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Ладыгин В.М., Фролова Ю.В., Спиридонов Э.М. О явлении аномально низких значений скоростей продольных волн современных базальтоидов // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 37. № 1. С. 20-31.
The paper shows that the abnormally low values of longitudinal wave velocities, typical even for dense differences, are an important feature of Holocene effusive rocks of medium-basic composition. In order to explain this phenomenon, a series of experiments was conducted to saturate the samples with a phosphor followed by a study of the structure of the pore-fractured space on a fluorescent microscope. The experiments showed that low P-wave velocities are caused by the network of the finest microcracks formed in the rock during cooling and crystallization of the magmatic melt.
Маневич А.Г., Гирина О.А., Мельников Д.В., Нуждаев А.А. Активность вулканов Камчатки в 2017 г. по данным KVERT // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Материалы региональной конференции, посвященной Дню вулканолога, 29-30 марта 2018 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2018. С. 8-11.
Мелекесцев И.В. Новейшие локальный (1955−1976 гг.) и региональный (1907−1976 гг.) эпизоды вулканического катастрофизма на Камчатке и Курильских островах // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 39. № 3. С. 26-41. doi: 10.31431/1816-5524-2018-3-39-26-41.
The paper presents data on identified and described short-term local (1955−1976) enhanced volcanic activity within the Northern Group at the Central Kamchatka Depression and regional disasters (1907-1976), clearly revealed within Kamchatka Peninsular and the Kurile Islands. In scale (volume is about 9 km3, weight of erupted and replaced productswas calculated to be about 16×109 t), the local volcanic disaster was the most powerful in Kamchatka and Kurile Islands over the period of the last 2000 years. This volume exceeds 80% of ~19×109 t totally erupted by all volcanoes over the same period of time. Over the period 1907−1976, the Kamchatka and Kurile volcanoes erupted and transported about 29.5×109 t of juvenile and resurgent material while other volcanoes in the world erupted about 122×109 t.
Мельников Д.В., Гирина О.А., Маневич А.Г. Кратерное озеро в Активной воронке Мутновского вулкана, Камчатка // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 39. № 3. С. 5-8.
Мельников Д.В., Жижин М.Н., Трифонов Г.М., Пойда А.А. Динамика извержения вулкана Сноу (о. Чирпой, Курильские острова) в 2012–2017 гг.: результаты применения алгоритма VIIRS Nightfire // Современные проблемы дистанционного зондирования Земли из космоса. 2018. Т. 15. № 3. С. 69-79. doi: 10.21046/2070-7401-2018-15-3-69-79.
Here we present the results of the successful application of VIIRS satellite data for monitoring and reconstruction of the eruption history of Snow volcano (Chirpoi Island, Kuriles) in 2012–2017. We used Nightfire algorithm to accomplish our tasks. This algorithm differs significantly from the other similar systems due to simultaneous usage of numerous diapasons of the infrared spectra (from near to long ranges) together with the data of the visible spectra, while most of the other algorithms (for example, MODVOLC and MIROVA) use one or two diapasons from the middle or long parts of the infrared spectra. Our research shows that the maximal thermal radiation power (MW) was observed from November 2012 to January 2013. During this period, first and most voluminous portion of lava flow was produced. There are four more well-distinguished periods of this eruption: September – October 2013; March – June 2014; August – November 2014; April – June 2015. All of them correspond to the impulses of the fresh lava eruptions, although the thickness of these lava flows is smaller compared to the first period.
Мельников Д.В., Маневич А.Г., Гирина О.А. Динамика извержения вулкана Алаид в 2012 и 2015-2016 гг. по данным методов дистанционного зондирования // Вулканизм и связанные с ним процессы. Материалы региональной конференции, посвященной Дню вулканолога, 29-30 марта 2018 г. Петропавловск-Камчатский: ИВиС ДВО РАН. 2018. С. 68-71.
Мельников Д.В., Маневич А.Г., Гирина О.А. Корреляция спутниковых и видео данных для оперативного мониторинга вулканической активности Камчатки // Шестнадцатая Всероссийская открытая конференция "Современные проблемы дистанционного зондирования Земли из космоса". 12-16 ноября 2018. М.: ИКИ РАН. 2018.
Озеров А.Ю. Пульсирующее фонтанирование раскаленных бомб и природа его возникновения // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 37. № 1. С. 8-19.
Studies of Klyuchevskoy Volcano eruptions have revealed a new type of explosive activity classified as pulsating spouting of incandescent bombs. These are series of abrupt impulses of increased rate of bomb ejection which occur at fixed intervals of first few seconds and accompany the weaker spouting. Analyses of published data and video records has shown that the same type of eruptive activity is typical for Tolbachinsky, Kilauea and Etna volcanoes which produce liquid andesite-basaltic magmas. In order to investigate the mechanism of pulsating spouting, authors upgraded the Complex Apparatus for Modeling Basaltic Eruptions (KAMBE) that had been designed earlier. A series of laboratory experiments in a transparent column (h = 16.6 м, Ø = 50 mm) allowed us to reveal a new gas-hydrodynamic regime of foamy bubble clusters. Analysis of natural volcanic and laboratory processes allows assuming that pulsating spouting of incandescent bombs is preceded by the regime of foamy bubble clusters occurring in the gas-liquid magmatic flow ascending along a volcano conduit.
Рашидов В.А., Аникин Л.П. Полевые работы на вулкане Алаид (о. Атласова, Курильские острова) в 2018 году // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 39. № 3. С. 105-113. doi: 10.31431/1816-5524-2018-3-39-105-113.
Fieldworks at Alaid volcano in 2018, Atlasov Island, the Kuriles
Романова И.М., Гирина О.А. Информационные технологии для анализа данных о вулканах Камчатки и Курил // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2018. Вып. 39. № 3. С. 42-53.
A large amount of unique scientific data has been collected in the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (IVS FEB RAS) over the past years of investigations of the Kamchatka and the Kurile Island Arc volcanoes. The distributed storage of data makes it difficult to search data and to use them effectively in scientific research. Actual tasks are the integration of data into thematic information resources, organization of data access on the Internet, as well as the creation of tools for their comprehensive analysis. The paper describes VOKKIA and KVERT information web-systems developed in the IVS FEB RAS. VOKKIA is designed to integration and systematization of heterogeneous scientific data on the terrestrial volcanoes of Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands and submarine volcanoes on the surrounding seas including data on historical eruptions of active volcanoes. The KVERT system contains brief information about active volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Northern Kuriles including their hazard; provides collection and storage of operational data of visual, video, and satellite monitoring of volcanoes; automated preparation and sending KVERT releases on volcanic activity. Besides, the article describes the organization of data exchange between VOKKIA and KVERT and external information systems; describes graphical visualization services and statistical data analysis that helps to detect the relationship, patterns and trends in volcanic processes over time.