Bezymianny Volcano. Bibliography
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Girina O.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Nuzhdina I.N., Zelenski M.E. The Eruption of Bezymianny Volcano on August 7, 2001 // Abstracts. 3rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-3). Fairbanks. June 2002. 2002. P. 110-111.
Girina O.A., Ushakov S.V., Malik N.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Kotenko L.V. The active volcanoes of Kamchatka and Paramushir Island, North Kurils in 2007 // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2009. Vol. 3. № 1. P. 1-17. doi: 10.1134/S0742046309010011.    Annotation
Eight strong eruptions of four Kamchatka volcanoes (Bezymyannyi, Klyuchevskoi, Shiveluch, and Karymskii) and Chikurachki Volcano on Paramushir Island, North Kurils took place in 2007. In addition, an explosive event occurred on Mutnovskii Volcano and increased fumarole activity was recorded on Avacha and Gorelyi volcanoes in Kamchatka and Ebeko Volcano on Paramushir Island, North Kurils. Thanks to close cooperation with colleagues involved in the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) project from the Elizovo Airport Meteorological Center and volcanic ash advisory centers in Tokyo, Anchorage, and Washington (Tokyo VAAC, Anchorage VAAC, and Washington VAAC), all necessary precautions were taken for flight safety near Kamchatka.
Global Volcanism Program. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.9.1 (17 Sep 2020). 2013. doi: 10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013.
Gorokhova N.V., Melnik O.E., Plechov P.Yu., Shcherbakov V.D. Numerical simulation of plagioclase rim growth during magma ascent at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. Vol. 263. P. 172 - 181. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.03.020.    Annotation
Slow CaAl-NaSi interdiffusion in plagioclase crystals preserves chemical zoning of plagioclase in detail, which, along with strong dependence of anorthite content in plagioclase on melt composition, pressure, and temperature, make this mineral an important source of information on magma processes. A numerical model of zoned crystal growth is developed in the paper. The model is based on equations of multicomponent diffusion with diagonal cross-component diffusion terms and accounts for mass conservation on the melt–crystal interface and growth rate controlled by undercooling. The model is applied to the data of plagioclase rim zoning from several recent Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatka) eruptions. We show that an equilibrium growth model cannot explain crystallization of naturally observed plagioclase during magma ascent. The developed non-equilibrium model reproduced natural plagioclase zoning and allowed magma ascent rates to be constrained. Matching of natural and simulated zoning suggests ascent from 100 to 50 MPa during 15–20 days. Magma ascent rate from 50 MPa to the surface varies from eruption to eruption: plagioclase zoning from the December 2006 eruption suggests ascent to the surface in less than 1 day, whereas plagioclase zoning from March 2000 and May 2007 eruptions are better explained by magma ascent over periods of more than 30 days). Based on comparison of diffusion coefficients for individual elements a mechanism of atomic diffusion during plagioclase crystallization is proposed.
Gorshkov G.S. Determination of the explosion energy in some volcanoes according to barograms // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1960. Vol. 23. № 2. P. 141-144.
Gorshkov G.S. Directed volcanic blasts // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1963. Vol. 26. P. 83-88.
Gorshkov G.S. Gigantic Eruption of the Volcano Bezymianny // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1959. Vol. 20. № 2. P. 77-109.
Gorshkov G.S. Kamchatka Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes // Bulletin of the Volcanological Society of Japan. 1959. Vol. 3. Vol. 2. № 2. P. 154-156.
Gorshkov G.S. On the relation between seismic and volcanic phenomena and the energy balance of the Bezymianny volcano eruption // Proc. 9th Pacific Sci. Congr. 1963. Vol. 12.
Grapenthin Ronni, Freymueller Jeffrey T., Serovetnikov Sergey S. Surface deformation of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, recorded by GPS: The eruptions from 2005 to 2010 and long-term, long-wavelength subsidence // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. Vol. 263. P. 58-74. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.11.012.    Annotation
Since Bezymianny Volcano resumed its activity in 1956, eruptions have been frequent; recently with up to 1–2 explosive events per year. To investigate deformation related to this activity we installed a GPS network of 8 continuous and 6 campaign stations around Bezymianny. The two striking observations for 2005–2010 are (1) rapid and continuous network-wide subsidence between 8 and 12 mm/yr, which appears to affect KAMNET stations more than 40 km away where we observe 4–5 mm/yr of subsidence, and (2) only the summit station BZ09 shows slight deviations from the average motion in the north component at times of eruptions.
The network-wide subsidence cannot be explained by tectonic deformation related to the build-up of interseismic strain due to subduction of the Pacific plate. A first order model of surface loading by eruptive products of the Kluchevskoy Group of Volcanoes also explains only a fraction of the subsidence. However, a deep sill at about 30 km under Kluchevskoy that constantly discharges material fits our observations well. The sill is constrained by deep seismicity which suggests 9.5 km width, 12.7 km length, and a 13° dip-angle to the south-east. We infer a closing rate of 0.22 m/yr, which implies a volume loss of 0.027 km3/yr (0.16 m/yr and 0.019 km3/yr considering surface loading). Additional stations in the near and far field are required to uniquely resolve the spatial extent and likely partitioning of this source.
We explain the eruption related deformation at BZ09 with a very shallow reservoir, likely within Bezymianny's edifice at a depth between 0.25 km and 1.5 km with a volume change of 1–4 × 10− 4 km3. Much of the material erupted at Bezymianny may be sourced from deeper mid-crustal reservoirs with co-eruptive volume changes at or below the detection limit of the GPS network. Installation of more sensitive instruments such as tiltmeters would allow resolving of subtle co-eruptive motion.

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