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A Physicochemical Model for Deep Degassing of Water-Rich Magma (2008)
Maksimov A.P. A Physicochemical Model for Deep Degassing of Water-Rich Magma // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2008. V. 2. № 5. P. 356-363. doi: 10.1134/S0742046308050059.    Аннотация
Two powerful eruptions of Quizapu vent on Cerro Azul Volcano, Chile are used as examples to discuss
the problem of effusive eruptions of magmas having high preeruptive volatile concentrations. A physicochemical
mechanism is proposed for magma degassing, with the volatiles being lost before coming to the surface.
The model is based on the interaction of magmas residing in chambers at different depths and on the difference
between the solubility of water in the melt and the water equilibrium concentration in a magma body
having a considerable vertical extent. The shallower chamber can accumulate the volatiles released from the
magma that is supplied from the deeper chamber. An explanation is provided of the dramatic differences in the
character of the 1846–1847 and 1932 eruptions, which had identical chemical–petrographic magma compositions.

На примере двух мощных извержений конуса Квицапу вулкана Сьерро-Ассуль (Чили) рассматривается проблема эффузивных извержений магм с высокими предэруптивными содержаниями летучих. Предложен физико-химический механизм дегазации магм с потерей ими летучих до появления на поверхности. Модель основана на взаимодействии магм, находившихся в разных по глубине очагах, и различии между растворимостью воды в расплаве и ее равновесной концентрацией в протяженном по вертикали магматическом теле. При этом малоглубинный очаг может аккумулировать летучие, выделяющиеся из магмы, поступающей в него из глубинного очага. Дается объяснение резких различий в характере извержений 1846–1847 и 1932 г. при идентичном химико-петрографическом составе магм.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/270/ [связанный ресурс]
A Proposal to Monitor Volcanic Activity in the Kurile Islands (2002)
Girina O.A., Rybin A.V., Kirianov V.Yu. A Proposal to Monitor Volcanic Activity in the Kurile Islands // Abstracts. 3rd Biennial Workshop on Subduction Processes emphasizing the Kurile-Kamchatka-Aleutian Arcs (JKASP-3). Fairbanks. June 2002. 2002. P. 120
A chronology of the Holocene eruptions from the northern Kamchatka volcanoes based on linking major C14-dated tephra sequences with the help of EMPA glass data (2012)
Ponomareva Vera A chronology of the Holocene eruptions from the northern Kamchatka volcanoes based on linking major C14-dated tephra sequences with the help of EMPA glass data // Quaternary International. 2012. V. 279–28. P. 383 doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2012.08.1191.    Аннотация
Volcanic eruptions from Kamchatka have deposited many unique tephra layers over a large region within the North Pacific, providing important isochrons between key sites such as marine ODP core 883 (Pacific Ocean, Detroit Seamount) and Elgygytgyn Lake (Chukotka, eastern Siberia). Here we present a compilation of C14 dates on major Holocene tephras from the volcanically highly active region, based on decades of detailed stratigraphical fieldwork on Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoy, and other volcanoes.The 12-m thick tephra sequence at the Kliuchevskoy slope has been continuously accumulating during the last ∼11 ka. It contains over 200 visible individual tephra layers and no datable organic material. The section is dominated by dark-gray mafic cinders related to Kliuchevskoy activity. In addition, it contains 30 light-colored thin layers of silicic tephra from distant volcanoes including 11 layers from Shiveluch volcano located only 65 km to the north. We have used EMPA glass analysis to correlate most of the marker tephra layers to their source eruptions dated earlier by C14 (Braitseva et al., 1997; Ponomareva et al., 2007), and in this way linked Kliuchevskoy tephra sequence to sequences at other volcanoes including Shiveluch. The C14 dates and tephras from the northern Kamchatka are then combined into a single Bayesian framework taking into account stratigraphical ordering within and between the sites. This approach has allowed us to enhance the reliability and precision of the estimated ages for the eruptions. Age-depth models are constructed to analyse changes in deposition rates and volcanic activity throughout the Holocene. This detailed chronology of the eruptions serves as a basis for understanding temporal patterns in the eruption sequence and geochemical variations of magmas. This research could prove important for the long-term forecast of eruptions and volcanic hazards.
A geochemical model for fumaroles of the Mutnovsky volcano, Kamchatka, USSR (1992)
Taran Yu.A., Pilipenko V.P., Rozhkov A.M., Vakin E.A. A geochemical model for fumaroles of the Mutnovsky volcano, Kamchatka, USSR // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 1992. V. 49. № 3–4. P. 269 - 283. doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(92)90018-9.    Аннотация
On the basis of the chemical, isotopic and thermodynamic characteristics of fluids sampled between 1964 and 1989 a genetic model description is given for fumaroles of the Mutnovsky volcano. There are three individual groups of fumaroles in the Mutnovsky crater which show stable activity for a long period of time: “the Active Funnel” (temperatures exceed 600°C), the “Upper Field” (up to 320°C) and the “Bottom Field” (from 100 to 150°C). The three principal zones of emission have different gas composition, water isotopic composition, radioactivity and 3He/4He ratios. The abundance of magmatic components in the high-temperature fumaroles of the “Active Funnel” is much higher than those in gases from the other groups. Emission rate of SO2 from the “Active Funnel” is about 200 t/d, which requires complete degassing as a minimum of 1 km3 of magma every 20 years. Fluids of the “Upper Field” contain up to 80% of steam from the Mutnovsky geothermal system. Temperature variations of the “Bottom Field” fumaroles (from 97°C before 1982 to 151°C in 1989) result from changes in hydrological conditions in the crater. Evaporation of high-saline acid brine which is formed in the interior of the volcano is responsible for the composition of the “Bottom Field” gas-steam discharges.
A giant landslide-explosion circue and debris avalanche at Bakening volcano, Kamchatka (1999)
Melekestsev I.V., Dirksen O.V., Girina O.A. A giant landslide-explosion circue and debris avalanche at Bakening volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 1999. V. 20. № 3. P. 265-279.    Аннотация
This study revealed that the giant cirque of Bakening Volcano had been produced by its eruption ca. 8000-8500 carbon-14 year ago. The eruption is supposed to have been heralded by a large earthquake (M > 7) resulting in the collapse and slide of the SE sector of the cone. The landslide unroofed the hydrothermal system and triggered an explosion which was followed by an ash-and-block pyroclastic flow. A rockslide avalanche rolled down into the valley of the Srednyaya Avacha River and travelled as far as 10-11 km along it. The avalanche deposited its debris material over an area of 18-20 km2 measuring 0.4-0.5 km3 in volume. These deposits dammed the river, produced two lakes (Bezymyannoe and Verkhneavacha), and gave birth to a large lahar which traveled along the valley much farther.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/239/ [связанный ресурс]
A guide to the volcanoes of southern Kamchatka, Russia (2001)
Waltham Tony A guide to the volcanoes of southern Kamchatka, Russia // Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 2001. V. 112. № 1. P. 67 - 78. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7878(01)80051-1.    Аннотация
The remote sub-arctic wilderness of Kamchatka contains a line of active volcanoes above the Pacific Ocean plate subduction zone. This guide is based on the itinerary of the 1999 GA excursion to sites around Petropavlovsk. Descriptions cover the Uzon caldera and its Valley of Geysers, and the volcanoes of Avacha, Karimsky, Gorely and Mutnovsky.
A multi-sensor satellite assessment of SO2 emissions from the 2012–13 eruption of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka (2015)
Telling J., Flower V.J.B., Carn S.A. A multi-sensor satellite assessment of SO2 emissions from the 2012–13 eruption of Plosky Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 98 - 106. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.010.    Аннотация
Abstract Prolonged basaltic effusive eruptions at high latitudes can have significant atmospheric and environmental impacts, but can be challenging to observe in winter conditions. Here, we use multi-sensor satellite data to assess sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2012–2013 eruption of Plosky Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka), which lasted ~ 9–10 months and erupted ~ 0.55 km3 DRE. Observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used to evaluate volcanic activity, SO2 emissions and heat flux associated with the effusion of lava flows. Gaps in the primary OMI SO2 time-series dataset occurred due to instrument limitations and adverse meteorological conditions. Four methods were tested to assess how efficiently they could fill these data gaps and improve estimates of total SO2 emissions. When available, using data from other {SO2} observing instruments was the most comprehensive way to address these data gaps. Satellite measurements yield a total SO2 loading of ~ 200 kt SO2 during the 10-month Plosky Tolbachik eruption, although actual SO2 emissions may have been greater. Based on the satellite SO2 measurements, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) multi-taper method (MTM) was used to analyze cyclical behavior in the complete data series and a 55-day cycle potentially attributable to the eruptive behavior of Plosky Tolbachik during the 2012 – 2013 eruption was identified.
A petrological and geochemical study on time-series samples from Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka arc (2017)
Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Nakagawa Mitsuhiro, Kuritani Takeshi, Muravyev Yaroslav, Malik Nataliya, Klimenko Elena, Amma-Miyasaka Mizuho, Matsumoto Akiko, Shimada Shunjiro A petrological and geochemical study on time-series samples from Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka arc // Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2017. V. 172. № 5. doi:10.1007/s00410-017-1347-z.
A thermal anomaly as a precursor for predictions of strong explosive volcanic eruptions (2013)
Girina O.A. A thermal anomaly as a precursor for predictions of strong explosive volcanic eruptions // Abstracts. IAVCEI 2013 Scientific Assembly, July 20 - 24. Kagoshima, Japan: 2013. № 1357-1.
AIRBORNE ASH HAZARD MITIGATION IN THE NORTH PACIFIC: A MULTI-AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION (2004)
Neal C.A., Girina O.A., Ferguson G., Osiensky J. AIRBORNE ASH HAZARD MITIGATION IN THE NORTH PACIFIC: A MULTI-AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION // Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety, June 21-24, 2004, Session 2. Alexandria, Virginia (USA): 2004. P. 55
ASTER and field observations of the 24 December 2006 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Russia (2008)
Carter A.J., Girina O.A., Ramsey M.S., Demyanchuk Yu.V. ASTER and field observations of the 24 December 2006 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Russia // Remote Sensing of Environment. 2008. V. 112. P. 2569-2577.    Аннотация
An explosive eruption occurred at Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia) on 24 December 2006 at 09:17 (UTC). Seismicity
increased three weeks prior to the large eruption, which produced a 12–15 km above sea level (ASL) ash column. We present field observations from 27 December 2006 and 2 March 2007, combined with satellite data collected from 8 October 2006 to 11 April 2007 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), as part of the instrument's rapid-response program to volcanic eruptions. Pixel-integrated brightness temperatures were calculated from both ASTER 90 m/pixel thermal infrared (TIR) data as well as 30 m/pixel shortwave infrared (SWIR) data. Four days prior to the eruption, the maximum TIR temperature was 45 °C above the average background temperature (−33 °C) at the dome, which we interpret was a precursory signal, and had dropped to 8 °C above background by 18 March 2007. On 20 December 2006, there was also a clear thermal signal in the SWIR data of 128 °C using ASTER Band 7 (2.26 μm). The maximum SWIR temperature was 181 °C on the lava dome on 4 January 2007, decreasing below the detection limit of the SWIR data by 11 April 2007. On 4 January 2007 a hot linear feature was observed at the dome in the SWIR data, which produced a maximum temperature of 700 °C for the hot fraction of the pixel using the dual band technique. This suggests that magmatic temperatures were present at the dome at this time, consistent with the emplacement of a new lava lobe following the eruption. The eruption also produced a large, 6.5 km long by up to 425 m wide pyroclastic flow (PF) deposit that was channelled into a valley to the south–southeast. The PF deposit cooled over the following three months but remained elevated above the average background temperature. A second field investigation in March 2007 revealed a still-warm PF deposit that contained fumaroles. It was also observed that the upper dome morphology had changed in the past year, with a new lava lobe having in-filled the crater that formed following the 9 May 2006 eruption. These data provide further information on effusive and explosive activity at Bezymianny using quantitative remote sensing data and reinforced by field observations to assist in pre-eruption detection as well as post-eruption monitoring.
Active volcanoes of Kamchatka and Northern Kurils in 2005 (2007)
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Malik N.A., Melnikov D.V., Ushakov S.V., Demyanchuk Yu.V., Kotenko L.V. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka and Northern Kurils in 2005 // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2007. V. 1. № 4. P. 237-247. doi: 10.1134/S0742046307040021.    Аннотация
In 2005, six major eruptions of four Kamchatka volcanoes (Bezymyannyi, Klyuchevskoy, Shiveluch, and Karymskii) occurred and the Avachinskii, Mutnovskii, and Gorelyi Kamchatka volcanoes and the Ebeko and Chikurachki volcanoes in northern Kurils were in a state of increased activity. Owing to a close collaboration between the KVERT project, Elizovo airport meteorological center, and volcanic ash advisory centers in Tokyo, Anchorage, and Washington (Tokyo, Anchorage, and Washington VAACs), all necessary measures for safe airplane flights near Kamchatka were taken and fatal accidents related to volcanic activity did not occur.
Active volcanoes on Kamchatka, Russia (2006)
Gordeev E.I., Girina O.A., Ushakov S.V., Senyukov S.L. Active volcanoes on Kamchatka, Russia // Abstracts for Fourth International Conference Cities on Volcanoes. IAVCEI. Quito-Ecuador. January 23-27. 2006. 2006. P. 22
Activity in the Karymsky Center in 1996: Summit Eruption at Karymsky and Phreatomagmatic Eruption in the Akademii Nauk Caldera (1998)
Muravyev Y.D., Fedotov S.A., Budnikov V.A., Ozerov A.Yu., Maguskin M.A., Dvigalo V.N., Andreev V.I., Ivanov V.V., Kartasheva L.A., Markov I.A. Activity in the Karymsky Center in 1996: Summit Eruption at Karymsky and Phreatomagmatic Eruption in the Akademii Nauk Caldera // Volcanology and Seismology. 1998. V. 19. № 5. P. 567-604.    Аннотация
Data are presented from studies of volcanoes in the Karymsky long-living volcanic center, Kamchatka in 1996. We examine the dynamics and rock composition for eruptions that started simultaneously on Karymsky Volcano and in the Akademia Nauk caldera. The effusive-explosive eruption of Karymsky Volcano was resumed after a 14-year repose period, producing about 30 million tons of andesite-dacite discharges through the summit vent. Long-continued eruptive activity of that volcano is supposed to go on during the near future. Simultaneously with this activity, typical of Karymsky Volcano, a subaquaceous explosive eruption was observed in the lake that occupies the Akademia Nauk caldera 6 km south of the volcano for the first time in Kamchatka during the historical period. An edifice arose in the northern part of Lake Karymsky during 18 hours of this eruption consisting of basaltic and basaltic andesite pyroclastic material surrounding a crater of diameter 650 m. The amount of erupted pyroclastic material is estimated as 0.04 km3, the total weight being over 70 million tons. A discussion is provided of the impact of these eruptions on the environment; we describe renewed hydrothermal activity and the formation of a new group of hot springs in the Akademia Nauk caldera, and estimate the possibility of breakthrough floods from Lake Karymsky etc.

Представлены материалы исследований деятельности вулканов Карымского долгоживущего вулканического центра на Камчатке в 1996 г. Рассмотрены особенности динамики и вещественный состав пород одновременно начавшихся извержений вулкана Карымский и в кальдере Академии Наук. Эффузивно-эксплозивное извержение Карымского вулкана возобновилось после 14-летнего периода покоя и в течение года поставило через вершинный кратер -30 млн.т вещества андезитодацитового состава. Предполагается длительная эруптивная активность этого вулкана в ближайшие годы. Одновременно с типичной для Карымского вулкана активностью в 6 км южнее впервые на Камчатке в историческое время наблюдалось субаквальное эксплозивное извержение в озере, занимающем кальдеру Академии Наук. За 18ч извержения в северной части Карымского озера выросла постройка из пирокластического материала базальтового, андезитобазальтового состава с кратером диаметром 650 м. Объем извергнутого пирокластического материала оценивается в 0.04 км3, общий вес >70 млн.т. Обсуждены последствия извержений для окружающей среды, описаны оживление гидротермальной деятельности и образование новой группы горячих источников в кальдере Академии Наук, сделаны оценки прорывных паводков из Карымского озера и т.п.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/777/ [связанный ресурс]
Activity of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2012-2013 and Danger to Aviation (2014)
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Demyanchuk Yu.V. Activity of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2012-2013 and Danger to Aviation // Abstracts. International Workshop “JKASP-8”. Sapporo. Japan. September 22-26. 2014. 2014.
Activity of Kamchatkan and Northern Kuriles volcanoes database of Kamchatkan volcanic eruption response team (2015)
Girina O.A., Romanova I.M. Activity of Kamchatkan and Northern Kuriles volcanoes database of Kamchatkan volcanic eruption response team // 26th IUGG General Assembly. June 22-July 02, 2015. Abstracts. Prague: IUGG/IAVCEI. 2015. P. VS10p-456.
Activity of North Kamchatkan volcanoes in 1985 (1990)
Zharinov N.A., Zhdanova E.Yu., Belousov A.B., Belousova M.G., Ivanov A.P., Malyshev A.I., Khanzutin V.P. Activity of North Kamchatkan volcanoes in 1985 // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. V. 10. V. 3. P. 331-346.
Advances in studies of dense volcanic granular flows (2005)
Bursik M., Patra A., Pitman E. B ., Nichita C., Macias J. L., Saucedo R., Girina O.A. Advances in studies of dense volcanic granular flows // Reports on Progress in Physics. 2005. V. 68. P. 271-301.
Age and Paleogeography of Formation of Volcano-Sedimentary Deposits in the Uzon-Geizernaya Caldera Depression, Kamchatka (According to Palynological Data) (1993)
Egorova I.A. Age and Paleogeography of Formation of Volcano-Sedimentary Deposits in the Uzon-Geizernaya Caldera Depression, Kamchatka (According to Palynological Data) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1993. V. 15. № 2. P. 157-176.    Аннотация
Based on thepalynological studies, the age dismembering is made of volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits in the Uzon-Geysernaya Caldera Depression. The paleogeographical setting of the time of sedimentation is described. The age of deposits was established to be Late Pleitocene-Holocene. The dating was made of the main events of the post-caldera volcanic activity in the Uzon Caldera.
http://repo.kscnet.ru/2588/ [связанный ресурс]
Age of Volcanoes in the Kurille-Kamchatka Zone (1969)
Melekestsev I.V., Braitseva O.A., Sulerzhitskii L.D., Ogorodov N.V., Kozhemiaka N.N., Egorova I.A., Lupikina E.G. Age of Volcanoes in the Kurille-Kamchatka Zone // International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth`s Interior. Sumposium on Volcanoes &Their Roots. Oxford: 1969. P. 138-139.





 

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