Bibliography
Volcano:
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Records: 2731
 1996
Федотов С.А. Пробуждение // Поиск. 1996. № 3-4 (349-350). С. 15
Фирстов П.П. Реконструкция динамики катастрофического извержения вулкана Шивелуч 12 ноября 1964 г. на основании данных о волновых возмущениях в атмосфере и вулканическом дрожании // Вулканология и сейсмология. 1996. № 4. С. 48-63.
   Annotation
Records of microbarographic instruments in the near zone (45 and 113 km) were used for a detailed analysis of wave disturbances in the atmosphere accompanying the November 12, 1964 Shiveluch eruption. It is shown that the wave disturbances due to this major explosive eruption were largely caused by the formation of a convective column; they provide information on the time history of the eruption and the amount of erupted ash. The relation between seismic and acoustic intensities shows that the eruption started with a giant landslide (1.5 km3) giving rise to an ash cloud that produced the first acoustic signal. Volcanic tremor began 12 min after the slide and a second acoustic source began operating. This was related to starting Plinian activity and eruption of pyroclastic flows. The transition from one phase of the eruption to the next was accompanied by increased volcanic tremor and acoustic signal component of frequency > 0.05 Hz, as well as by generation of a long period (greater than 10 min) disturbance having an excess pressure of 50 Pa at 113 km distance. The amount of ash ejected into the atmosphere as inferred from long period disturbance energy is estimated to be 0.35-0.45 km3, which is in satisfactory agreement with geological evidence (0.3 km3).
 1995
Ariskin A.A., Barmina G.S., Ozerov A.Yu., Nielsen R.L. Genesis of High-Alumina Basalts from Klyuchevskoi Volcano // Petrology. 1995. Vol. 3. № 5. P. 449-472.
Barmina G.S., Ariskin A.A., Neilsen R.L., Ozerov A.Yu. Formation of high-Al basalt by polybaric fractionation of a high-magnesia parent: Klyuchevskoi volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) / AGU Spring Meeting 1995. Eos Trans. Abstract V42A-06. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: AGU. 1995. P. 298
Belousov A.B. The Shiveluch volcanic eruption of 12 November 1964 — explosive eruption provoked by failure of the edifice // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 1995. Vol. 66. № 1-4. P. 357-365. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(94)00072-O.
Belousova Marina, Belousov Alexander Prehistoric and 1933 debris avalanches and associated eruptions of Harimkotan Volcano (Kurile Islands) // Periodico di Mineralogia. 1995. № LXIV. P. 99-101.
Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Girina O.A. Discriminations in Generation of pyroclastic deposit types from andesitic volcanoes of Kamchatka (in the Bezymianny volcano case) // IUGG. XXI General Assembly. Colorado. 1995. P. B 410
Bogoyavlenskaya G.E., Ozerov A.Yu., Khubunaya S.A. The Klyuchevskoy Volcano Eruption in 1993 and 1994 and Its Activity During the Last Decade / IUGG XXI General Assembly, 1995, (Abstract VB11B-03). 1995. P. 410
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Kirianov V.Yu. The last caldera-forming eruption in Kamchatka: Ksudach volcano, 1700-1800 14C-years ago // Volcanology and Seismology. 1995. Vol. 17. № 2. P. 147-168.
   Annotation
A catastrophic explosive eruption occurred 1700-1800 14C-years ago at Ksudach Volcano in Kamchatka. It was one of the AD greatest Plinian-type eruptions. It erupted 18-19 km3 of pyroclastic material and produced a collapse caldera 4 × 6.5 km in size and 6.5-7 km3 in volume. The eruptive column rose to a height of 23 km. It was the last caldera-forming eruption in the Kuril-Kamchatka region. It resembled an eruption that occurred at Krakatau in 1883 in type and size. The eruption was bound to have a climatic impact, impaired the Earth's ozone layer, and produced an acid peak in the Greenland ice sheet. -from Journal summary
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Ponomareva V.V., Sulerzhitskii L.D. The ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1995. Vol. 57. № 6. P. 383-402. doi: 10.1007/BF00300984.
   Annotation
The ages of most of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region have been determined by extensive geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological and isotopic geochronological studies, including more than 600 14C dates. Eight ‘Krakatoa-type’ and three ‘Hawaiian-type’ calderas and no less than three large explosive craters formed here during the Holocene. Most of the Late Pleistocene Krakatoa-type calderas were established around 30 000–40 000 years ago. The active volcanoes are geologically very young, with maximum ages of about 40 000–50 000 years. The overwhelming majority of recently active volcanic cones originated at the very end of the Late Pleistocene or in the Holocene. These studies show that all Holocene stratovolcanoes in Kamchatka were emplaced in the Holocene only in the Eastern volcanic belt. Periods of synchronous, intensified Holocene volcanic activity occurred within the time intervals of 7500–7800 and 1300–1800 14C years BP.