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 2015
National Report for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 2011–2014 Geoinf. Res. Papers, 3, BS3011. / Ed. Churikova T.G., Gordeychik B.N., Fedotov S.A. Moscow: GCRAS Publ. 2015. 185 p. doi: 10.2205/2015IUGG-RU-IAVCEI.    Annotation
In the present National Report, major results are given of research conducted by Russian scientists in 2011–2014 on the topics of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Kamchatka Peninsula with its famous Klyuchevskaya Group of volcanoes is the most volcanically active area in Russia and one of the most active in the world. Majority of researches and scientific results on Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Earth’s Interior during 2011–2014 were achieved in this region including recent data on new Tolbachik fissure eruption in 2012–2013. Besides it, the scientific results on the magmatism outside Russia, which were achieved by Russian scientists, are also included in this review. Major achievements in the chemistry of the Earth, geothermy, geodynamics, geochronology and deep mantle structure are featured. The studies as for the single volcanoes as well the regional observations are outlined. The theoretical and applied efforts connected to the volcanological processes are considered. The main conclusions are illustrated by summarized figures. All the required references are given.

В данном Национальном отчете представлены основные результаты исследований, проводимых российскими учеными в 2011—2014 гг., по темам, соответствующим направлениям деятельности Международной ассоциации вулканологии и химии недр Земли (МАВХНЗ) Международного геодезического и геофизического союза (МГГС). Полуостров Камчатка с его знаменитой Ключевской группой вулканов являются наиболее вулканически активной областью России и одной из самых активных в мире. Основные результаты исследований по вулканологии и химии недр Земли в 2011—2014 гг. были получены в данном регионе, включая недавние данные по новому трещинному извержению вулкана Толбачик в 2012—2013 гг. Кроме того, в отчет включены полученные российскими учеными научные результаты по магматизму за пределами России. В отчете представлены основные достижения по геохимии, геотермии, геодинамике, геохронологии и глубинному строению мантии. Описаны исследования как для отдельных вулканов, так и для целых регионов. Рассмотрены теоретические прикладные вопросы вулканических процессов. Основные выводы приведены на сводных иллюстрациях. Приведены все требуемые ссылки.
National report for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 2011–2014. Presented to the XXVI General Assembly of the IUGG Geoinf. Res. Papers. / Ed. Churikova T.G., Gordeychik B.N., Fedotov S.A. Moscow: Geophysical center RAS. 2015. Vol. 3. Vol. BS3011. P. 1-185. doi: 10.2205/2015IUGG-RU-IAVCEI.    Annotation
In the present National Report, major results are given of research conducted by Russian scientists in 2011–2014 on the topics of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Kamchatka Peninsula with its famous Klyuchevskaya Group of volcanoes is the most volcanically active area in Russia and one of the most active in the world. Majority of researches and scientific results on Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Earth’s Interior during 2011–2014 were achieved in this region including recent data on new Tolbachik fissure eruption in 2012–2013. Besides it, the scientific results on the magmatism outside Russia, which were achieved by Russian scientists, are also included in this review. Major achievements in the chemistry of the Earth, geothermy, geodynamics, geochronology and deep mantle structure are featured. The studies as for the single volcanoes as well the regional observations are outlined. The theoretical and applied efforts connected to the volcanological processes are considered. The main conclusions are illustrated by summarized figures. All the required references are given.

В данном Национальном отчете представлены основные результаты исследований, проводимых российскими учеными в 2011—2014 гг., по темам, соответствующим направлениям деятельности Международной ассоциации вулканологии и химии недр Земли (МАВХНЗ) Международного геодезического и геофизического союза (МГГС). Полуостров Камчатка с его знаменитой Ключевской группой вулканов являются наиболее вулканически активной областью России и одной из самых активных в мире. Основные результаты исследований по вулканологии и химии недр Земли в 2011—2014 гг. были получены в данном регионе, включая недавние данные по новому трещинному извержению вулкана Толбачик в 2012—2013 гг. Кроме того, в отчет включены полученные российскими учеными научные результаты по магматизму за пределами России. В отчете представлены основные достижения по геохимии, геотермии, геодинамике, геохронологии и глубинному строению мантии. Описаны исследования как для отдельных вулканов, так и для целых регионов. Рассмотрены теоретические прикладные вопросы вулканических процессов. Основные выводы приведены на сводных иллюстрациях. Приведены все требуемые ссылки.
Plechov Pavel, Blundy Jon, Nekrylov Nikolay, Melekhova Elena, Shcherbakov Vasily, Tikhonova Margarita S. Petrology and volatile content of magmas erupted from Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, 2012–13 // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 182 - 199. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.011.    Annotation
Abstract We report petrography, and bulk rock, mineral and glass analyses of eruptive products of the 2012–13 eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Central Kamchatka Depression, Russia. Magmas are shoshonitic in composition, with phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase; clinopyroxene phenocrysts are scarce. Samples collected as bombs from the active vent, from liquid lava at the active lava front, and as naturally solidified “toothpaste” lava allow us to quantify changes in porosity and crystallinity that took place during 5.25 km of lava flow and during solidification. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from rapidly-cooled, mm-size tephra have near-constant {H2O} contents (1.19 ± 0.1 wt) over a wide range of {CO2} contents (< 900 ppm), consistent with degassing. The groundmass glasses from tephras lie at the shallow end of this degassing trend with 0.3 wt {H2O} and 50 ppm CO2. The presence of small saturation, rather than shrinkage, bubbles testifies to volatile saturation at the time of entrapment. Calculated saturation pressures are 0.3 to 1.7 kbar, in agreement with the depths of earthquake swarms during November 2012 (0.6 to 7.5 km below the volcano). Melt inclusions from slowly-cooled and hot-collected lavas have {H2O} contents that are lower by an order of magnitude than tephras, despite comparable {CO2} contents. We ascribe this to diffusive {H2O} loss through olivine host crystals during cooling. The absence of shrinkage bubbles in the inclusions accounts for the lack of reduction in dissolved {CO2} (and S and Cl). Melt inclusions from tephras experienced < 3 wt post-entrapment crystallisation. Melt inclusion entrapment temperatures are around 1080 °C. Compared to magmas erupted elsewhere in the Kluchevskoy Group, the 2012–13 Tolbachik magmas appear to derive from an unusually H2O-poor and K2O-rich basaltic parent.
Ponomareva Vera, Portnyagin Maxim, Davies Siwan M. Tephra without Borders: Far-Reaching Clues into Past Explosive Eruptions // Frontiers in Earth Science/Volcanology. 2015. № 3:83. doi:10.3389/feart.2015.00083.    Annotation
This review is intended to highlight recent exciting advances in the study of distal (>100 km from the source) tephra and cryptotephra deposits and their potential application for volcanology. Geochemical correlations of tephra between proximal and distal locations have extended the geographical distribution of tephra over tens of millions square kilometers. Such correlations embark on the potential to reappraise volume and magnitude estimates of known eruptions. Cryptotephra investigations in marine, lake, and ice-core records also give rise to continuous chronicles of large explosive eruptions many of which were hitherto unknown. Tephra preservation within distal ice sheets and varved lake sediments permit precise dating of parent eruptions and provide new insight into the frequency of eruptions. Recent advances in analytical methods permit an examination of magmatic processes and the evolution of the whole volcanic belts at distances of hundreds and thousands of kilometers from source. Distal tephrochronology has much to offer volcanology and has the potential to significantly contribute to our understanding of sizes, recurrence intervals and geochemical make-up of the large explosive eruptions.
Ponomareva Vera, Portnyagin Maxim, Pevzner Maria, Blaauw Maarten, Kyle Philip, Derkachev Alexander Tephra from andesitic Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, NW Pacific: chronology of explosive eruptions and geochemical fingerprinting of volcanic glass // International Journal of Earth Sciences. 2015. Vol. 104. № 5. P. 1459-1482. doi:10.1007/s00531-015-1156-4.    Annotation
The ~16-ka-long record of explosive eruptions from Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka, NW Pacific) is refined using geochemical fingerprinting of tephra and radiocarbon ages. Volcanic glass from 77 prominent Holocene tephras and four Late Glacial tephra packages was analyzed by electron microprobe. Eruption ages were estimated using 113 radiocarbon dates for proximal tephra sequence. These radiocarbon dates were combined with 76 dates for regional Kamchatka marker tephra layers into a single Bayesian framework taking into account the stratigraphic ordering within and between the sites. As a result, we report ~1,700 high-quality glass analyses from Late Glacial–Holocene Shiveluch eruptions of known ages. These define the magmatic evolution of the volcano and provide a reference for correlations with distal fall deposits. Shiveluch tephras represent two major types of magmas, which have been feeding the volcano during the Late Glacial–Holocene time: Baidarny basaltic andesites and Young Shiveluch andesites. Baidarny tephras erupted mostly during the Late Glacial time (~16–12.8 ka BP) but persisted into the Holocene as subordinate admixture to the prevailing Young Shiveluch andesitic tephras (~12.7 ka BP–present). Baidarny basaltic andesite tephras have trachyandesite and trachydacite (SiO2 < 71.5 wt%) glasses. The Young Shiveluch andesite tephras have rhyolitic glasses (SiO2 > 71.5 wt%). Strongly calc-alkaline medium-K characteristics of Shiveluch volcanic glasses along with moderate Cl, CaO and low P2O5 contents permit reliable discrimination of Shiveluch tephras from the majority of other large Holocene tephras of Kamchatka. The Young Shiveluch glasses exhibit wave-like variations in SiO2 contents through time that may reflect alternating periods of high and low frequency/volume of magma supply to deep magma reservoirs beneath the volcano. The compositional variability of Shiveluch glass allows geochemical fingerprinting of individual Shiveluch tephra layers which along with age estimates facilitates their use as a dating tool in paleovolcanological, paleoseismological, paleoenvironmental and archeological studies. Electronic tables accompanying this work offer a tool for statistical correlation of unknown tephras with proximal Shiveluch units taking into account sectors of actual tephra dispersal, eruption size and expected age. Several examples illustrate the effectiveness of the new database. The data are used to assign a few previously enigmatic wide-spread tephras to particular Shiveluch eruptions. Our finding of Shiveluch tephras in sediment cores in the Bering Sea at a distance of ~600 km from the source permits re-assessment of the maximum dispersal distances for Shiveluch tephras and provides links between terrestrial and marine paleoenvironmental records.
Portnyagin Maxim, Duggen Svend, Hauff Folkmar, Mironov Nikita, Bindeman Ilya, Thirlwall Matthew, Hoernle Kaj Geochemistry of the late Holocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic field, Kamchatka: Quantitative modelling of subduction-related open magmatic systems // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 133 - 155. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.015.    Annotation
Abstract We present new major and trace element, high-precision Sr–Nd–Pb (double spike), and O-isotope data for the whole range of rocks from the Holocene Tolbachik volcanic field in the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD). The Tolbachik rocks range from high-Mg basalts to low-Mg basaltic trachyandesites. The rocks considered in this paper represent mostly Late Holocene eruptions (using tephrochronological dating), including historic ones in 1941, 1975–1976 and 2012–2013. Major compositional features of the Tolbachik volcanic rocks include the prolonged predominance of one erupted magma type, close association of middle-K primitive and high-K evolved rocks, large variations in incompatible element abundances and ratios but narrow range in isotopic composition. We quantify the conditions of the Tolbachik magma origin and evolution and revise previously proposed models. We conclude that all Tolbachik rocks are genetically related by crystal fractionation of medium-K primary magmas with only a small range in trace element and isotope composition. The primary Tolbachik magmas contain ~ 14 wt. of MgO and ~ 4 wt. of {H2O} and originated by partial melting (~ 6) of moderately depleted mantle peridotite with Indian-MORB-type isotopic composition at temperature of ~ 1250 °C and pressure of ~ 2 GPa. The melting of the mantle wedge was triggered by slab-derived hydrous melts formed at ~ 2.8 {GPa} and ~ 725 °C from a mixture of sediments and MORB- and Meiji-type altered oceanic crust. The primary magmas experienced a complex open-system evolution termed Recharge-Evacuation-Fractional Crystallization (REFC). First the original primary magmas underwent open-system crystal fractionation combined with periodic recharge of the magma chamber with more primitive magma, followed by mixing of both magma types, further fractionation and finally eruption. Evolved high-K basalts, which predominate in the Tolbachik field, and basaltic trachyandesites erupted in 2012–2013 approach steady-state {REFC} liquid compositions at different eruption or replenishment rates. Intermediate rocks, including high-K, high-Mg basalts, are formed by mixing of the evolved and primitive magmas. Evolution of Tolbachik magmas is associated with large fractionation between incompatible trace elements (e.g., Rb/Ba, La/Nb, Ba/Th) and is strongly controlled by the relative difference in partitioning between crystal and liquid phases. The Tolbachik volcanic field shows that open-system scenarios provide more plausible and precise descriptions of long-lived arc magmatic systems than simpler, but often geologically unrealistic, closed-system models.
Romanova I.M., Girina O.A., Melekestsev I.V., Maximov A.P. Information system «Volcanoes of the Kurile-Kamchatka Island Arc» / National report for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 2011–2014. Presented to the XXVI General Assembly of the IUGG. Geoinf. Res. Papers. Moscow: Geophysical center RAS. 2015. Vol. 3. P. 118-119. doi: 10.2205/2015IUGG-RU-IAVCEI.
Senyukov S.L., Nuzhdina I.N., Droznina S.Ya., Garbuzova V.T., Kozhevnikova T.Yu., Sobolevskaya O.V., Nazarova Z.A., Bliznetsov V.E. Reprint of "Seismic monitoring of the Plosky Tolbachik eruption in 2012-2013 (Kamchatka Peninsula Russia)" // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 47 - 59. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.026.    Annotation
Abstract The active basaltic volcano Plosky Tolbachik (Pl. Tolbachik) is located in the southern part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The previous 1975–1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (1975–1976 GTFE) occurred in the southern sector of Pl. Tolbachik. It was preceded by powerful earthquakes with local magnitudes between 2.5 and 4.9 and it was successfully predicted with a short-term forecast. The Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) began to publish the results of daily seismic monitoring of active Kamchatka volcanoes on the Internet in 2000. Unlike the 1975–1976 {GTFE} precursor, (1) seismicity before the 2012–2013 Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (2012–2013 TFE) was relatively weak and earthquake magnitudes did not exceed 2.5. (2) Precursory earthquake hypocenters at 0–5 km depth were concentrated mainly under the southeastern part of the volcano. (3) The frequency of events gradually increased in September 2012, and rose sharply on the eve of the eruption. (4) According to seismic data, the explosive-effusive 2012–2013 {TFE} began at ~ 05 h 15 min {UTC} on November 27, 2012; the outbreak occurred between the summit of the Pl. Tolbachik and the Northern Breakthrough of the 1975–1976 GTFE. (5) Because of bad weather, early interpretations of the onset time and the character of the eruption were made using seismological data only and were confirmed later by other monitoring methods. The eruption finished in early September 2013. This article presents the data obtained through real-time seismic monitoring and the results of retrospective analysis, with additional comments on the future monitoring of volcanic activity.
Simakin Alexander, Salova Tamara, Devyatova Vera, Zelensky Michael Reduced carbonic fluid and possible nature of high-K magmas of Tolbachik // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. Vol. 307. P. 210 - 221. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.018.    Annotation
Abstract Historical basaltic eruptions of Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka) are of a medium to high potassic type. The potassic character of magmatism can be attributed to the influence of CO2–CO-rich fluid at or near the magma generation depths. Decarbonatization reactions in the mantle under Tolbachik producing a column of the carbonic fluids may be connected with the recent accretion of Kronotsky paleoarc with carbonates dragged under the mantle wedge. With thermodynamic modeling, we show that reduced carbonic fluid at fO2 < {NNO} may be a good carrier of nickel transported in the form of Ni(CO)4. This carbonyl is expected to become thermally stable near the magmatic temperatures at pressures above 1 GPa. In the crust, it is predicted to be thermally stable within the {PT} field of the amphibolite facies. We connect the particles of native Ni and Ag–Pt alloy observed in the volcanic aerosols from the 2012–13 Tolbachik eruption with flushing of the ascending Tolbachik magma with reduced carbonic fluids enriched with {PGE} and Ni. Native metals may form by the thermal decomposition of the carbonyls and other carbon-bearing compounds dissolved in the fluid.
Slezin Yu.B. The Bezymyannyi, Shiveluch, and St. Helens volcanoes: A comparative revision of their catastrophic eruptions during the 20th century // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2015. Vol. 9. № 5. P. 289-294. doi:10.1134/S0742046315050073.



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