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 2021
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Auer Andreas, Walter Thomas R., Kotenko Tatiana Mechanism of the historical and the ongoing Vulcanian eruptions of Ebeko volcano, Northern Kuriles // Bulletin of Volcanology. 2021. Vol. 83. № 4. P. 1-24. doi: 10.1007/s00445-020-01426-z.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Petrova E.G. The Activity of Kamchatka Volcanoes and theirs Danger to Human Society (oral report) // JpGU - AGU Joint Meeting 2021: Virtual. 30 May - 06 July, 2021, Japan, Tokyo. 2021. № C001019.
   Annotation
There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In the XX-XXI centuries 17 volcanoes of Kamchatka erupted. During this time, 183 volcanic eruptions occurred, including three catastrophic eruptions (Ksudach, 1907; Bezymianny, 1956; Sheveluch, 1964). Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes were the most dangerous for human society because they produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere till 2-3 cubic kilometers of volcanic products. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruptions, the strength and wind speed, to traveled thousands of kilometers from the volcanoes for several days. Any territory of the Kamchatka Peninsula has repeatedly been exposed to ash falls, the thickness of ash in settlements was from less than 1 mm to 4-5 cm. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Kizimen, Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, Avachinsky, Kambalny were the most dangerous for air travel not only over Kamchatka, but also hundreds of kilometers away from the peninsula.
The strong explosive and effusive eruptions of Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Kizimen and the other were often accompanied by the formation of hot mud flows (lahars), which sometimes disrupted transport communications (roads, bridges) of nearby settlements.
Scientists of KVERT monitor Kamchatkan volcanoes since 1993. Thanks to satellite monitoring of volcanoes carried out by KVERT, several explosive eruptions were predicted in the XXI century, and early warnings were made to the population about possible ashfalls in settlements and about hazard to aviation.
Girina O.A., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A., Romanova I.M., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Bartalev S.A., Kashnitskii A.V., Uvarov I.A., Korolev S.P., Malkovsky S.I., Kramareva L.S. Information Technologies for the Analyzing of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands Volcanoes Activity in 2019-2020 // Short Paper Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Information Technologies and High-Performance Computing (ITHPC 2021), Khabarovsk, Russia, September 14-16, 2021. Khabarovsk: CEUR-WS.org. 2021. Vol. 2930. P. 112-118.
   Annotation
The work is devoted to the activity analysis of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes in 2019-2020.The activity of the volcanoes was estimated based on the processing of data from daily satellite monitoring carried out using the information system “Remote monitoring of Kamchatkan and the Kuriles volcanoes activity (VolSatView)”. The activity of the Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands volcanoes considered based on the analysis of their thermal anomalies. Analysis of the characteristics of thermal anomalies over volcanoes was carried out in KVERT IS. Analysis of the temperature of thermal anomalies of volcanoes in the Kuril - Kamchatka region in 2019-2020 shows a significantly higher activity of the Kamchatka volcanoes in comparison with the Kuril volcanoes.
Girina O.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Romanova I.M., Loupian E.A., Sorokin A.A. The 2020 Activity of Kamchatkan Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation // EGU General Assembly 2021. 2021. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-1448.
Grishin S.Yu., Belousov A.B., Belousova M.G., Auer A. The 2019 Explosive Eruption of Raikoke Volcanic Island, Kuriles: Pyroclastic Deposits and Their Impact on the Relief and Ecosystems // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2021. Vol. 15. № 6. P. 387-398.
   Annotation
A short-lived but violent explosive eruption occurred on the small volcanic island Raikoke in June 2019 (central Kuril Islands). The culmination of the eruption lasted 3.5 h and the ash cloud rose to a height of 13 km. An analysis of a sequence of satellite images in combination with ground-based observations gave information on the pyroclastic deposits of the eruption and allowed us to estimate the associated impact on the island ecosystems. We found that this eruption had a phreatomagmatic, sub-Plinian to Plinian character.
Horváth Á, Carr J.L., Girina O.A., Wu D.L., Bril A.A., Mazurov A.A., Melnikov D.V., Hoshyaripour G.A., Buehler S.A. Geometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: Methodology // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021. Vol. 21. Vol. 16. P. 12189-12206. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12189-2021, 2021.
   Annotation
A geometric technique is introduced to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns using the generally discarded near-limb portion of geostationary imagery. Such oblique observations facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method by offering close-to-orthogonal side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid. Coverage is restricted to daytime point estimates in the immediate vicinity of the vent, which nevertheless can provide complementary constraints on source conditions for the modeling of near-field plume evolution. The technique is best suited to strong eruption columns with minimal tilting in the radial direction. For weak eruptions with severely bent plumes or eruptions with expanded umbrella clouds the radial tilt/expansion has to be corrected for either visually or using ancillary wind profiles. Validation on a large set of mountain peaks indicates a typical height uncertainty of ±500 m for near-vertical eruption columns, which compares favorably with the accuracy of the common temperature method.
Horváth Á, Girina O.A., Carr J.L., Wu D.L., Bril A.A., Mazurov A.A., Melnikov D.V., Hoshyaripour G.A., Buehler S.A. Geometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studies // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2021. Vol. 21. Vol. 16. P. 12207-12226. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12207-2021.
   Annotation
In a companion paper (Horváth et al., 2021), we introduced a new technique to estimate volcanic eruption column height from extremely oblique near-limb geostationary views. The current paper demonstrates and validates the technique in a number of recent eruptions, ranging from ones with weak columnar plumes to subplinian events with massive umbrella clouds and overshooting tops that penetrate the stratosphere. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new method is shown to be unaffected by the limitations of the traditional brightness temperature method, such as height underestimation in subpixel and semitransparent plumes, ambiguous solutions near the tropopause temperature inversion, or the lack of solutions in undercooled plumes. The side view height estimates were in good agreement with plume heights derived from ground-based video and satellite stereo observations, suggesting they can be a useful complement to established techniques.
Korolev S.P., Sorokin A.A., Urmanov I.P., Kamaev A., Girina O.A. Classification of Video Observation Data for Volcanic Activity Monitoring Using Computer Vision and Modern Neural NetWorks (on Klyuchevskoy Volcano Example) // Remote Sensing. 2021. Vol. 13. Vol. 23. № 4747. P. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234747.
   Annotation
Currently, video observation systems are actively used for volcano activity monitoring. Video cameras allow us to remotely assess the state of a dangerous natural object and to detect thermal anomalies if technical capabilities are available. However, continuous use of visible band cameras instead of special tools (for example, thermal cameras), produces large number of images, that require the application of special algorithms both for preliminary filtering out the images with area of interest hidden due to weather or illumination conditions, and for volcano activity detection. Existing algorithms use preselected regions of interest in the frame for analysis. This region could be changed occasionally to observe events in a specific area of the volcano. It is a problem to set it in advance and keep it up to date, especially for an observation network with multiple cameras. The accumulated perennial archives of images with documented eruptions allow us to use modern deep learning technologies for whole frame analysis to solve the specified task. The article presents the development of algorithms to classify volcano images produced by video observation systems. The focus is on developing the algorithms to create a labelled dataset from an unstructured archive using existing and authors proposed techniques. The developed solution was tested using the archive of the video observation system for the volcanoes of Kamchatka, in particular the observation data for the Klyuchevskoy volcano. The tests show the high efficiency of the use of convolutional neural networks in volcano image classification, and the accuracy of classification achieved 91%. The resulting dataset consisting of 15,000 images and labelled in three classes of scenes is the first dataset of this kind of Kamchatka volcanoes. It can be used to develop systems for monitoring other stratovolcanoes that occupy most of the video frame.
Ponomareva V.V., Pendea I. Florin, Zelenin Egor, Portnyagin Maxim, Gorbach N.V., Pevzner M.M., Plechova A.A., Derkachev Alexander, Rogozin Aleksei, Garbe-Schönberg Dieter The first continuous late Pleistocene tephra record from Kamchatka Peninsula (NW Pacific) and its volcanological and paleogeographic implications // Quaternary Science Reviews. 2021. Vol. 257. 1. № Article 106838. P. 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.106838.
   Annotation
The Kamchatka volcanic arc (NW Pacific) is one of the most productive arcs in the world, known for its highly explosive activity. At the same time, the Kamchatkan record of late Pleistocene explosive eruptions has remained fragmentary. Here we present the first continuous record of Kamchatkan explosive activity between ~12 and 30 ka, which includes ~70 eruptions and extends the earlier reconstructed Holocene sequence for another 20 ka. Our record is based on geochemical correlations of 14C-dated tephras that represent all Kamchatka volcanic zones and are buried in lacustrine deposits along the 200 km stretch of the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD). The accompanying geochemical database of volcanic glass compositions includes 3104 new electron microprobe and 221 LA-ICP-MS analyses. The data show that during the period under study, large silicic explosive eruptions peaked at 30e25 ka. Later times were mostly associated with the moderate activity from northern CKD volcanoes Shiveluch and Zarechny. Our tephra record provides the first tephrochronological model for dating and correlating Central Kamchatka late Pleistocene deposits and gives us some insight into the timing of glacial advances in the Kliuchevskoi volcanic group and volcanic response to the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum and glacial unloading at its termination. In addition, studied sections of lacustrine deposits tightly linked by tephra markers suggest the existence of a large lake system within the CKD for ~20 kyr until its final discharge at ~12 ka BP.
Taran Yuri, Kalacheva Elena, Dvigalo Viktor, Melnikov Dmitri, Voloshina Ekaterina Evolution of the crater lake of Maly Semyachik volcano, Kamchatka (1965–2020) // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2021. Vol. 418. P. 107351 doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2021.107351.
   Annotation
Significant variations in temperature, water chemistry and volume of the lake in the crater of Maly Semyachik volcano, Kamchatka, in 1965–2020 can be divided in three main stages. The first stage, until about the mid-1980s, was characterized by intense volcanic-hydrothermal activity, high (above 40 °C) temperature, high salinity (up to 40 g/l) and an increase in the level (and volume) of the lake. During the second stage, which lasted 25–30 years, since the mid-1980s until the mid-2000s, the lake cooled down, until freezing in winter, the mineralization decreased (up to 1.6 g/l), and the volume of the lake remained almost constant. After the mid-2000s until present, there is a period of activation of the Maly Semyachik volcano, which is expressed in an increase in temperature, mineralization and a sharp increase in the volume of the crater lake. The water balance of the lake and the input and composition of the thermal acid chloride solution are estimated based on the analysis of changes in chemical and physical parameters over time, using a box model.