // Earth, Planets and Space. 2002. Vol. 54. № 3. P. 337-347. doi:10.1186/BF03353032.
A high-temperature (up to 940°C) fumarolic activity at Kudriavy volcano had been studied during 1990–1999. The maximum gas temperatures of the fumaroles were measured in 1992 as 940°C, then gradually decreased with time and reached to 907°C in 1999. Gas composition of the high-temperature fumarole became enriched in H2O and depleted in other gas components, in particular in CO2. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of the high-temperature fumarolic gases were gradually depleted in deuterium. The gradual and continuous decrease in temperature and changes in gas composition observed during the last 10-year suggest that a magmatic melt have been degassing in a relatively steady-state manner from a single magma chamber. The detail investigations in 1998 and 1999 revealed short-term changes in gas composition characterized by sporadic increases in H2, CO2, and Stotal after intense precipitations. Small-scale eruptions occurred on October 7, 1999 at the summit. The ratios of major gas components (C/S, C/Cl, S/Cl, C/F, S/F, and Cl/F) significantly increased just prior to the eruption. The eruption at the Kudriavy volcano in 1999 was likely a phreatic eruption as a result of the intense precipitations after unusually long dry period. Meteoric water penetrated into the hot zone of volcano edifice and rapidly boiled causing the eruption.
Marchenko A. G., Volfson A. A., Morozov M. V., Khrol N. S., Steinberg G. S., Steinberg M. G. Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanogenic Deposits and Exhalation Mineralization in the Crater Part of the Active Kudryavy Volcano (Iturup Island of the Kuril Arc) // Geology of Ore Deposits. 2020. Vol. 62. № 2. P. 122-137. doi:10.1134/S1075701520020038.
Exhalation ore mineralization is developing in the crater part of the active Kudryavy volcano. Lithogeochemical sampling results have revealed that Re, Au, Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Ge, In, Mo, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, W, Zn, Rb, and Cs accumulate in solid fumarole formations. These elements are transported by high-temperature volcanic gases and are deposited in mineral phases in the near-surface horizons of fumarole fields under decreasing temperature conditions. The contents of rhenium and other metals in volcanic deposits of fumarole fields locally reach values characteristic of ore deposits. Zoning of lithogeochemical anomalies in ore element associations has been revealed, expressed by the series Re, Mo, W, Au, Cu, Ag, Zn, Cs, Ge → In → Bi, Cd, Pb, Sn, Tl → As, Sb, Se, Te, (Cu, Ag, Au) in the direction from the highest-temperature fumarole fields to less hot, reflecting their temperature zoning. It is demonstrated that lateral geochemical zoning is caused both by the ore element contents in fumarole gases, which depend on temperature, and by differences in the optimal temperature ranges in which various elements precipitate from gases. Signatures for similar exhalation mineral formation processes have been revealed that occurred in the recent geological past at the neighboring extinct Sredny volcano. This suggests the occurrence of similar processes within other volcanic systems of Iturup Island, which increases the prospects for detecting complex exhalation-related manifestations of rare, base, and noble metals.