Серафимова Е.К., Овсянников А.А., Муравьев Я.Д. Вулканические эксгаляции вулкана Авачинский в постэруптивном процессе после извержения 1991 г. // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2002. № 4. С. 22-30.
Федотов С.А. Исследования по вулканологии и сейсмологии, их развитие и значение на Камчатке, история отечественной науки (статьи и очерки 1973-2002 гг.). Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВ ДВО РАН. 2002. 169 с.
Academician of RAS S.A. Fedotov had carried out volcanological and seismological observations in Kamchatka in 1957-2002 and has headed them during decades in position of the Director of the Institute of Volcanology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1971-2002. More than 20 his articles and studies printed in 1973-2002 are placed in this book. Different aspects of the investigations mentioned above related to a period of their highest rise in Kamchatka are considered. Their history, developments, tasks and problems, organization, great natural and scientific events, results and vitally important applications are described. The book is prepared for specialists in Earth’s sciences, volcanologists, seismologists, geologists, geophysicists, geochemists especially for teachers and students, all readers which are interested in history and achievements of science in Russia, in volcanoes and earthquakes, and in problem of defence against the high seismic danger in Kamchatka.
Федотов С.А., Озеров А.Ю., Магуськин М.А., Иванов В.В., Карпов Г.А., Леонов В.Л., Двигало В.Н., Гриб Е.Н., Андреев В.И., Лупикина Е.Г., Овсянников А.А., Будников В.А., Бахтиаров В.Ф., Левин В.Е. Извержения Карымского вулкана в 1998-2000 гг., связанные с ними сейсмические, геодинамические и поствулканические процессы, их воздействие на окружающую среду / Катастрофические процессы и их влияние на природную среду. Вулканизм. М.: Наука. 2002. Т. 1. С. 117-160.
Хренов А.П., Маханова Т.М., Богатиков О.А., Платэ А.Н. Результаты аэрокосмических исследований вулканов Камчатки (Ключевская группа вулканов) // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2002. № 2. С. 3-20.
Long-continues field, and air- and space-borne studies of Kamchatkan volcanoes carried out within the framework of the International Russian-American project "Earth Sciences". In conjunction with the use of deep seismic sounding observations, yielded materials of remote sounding which have been mostly processed for the Klyuchevskoy volcanic cluster, this being the most active and productive in Kamchatka. For the first time ever,
a digital map of volcanoes of the Klyuchevskoy cluster to scale 1 : 100000 has been made. All cinder cones were superposed on the map in a system of coordinates with special indication of the cinder cones in the regional zone of areal volcanism and the eruptive centers of bocca eruptions on Klyuchevskoy volcano along with their petrochemical characteristics and ages. This paper also provides information on the "single primary" magma
of Klyuchevskoy Volcano.
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina Eruptive process, effects and deposits of the 1996 and the ancient basaltic phreatomagmatic eruptions in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia
/ Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2001. P. 35-60. doi: 10.1002/9781444304251.ch3.
Churikova T., Dorendorf F., Wörner G. Sources and Fluids in the Mantle Wedge below Kamchatka, Evidence from Across-arc Geochemical Variation // Journal of Petrology. 2001. Vol. 42. № 8. P. 1567-1593. doi:10.1093/petrology/42.8.1567.
Major and trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic variations in mafic volcanic rocks hve been studied in a 220 km transect across the Kamchatka arc from the Eastern Volcanic Front, over the Central Kamchatka Depression to the Sredinny Ridge in the back-arc. Thirteen volcanoes and lava fields, from 110 to 400 km above the subducted slab, were sampled. This allows us to characterize spatial variations and the relative amount and composition of the slab fluid involved in magma genesis. Typical Kamchatka arc basalts, normalized for fractionation to 6% MgO, display a strong increase in large ion lithophile, light rare earth and high field strength elements from the arc front to the back-arc. Ba/Zr and Ce/Pb ratios, however, are nearly constant across the arc, which suggests a similar fluid input for Ba and Pb. La/Yb and Nb/Zr increase from the arc front to the back-arc. Rocks from the Central Kamchatka Depression range in 87Sr/86Sr from 0·70334 to 0·70366, but have almost constant Nd isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Nd 0·51307–0·51312). This correlates with the highest U/Th ratios in these rocks. Pb-isotopic ratios are mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like but decrease slightly from the volcanic front to the back-arc. The initial mantle source ranged from N-MORB-like in the volcanic front and Central Kamchatka Depression to more enriched in the back-arc. This enriched component is similar to an ocean-island basalt (OIB) source. Variations in (CaO)6·0–(Na2O)6·0 show that degree of melting decreases from the arc front to the Central Kamchatka Depression and remains constant from there to the Sredinny Ridge. Calculated fluid compositions have a similar trace element pattern across the arc, although minor differences are implied. A model is presented that quantifies the various mantle components (variably depleted N-MORB-mantle and enriched OIB-mantle) and the fluid compositions added to this mantle wedge. The amount of fluid added ranges from 0·7 to 2·1%. The degree of melting changes from ∼20% at the arc front to <10% below the back-arc region. The rocks from volcanoes of the northern part of the Central Kamchatka Depression—to the north of the transect considered in this study—are significantly different in their trace element compositions compared with the other rocks of the transect and their source appears to have been enriched by a component derived from melting of the edge of the ruptured slab.
Donnadieu Franck, Merle Olivier, Besson Jean-Claude Volcanic edifice stability during cryptodome intrusion // Bulletin of Volcanology. 2001. Т. 63. № 1. С. 61-72. doi:10.1007/s004450000122.
Limit equilibrium analyses were applied to the 1980 Mount St. Helens and 1956 Bezymianny failures in order to examine the influence on stability of structural deformation produced by cryptodome emplacement. Weakening structures associated with the cryptodome include outward-dipping normal faults bounding a summit graben and a flat shear zone at the base of the bulged flank generated by lateral push of the magma. Together with the head of the magmatic body itself, these structures serve directly to localize failure along a critical surface with low stability deep within the interior of the edifice. This critical surface, with the safety coefficient reduced by 25–30%, is then very sensitive to stability condition variation, in particular to the pore-pressure ratio (ru) and seismicity coefficient (n). For ru=0.3, or n=0.2, the deep surface suffers catastrophic failure, removing a large volume of the edifice flank. In the case of Mount St. Helens, failure occurred within a material with angle of friction ~40°, cohesion in the range 105–106 Pa, and probably significant water pore pressure. On 18 May 1980, detachment of slide block I occurred along a newly formed rupture surface passing through the crest of the bulge. Although sliding of block I may have been helped by the basal shear zone, significant pore pressure and a triggering earthquake were required (ru=0.3 and n=0.2). Detachment of the second block was guided by the summit normal fault, the front of the cryptodome, and the basal shear zone. This occurred along a deep critical surface, which was on the verge of failure even before the 18 May 1980 earthquake. The stability of equivalent surfaces at Bezymianny Volcano appears significantly higher. Thus, although magma had already reached the surface, weaker materials, or higher pore pressure and/or seismic conditions were probably required to reach the rupture threshold. From our analysis, we find that deep-seated sector collapses formed by removing the edifice summit cannot generally result from a single slide. Cryptodome-induced deformation does, however, provide a deep potential slip surface. As previously thought, it may assist deep-seated sector collapse because it favors multiple retrogressive slides. This leads to explosive depressurization of the magmatic and hydrothermal systems, which undermines the edifice summit and produces secondary collapses and explosive blasts.
Tolstykh M.L., Naumov V.B., Ozerov A.Yu., Kononkova N.N. Composition of Magmas of the 1996 Eruption at the Karymskii Volcanic Center, Kamchatka: Evidence from Melt Inclusions // Geochemistry International. 2001. Vol. 39. № 5. P. 447-458.