Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Melnikov Dmitry Observations on lava, snowpack and their interactions during the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption, Klyuchevskoy Group, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 107 - 119. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.010.
Abstract Observations made during January and April 2013 show that interactions between lava flows and snowpack during the 2012–13 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka, Russia, were controlled by different styles of emplacement and flow velocities. `A`a lava flows and sheet lava flows generally moved on top of the snowpack with few immediate signs of interaction besides localized steaming. However, lavas melted through underlying snowpack 1–4 m thick within 12 to 24 h, and melt water flowed episodically from the beneath flows. Pahoehoe lava lobes had lower velocities and locally moved beneath/within the snowpack; even there the snow melting was limited. Snowpack responses were physical, including compressional buckling and doming, and thermal, including partial and complete melting. Maximum lava temperatures were up to 1355 K (1082 °C; type K thermal probes), and maximum measured meltwater temperatures were 335 K (62.7 °C). Theoretical estimates for rates of rapid (e.g., radiative) and slower (conductive) snowmelt are consistent with field observations showing that lava advance was fast enough for `a`a and sheet flows to move on top of the snowpack. At least two styles of physical interactions between lava flows and snowpack observed at Tolbachik have not been previously reported: migration of lava flows beneath the snowpack, and localized phreatomagmatic explosions caused by snowpack failure beneath lava. The distinctive morphologies of sub-snowpack lava flows have a high preservation potential and can be used to document snowpack emplacement during eruptions.
Edwards Benjamin R., Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Volynets Anna Introduction to the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption special issue // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 1 - 2. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.12.001.
Gavrilenko M., Ozerov A., Kyle P., Carr M., Nikulin A. Magma mixing and degassing processes in the magma chamber of Gorely volcano (Kamchatka): evidence from wholerock and olivine chemistry, Abstract V43B-3120 presented at 2015 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 14-18 Dec.. 2015.
Girina O.A., Lupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G. Operative remote sensing monitoring of Kamchatkan volcanoes using the information system VolSatView // 7th International Workshop on Volcanic Ash (IWVA/7), 19-23 October 2015. IWVA/7. 2015. P. 1-26.
There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014-2015, four of the Kamchatkan volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) had strong and moderate explosive eruptions.
Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines.
Annual Kamchatkan strong explosive eruptions with ash emissions by 8-15 km above sea level represent a real threat to modern jet aviation. To reduce the risk of aircraft encounters with volcanic ash clouds in the North Pacific region, since 2002, KVERT IVS FEB RAS conduct a daily satellite monitoring of 30 Kamchatkan volcanoes and visual and video monitoring of Klyuchevskoy, Sheveluch, Bezymianny, Koryaksky, Avachinsky, Mutnovsky and Gorely volcanoes. KVERT analyses seismic data for 9 volcanoes (Klyuchevskoy, Sheveluch, Bezymianny, Tolbachik, Kizimen, Karymsky, Koryaksky, Avachinsky and Gorely) from the Kamchatkan Branch of Geophysical Survey RAS.
KVERT send Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) by email to Airport Meteorological Center (AMC) at Yelizovo Airport; and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC), the Anchorage VAAC, the Washington VAAC, the Montreal VAAC, and the Darwin VAAC; aviation services, and scientists located throughout the North Pacific region. VONA/KVERT Releases are posted on the web site: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/
Since 2011, experts from IVS FEB RAS, Space Research Institute RAS, Computing Center FEB RAS and the Far Eastern Planeta Research Center have operated the information system “Monitoring of Volcanoes Activity in Kamchatka and the Kuriles” (VolSatView; http://volcanoes.smislab.ru) that uses all available satellite data (operative and long-term archive data), weather and on-ground observations, the results of computational modeling of ash clouds and plumes trajectories to ensure continues monitoring and study of volcanic activity in Kamchatka and the Kuriles.
Girina O.A., Romanova I.M. Activity of Kamchatkan and Northern Kuriles volcanoes database of Kamchatkan volcanic eruption response team // 26th IUGG General Assembly. June 22-July 02, 2015. Abstracts. Prague: IUGG/IAVCEI. 2015. P. VS10p-456.
Kalacheva Elena, Taran Yuri, Kotenko Tatiana Geochemistry and solute fluxes of volcano-hydrothermal systems of Shiashkotan, Kuril Islands // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 296. P. 40-54. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.03.010.
Shiashkotan Island belongs to the Northern Kuril island arc and consists of two joined volcanoes, Sinarka and
Kuntomintar, with about 18 km of distance between the summits. Both volcanoes are active, with historic
eruptions, and both emit fumarolic gases. Sinarka volcano is degassing through the extrusive domewith inaccessible
strong and hot (N400 °C) fumaroles. A large fumarolic field of the Kuntomintar volcano situated in a wide
eroded caldera-like crater hosts many fumarolic vents with temperatures from boiling point to 480 °C. Both
volcanoes are characterized by intense hydrothermal activity discharging acid SO4-Cl waters, which are drained
to the Sea of Okhotsk by streams. At least 4 groups of near-neutral Na-Mg-Ca-Cl-SO4 springs with temperatures in
the range of 50–80 °C are located at the sea level,within tide zones and discharge slightly altered diluted seawater.
Volcanic gas of Kuntomintar as well as all types of hydrothermal manifestations of both volcanoes were collected
and analyzed for major and trace elements and water isotopes. Volcanic gases are typical for arc volcanoes
with 3He/4He corrected for air contamination up to 6.4 Ra (Ra=1.4 ×10−6, the air ratio) and δ13C (CO2) within
−10‰to−8‰VPDB. Using a saturation indices approach it is shown that acid volcanic waters are formed at a
shallow level, whereas waters of the coastal springs are partially equilibrated with rocks at ~180 °C. Trace
element distribution and concentrations and the total REE depend on the water type, acidity and Al+Fe concentration.
The REE pattern for acidic waters is unusual but similar to that found in some acidic crater lake waters.
The total hydrothermal discharge of Cl and S from the island associated with volcanic activity is estimated at
ca. 20 t/d and 40 t/d, respectively, based on the measurements of flow rates of the draining streams and
their chemistry. The chemical erosion of the island by surface and thermal waters is estimated at 27 and 140
ton/km2/year, respectively, which is 2–3 times lower than chemical erosion of tropical volcanic islands.
Kardanova O. F., Dubrovskaya I. K., Murav’ev Ya. D. Thermal anomalies on Savich Cone, Kikhpinych Volcano, Kamchatka: IR surveys and land-based observations for 30 years (1982 through 2012) // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2015. Vol. 9. № 6. P. 368-377. doi:10.1134/S0742046315060032.
Kugaenko Yulia, Titkov Nikolay, Saltykov Vadim Constraints on unrest in the Tolbachik volcanic zone in Kamchatka prior the 2012–13 flank fissure eruption of Plosky Tolbachik volcano from local seismicity and GPS data // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 38 - 46. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.05.020.
Abstract A new fissure eruption began on 27 November 2012 on the southern slope of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, which is located in central Kamchatka, Russia, and is part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group. We analyzed the displacement of the earth surface and the seismicity during several months before the eruption onset. According to seismic and GPS data the eruption was preceded by about 4–5 months (July–November 2012) of synchronous crustal deformation and seismicity. The seismic anomaly comprises low energy level seismicity (mainly M = 1.2–2.3) under Plosky Tolbachik volcano at a depth of less than 5 km. In the 2–3 weeks immediately preceding the eruption the rate of seismicity and the amount of radiated seismic energy exceeded the long-term average values (2000–2011) by more than 40 times. The deformation anomaly was recorded by displacement of the GPS points at distances from 20 to 60 km to the north of Tolbachik. The principal axis of the compressive strain was approximately directed towards the Tolbachik eruption site. The permanent GPS network detected radial compression and tangential stretching. The compressive strain reached about 10− 7 prior to eruption onset. The comparable duration of seismic and deformation anomalies (~ 4–5 months before the eruption) is consistent with a common origin, connected to magma rising from depth, and is interpreted as indicating that they were medium-term precursors to the eruption. Data recorded during this unrest episode of the Tolbachik volcanic zone will contribute to understanding of the reawakening of volcanic activity in this region and others worldwide with similar characteristics.