Gordeev E.I., Girina O.A. Volcanoes and their hazard to aviation // Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2014. Vol. 84. № 1. P. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1019331614010079.
In March 2013, the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) celebrated the 20th anniversary of its activity. This team, which was created by the joint efforts of Russian and American scientists, analyzes on a daily basis the data supplied by the complex (seismic, video, visual, and satellite) monitoring system of volcanoes of Kamchatka and the Northern Kuril Islands to notify airline companies and all interested organizations about potential hazards.
Gordeev E.I., Lupian E.A., Girina O.A., Efremov V.Yu., Sorokin A.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Romanova I.M., Korolev S.P., Kramareva L.S. Study of the Kamchatkan active volcanoes with help of the information system VolSatView // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proceedings of the International Conference, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, September 8-13, 2014. // Modern Information Technologies in Earth Sciences. Proceedings of the International Conference, September 8-13, 2014, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. 2014. P. 52-53.
Izbekov P., Koloskov A., Maximov A., Khabunaya S. The 2012 Fissure Tolbachik Eruption: Preliminary Results of Petrological Investigation // Geophysical Research Abstracts. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 2014. Vienna, Austria: EGU General Assembly 2014. 2014. Vol. 16. P. 11710
Koulakov Ivan, Jaxybulatov Kayrly, Shapiro Nikolay M., Abkadyrov Ilyas, Deev Evgeny, Jakovlev Andrey, Kuznetsov Pavel, Gordeev Evgeny, Chebrov Viktor Asymmetric caldera-related structures in the area of the Avacha group of volcanoes in Kamchatka as revealed by ambient noise tomography and deep seismic sounding // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014. Vol. 285. P. 36 - 46. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.08.012.
Avacha group includes two active and potentially dangerous volcanoes, Avachinsky and Koryaksky, located close to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the main city of Kamchatka. We present the results of two independent seismic studies of shallow crustal structures beneath the Avacha group based on passive and active source observations. The first study is based on the analysis of continuous recording by 11 seismic stations installed over the Avacha group in 2012 and 7 permanent stations in the same region. We present a series of 2D Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps based on correlation of ambient noise, that were then converted into 3D distribution of shear wave velocity. The second work was based on the reprocessing of an active source deep seismic sounding profile across the Avachinsky volcano that was shot in 1982–1984. We made the analysis of travel times of refracted waves using a 2D tomography inversion. The resulting seismic models appear to be consistent with each other and show clear low-velocity zone to the SW of the Avachinsky volcano and high velocity structures to NE. These observations also agree with the existing gravity and magnetotelluric measurements. Based on the obtained seismic models we identify two large buried calderas and large lava flows that are thought to be related to a series of large eruption episodes of Avachinsky occurred within the last 30,000 years.
McGimsey R.G., Neal C.A., Girina O.A., Chibisova M.V., Rybin A.V. 2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands—Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5213. 2014. 125 p.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
Melnikov D.V., Ushakov S.V., Galle B. Estimation of the sulfur dioxide emission by Kamchatka volcanoes using differential optical absorption spectroscopy // 8-th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes, JKASP 2014. 22-26 September, 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014.
During the 2012-2013 we have measured SO2 on Kamchatka volcanoes (Gorely, Mutnovsky, Kizimen, Tolbachik, Karymsky, Avachinsky) using DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy). Mobile-DOAS, on a base of USB2000+, has been used as an instrument. The goal of this work was to estimate SO2 emission by Kamchatka volcanoes with the different types of activity. Mutnovsky and Avachinsky during the measurements period passively degassed with SO2 emission ~ 480 t/d and 210 t/d, respectively. Gorely volcano was very active, with intensive vapor-gas activity with gas discharge rate 800-1200 t/d. During the measurements at Karymsky volcano there were relatively weak explosive events (ash plum rose up to 0.5 km above the crater) with 5-10 minutes periodicity. For this time, SO2 discharge rate was ~350-400 t/d. Due to the remoteness and difficulties for accessibility of Kizimen volcano, the measurements were done only once – on October 15th, 2012. 5 traverses have been done above the gas plume. SO2 emission was ~ 700 t/d. On Tolbachik fissure eruption we have measured SO2 emission repeatedly from January until August 2013. The intensive effusion of the lava flows (basaltic andesite by composition) and frequent explosions in the crater of the cinder cone were characteristic features of this eruption. The measured gas emission was from ~1500-2200 t/d in January until 600-800 t/d in August 2013. All measurements were made not permanently, but to the extent possible. Therefore, it is difficult to make detailed conclusions on the SO2 emission on these volcanoes. Nevertheless, this research may become a starting point for the development of the system of the constant monitoring of volcanic gases emission by the active volcanoes of Kamchatka.
Estimation of the sulfur dioxide emission by Kamchatka volcanoes using differential optical absorption spectroscopy.
Melnikov Dmitry, Harris Andrew, Volynets Anna, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina Dynamic of the lava flows during the Tolbachik Fissure eruption in 2012-2013 (Kamchatka) inferred from the satellite and ground-based observations // EGU General Assembly 2014. 2014, Vienna, Austria. 2014.
Fissure eruption on the slope of Plosky Tolbachik volcano continued from November 27th, 2012 until September
2013. It was named as The Institute of Volcanology and Seismology 50th Anniversary Fissure Tolbachik Eruption.
The eruption started from the 5 km-long fissure opening and continued with the intensive lava effusion from it.
During the first two days of eruption the length of the lava flows was 9 km, and lava covered the area of 14.4
km2 (Gordeev et al., 2013). Lava discharge rate at this period was about 400 m3/sec. Two eruptive centers were
formed on the fissure – upper (Menyailov vent) and lower (Naboko vent), and lava gushed from them to the height
up to 200-300 meters. On December 1st, the Menyailov vent activity ceased, and the eruption concentrated at the
Naboko vent. Cinder cone was formed here, and lava flows effused from the base of the cone. Lava erupted from
the Menyailov vent, is different from the Naboko vent lava by higher silica content (SiO2 55.35 wt.% vs. 52.5
wt.%, respectively). That may be caused by the discharge of two levels of the magma chamber, fractionated to
a different extent. Morphologically, lava flows from the beginning of eruption until April 2013 were dominantly
aa-lava type, and from April until September 2013 pahoehoe type dominated.
For distinguishing of the dynamic of the lava flows the following methods were applied. As remote sensing methods
we used different satellite data – for specification of the area covered by lava flows, their length, temperature we
used Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8, ASTER, EO-1 ALI and HYPERION. For time averaged discharge rate (TADR)
and lava flow area determination we used AVHRR data. We detected that in December 2013 lava discharge rate
varied from 120 to 40 m3/sec, and then it gradually decreased to average values 5-15 m3/sec and remained on this
level until the end of eruption. These data are confirmed by the ground-based observations, which were conducted
during the entire period of eruption. At the end of eruption in September 2013, lava flows area was about 36 km2, the maximum length of the lava flow – 15 km.
Neal C.A., Herrick J.A., Girina O.A., Chibisova M.V., Rybin A.V., McGimsey R.G., Dixon J. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. 2014. 76 p.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.
Paris Raphaël, Switzer Adam D., Belousova Marina, Belousov Alexander, Ontowirjo Budianto, Whelley Patrick L., Ulvrova Martina Volcanic tsunami: a review of source mechanisms, past events and hazards in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea) // Natural Hazards. 2014. Vol. 70. № 1. P. 447-470. doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0822-8.