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Chaplygin Ilya, Yudovskaya Marina, Vergasova Lidiya, Mokhov Andrey Native gold from volcanic gases at Tolbachik 1975–76 and 2012–13 Fissure Eruptions, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 200 - 209. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.018.    Annotation
Abstract Aggregates and euhedral crystals of native gold were found in sublimates formed during New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption in 2012–2013 (NTFE). Gold-bearing sublimate samples were taken from a red-hot (690 °C) degassing fracture in the roof of an active lava tunnel 1.5 km from active Naboko cinder cone in May 2013. The gas condensate collected at 690 °C in this site contains 16 ppb Au, 190 ppb Ag and 1180 ppm Cu compared to 3 ppb Au, 39 ppb Ag and 9.7 ppm Cu in the condensate of pristine magmatic gas sampled at 1030 °C. The 690 °C volcanic gas is most likely a mix of magmatic gas and local snow buried under the lava flows as indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the condensate. The lower-temperature gas enrichment in gold, copper and chlorine is resulted from evaporation of the 690 °C condensate during forced gas pumping at sampling. Native gold was also found in fumarolic encrustations collected from caverns in basalt lava flows with temperature up to 600 °C in June 2014, in a year after eruption finished. The native gold precipitation in newly formed Cu-rich sublimates together with the well known gold occurrences in cinder cones of 1975–1976 Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption manifest a transport capability of oxidized volcanic gas.
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Iwamori H., Nakamura H., Ishizuka O., Nishizawa T., Haraguchi S., Yasukawa K., Miyazaki T., Vaglarov B., Ueki K., Toyama C., Chang Q., Kimura J.I. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // 26th IUGG General Assembly 2015. June 22 - July 2, 2015, Prague, Czech Republic. 2015. P. VS28p-487.    Annotation
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of previously geochemically unstudied Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from Tolbachik volcanic massif (Central Kamchatka Depression, CKD) are presented. Two volcanic series – middle-K and high-K were erupted. The geochemical history of the massif was started earlier 86 ka (K-Ar dating) with the formation of the Tolbachik pedestal presented by middle-K series. During stratovolcanoes formation both series occur and the role of high-K melts was increasing with time. In Holocene high-K rocks are dominated but some cinder cone lavas are presented by middle-K high-Mg melts which suggest that both volcanic series are still exists. The computer modeling show that both series can be explained by the process of crystal fractionation at different water content from nearly or the same mantle source similar to high-Mg basalts of 1975 Northern Breakthrough. Middle-K rocks could crystallize at water-rich conditions (more than 2% of H2O) while the high-K rock could crystallize at dry conditions at the same pressure. However the existence of different mantle sources and possible magma mixing cannot be excluded. Our data show that fractional crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions can be one of the main processes responsible for rock variations at CKD. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest 2-4% of crustal assimilation to the magma chamber during pedestal and stratovolcanoes formation while lava-cinder cones are not show evidences of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K-Ar dating provide strong evidence that Povorotnaya mount located in 8 km NE of Plosky Tolbachik is the old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment the oldest known object (306 ka by K-Ar dating) in Klyuchevskaya group.

Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia. Available from: [accessed Jun 19, 2017].
Churikova T.G., Gordeychik B.N., Edwards B.R., Ponomareva V.V., Zelenin E.A. The Tolbachik volcanic massif: A review of the petrology, volcanology and eruption history prior to the 2012–2013 eruption // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 3 - 21. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.016.    Annotation
The primary goal of this paper is to summarize all of the published data on the Tolbachik volcanic massif in order to provide a clear framework for the geochronologic, petrologic, geochemical and to a lesser extent the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of the Tolbachik system established prior to the 2012–2013 eruption. The Tolbachik massif forms the southwestern part of the voluminous Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Kamchatka. The massif includes two large stratovolcanoes, Ostry (“Sharp”) Tolbachik and Plosky (“Flat”) Tolbachik, and a 70 km long zone of the basaltic monogenetic cones that form an arcuate rift-like structure running across the Plosky Tolbachik summit. The Tolbachik massif gained international attention after the 1975–1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (GTFE), which was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century and one of the six largest basaltic fissure eruptions in historical time. By the end of the GTFE, 2.2 km3 of volcanic products of variable basaltic compositions with MORB-like isotopic characteristics covered an area of > 1000 km2. During the following three decades more than 700 papers on various aspects of this eruption have been published both in national and international journals. Although the recent 2012–2013 eruption, which is the main topic of this volume, was not as long as the {GTFE} in duration or as large in area and volume of the erupted deposits, it brought to the surface a unique volcanic material never found before. In order to understand the data from new eruptions and make significant progress towards a better understanding of the Tolbachik magmatic system it is important to be able to put the new results into the historic context of previous research.
Churikova Tatiana G., Gordeychik Boris N., Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Ishizuka Osamu, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Miyazaki Takashi, Vaglarov Bogdan S. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 156 - 181. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.026.    Annotation
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle–Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene–historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P–T–H2O–fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K–Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3 of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975–1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within the Tolbachik volcanic massif. Sr–Nd isotopes are consistent with 2–4 crustal assimilation during formation of the pedestal and stratovolcanoes, while the young lava fields do not show evidence of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K–Ar dating provide strong evidence that Mount Povorotnaya, located in 8 km northeast of Plosky Tolbachik, is an old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment it is the oldest (306 ka) known object in Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes.
Clarke Amanda B., Ongaro Tomaso, Belousov Alexander Vulcanian Eruptions // Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. 2015. P. 505-518.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Melnikov Dmitry Observations on lava, snowpack and their interactions during the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption, Klyuchevskoy Group, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 107 - 119. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.010.    Annotation
Abstract Observations made during January and April 2013 show that interactions between lava flows and snowpack during the 2012–13 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka, Russia, were controlled by different styles of emplacement and flow velocities. `A`a lava flows and sheet lava flows generally moved on top of the snowpack with few immediate signs of interaction besides localized steaming. However, lavas melted through underlying snowpack 1–4 m thick within 12 to 24 h, and melt water flowed episodically from the beneath flows. Pahoehoe lava lobes had lower velocities and locally moved beneath/within the snowpack; even there the snow melting was limited. Snowpack responses were physical, including compressional buckling and doming, and thermal, including partial and complete melting. Maximum lava temperatures were up to 1355 K (1082 °C; type K thermal probes), and maximum measured meltwater temperatures were 335 K (62.7 °C). Theoretical estimates for rates of rapid (e.g., radiative) and slower (conductive) snowmelt are consistent with field observations showing that lava advance was fast enough for `a`a and sheet flows to move on top of the snowpack. At least two styles of physical interactions between lava flows and snowpack observed at Tolbachik have not been previously reported: migration of lava flows beneath the snowpack, and localized phreatomagmatic explosions caused by snowpack failure beneath lava. The distinctive morphologies of sub-snowpack lava flows have a high preservation potential and can be used to document snowpack emplacement during eruptions.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna Introduction to the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 1 - 2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.001.
Gavrilenko M., Ozerov A., Kyle P., Carr M., Nikulin A. Magma mixing and degassing processes in the magma chamber of Gorely volcano (Kamchatka): evidence from wholerock and olivine chemistry, Abstract V43B-3120 presented at 2015 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 14-18 Dec.. 2015.
Girina O.A. Precursors of Kamchatkan volcanoes eruptions // 26th IUGG General Assembly. June 22-July 02, 2015. Abstracts. Prague: IUGG/IAVCEI. 2015. P. VS10p-451.
Girina O.A., Lupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G. Operative remote sensing monitoring of Kamchatkan volcanoes using the information system VolSatView // 7th International Workshop on Volcanic Ash (IWVA/7), 19-23 October 2015. IWVA/7. 2015. P. 1-26.    Annotation
There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014-2015, four of the Kamchatkan volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) had strong and moderate explosive eruptions.
Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines.
Annual Kamchatkan strong explosive eruptions with ash emissions by 8-15 km above sea level represent a real threat to modern jet aviation. To reduce the risk of aircraft encounters with volcanic ash clouds in the North Pacific region, since 2002, KVERT IVS FEB RAS conduct a daily satellite monitoring of 30 Kamchatkan volcanoes and visual and video monitoring of Klyuchevskoy, Sheveluch, Bezymianny, Koryaksky, Avachinsky, Mutnovsky and Gorely volcanoes. KVERT analyses seismic data for 9 volcanoes (Klyuchevskoy, Sheveluch, Bezymianny, Tolbachik, Kizimen, Karymsky, Koryaksky, Avachinsky and Gorely) from the Kamchatkan Branch of Geophysical Survey RAS.
KVERT send Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) by email to Airport Meteorological Center (AMC) at Yelizovo Airport; and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC), the Anchorage VAAC, the Washington VAAC, the Montreal VAAC, and the Darwin VAAC; aviation services, and scientists located throughout the North Pacific region. VONA/KVERT Releases are posted on the web site:
Since 2011, experts from IVS FEB RAS, Space Research Institute RAS, Computing Center FEB RAS and the Far Eastern Planeta Research Center have operated the information system “Monitoring of Volcanoes Activity in Kamchatka and the Kuriles” (VolSatView; that uses all available satellite data (operative and long-term archive data), weather and on-ground observations, the results of computational modeling of ash clouds and plumes trajectories to ensure continues monitoring and study of volcanic activity in Kamchatka and the Kuriles.


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