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Records: 2404
 E
Enterance magma temperature, formation, dimensions and evolution of magma chambers of volcanoes (1981)
Fedotov S.A. Enterance magma temperature, formation, dimensions and evolution of magma chambers of volcanoes // Arc Volcanism: Physics and Tectonics. Proceedings of a 1981 IAVCEI Symposium, Arc Volcanism, August-September, 1981, Tokyo and Hakone. Tokyo: Terra Scientific Publishing Co. 1981. P. 90
Eruption Forecasting of Volcanoes in Kamchatka and Kurile Islands (1988)
Fedotov S.A. Eruption Forecasting of Volcanoes in Kamchatka and Kurile Islands // Kagoshima International Conference on Volcanoes: Proceedings of the International Conference on Volcanoes, Japan, Kagoshima, 19-23 July 1988. Kagoshima: Kagoshima Prefectural Government. 1988. P. 172-178.
Eruption warning systems for aviation in Russia: a 2007 status report (2007)
Neal C.A., Girina O.A., Senyukov S.L., Rybin A.V., Osiensky J., Hall T., Nelson K., Izbekov P. Eruption warning systems for aviation in Russia: a 2007 status report // 4th International Workshop on Volcanic Ash. Natural Hazards. New Zealand. 2007. 2007. P. 1-7.
Eruptions in the Northern Group of Volcanoes, in Kamchatka, during the Early 21st Century (2020)
Ozerov A.Yu., Girina O.A., Zharinov N.A., Belousov A.B., Demyanchuk Yu.V. Eruptions in the Northern Group of Volcanoes, in Kamchatka, during the Early 21st Century // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2020. Vol. 14. P. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0742046320010054.    Annotation
The early 21st century saw increased eruption activity of major volcanoes in the Northern Group of Kamchatka, namely, Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and the Tolbachik Fissure Zone. The growth of an extrusive dome on Sheveluch andesitic volcano has occurred, with the dome reaching a height of 600 m after 38 years of nearly uninterrupted eruption activity. An 8-year period of relative quiet was followed by ten summit eruptions and two lateral vent openings on the Klyuchevskoy basaltic volcano. Explosive–effusive eruptions were observed nearly every year on the Bezymianny andesitic volcano. A 36-year quiet period gave way to a new eruption in the Tolbachik regional fissure zone.
Eruptive history of Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka, USSR, based on tephra stratigraphy and 14C dating (1991)
Braitseva O.A., Melekestsev I.V. Eruptive history of Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka, USSR, based on tephra stratigraphy and 14C dating // Bulletin of Volcanology. 1991. Vol. 53. № 3. P. 195-206. doi:10.1007/BF00301230.    Annotation
Eruptions of the active Karymsky stratovolcano began about 5300 (6100 C-14) B.P. from within a pre-existing caldera which formed 7700 C-14 B.P. As indicated by 32 C-14 determinations on buried soils and charcoal, the volcano has gone through two major cycles of activity, separated by a 2300 year period of repose. The first cycle can be divided into two stages (6100-5100 and 4300-2800 B.P.). The earlier stage began with especially intense eruptions of basaltic andesite to dacite. The later stage was characterized by moderate-strength eruptions of andesite. The second cycle, which is characterized by weak to moderate intermittent eruptions of andesite, started 500 B.P. and continues to the present. Eruptive patterns suggest that this cycle may continue for at least another 200 years with an eruptive character similar to that of the recent past.
Eruptive process, effects and deposits of the 1996 and the ancient basaltic phreatomagmatic eruptions in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia (2001)
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina Eruptive process, effects and deposits of the 1996 and the ancient basaltic phreatomagmatic eruptions in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia / Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2001. P. 35-60. doi: 10.1002/9781444304251.ch3.
Estimates of heat and pyroclast discharge by volcanic eruptions based upon the eruption cloud and steady plume observations (1985)
Fedotov S.A. Estimates of heat and pyroclast discharge by volcanic eruptions based upon the eruption cloud and steady plume observations // Journal of Geodynamics. 1985. Vol. 3. № 3-4. P. 275-302. doi:10.1016/0264-3707(85)90039-0.    Annotation
Fumarolic steam plumes and eruption clouds rise like convetive turbulent columns into the atmosphere. Formulae are presented here for estimating the heat power of plumes, the production rate of juvenile pyroclasts ejected during eruptions and the heat output of fumaroles. Their accuracy is tested using the well-studied examples of eruptions of Kamchatkan volcanoes.
The Briggs (1969) formula may be used in observing the ascending part of a plume in crosswinds. The best results have been obtained using the CONCAWE formula which permits estimation of the heat power in crosswinds based on the axis height of a horizontal part of a maintained plume. Three connected equations have been suggested for a stable atmosphere and calm weather conditions. The first one, which is applicable for heights ranging from 100 m to 1 km, is the formula proposed by Morton et al. (1956). This equation changes for higher layers of the troposphere (1–10 km) and stratosphere (10–55 km).
A classification scale was constructed allowing us to compare volcanic eruptions and fumarolic activity in terms of the intensity of their plumes.
The described method is useful for volcano surveillance; it helps in the study of the energetics and mechanics of volcanic and magmatic processes.
Estimation of the sulfur dioxide emission by Kamchatka volcanoes using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (2014)
Melnikov D.V., Ushakov S.V., Galle B. Estimation of the sulfur dioxide emission by Kamchatka volcanoes using differential optical absorption spectroscopy // 8-th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes, JKASP 2014. 22-26 September, 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014.    Annotation
During the 2012-2013 we have measured SO2 on Kamchatka volcanoes (Gorely, Mutnovsky, Kizimen, Tolbachik, Karymsky, Avachinsky) using DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy). Mobile-DOAS, on a base of USB2000+, has been used as an instrument. The goal of this work was to estimate SO2 emission by Kamchatka volcanoes with the different types of activity. Mutnovsky and Avachinsky during the measurements period passively degassed with SO2 emission ~ 480 t/d and 210 t/d, respectively. Gorely volcano was very active, with intensive vapor-gas activity with gas discharge rate 800-1200 t/d. During the measurements at Karymsky volcano there were relatively weak explosive events (ash plum rose up to 0.5 km above the crater) with 5-10 minutes periodicity. For this time, SO2 discharge rate was ~350-400 t/d. Due to the remoteness and difficulties for accessibility of Kizimen volcano, the measurements were done only once – on October 15th, 2012. 5 traverses have been done above the gas plume. SO2 emission was ~ 700 t/d. On Tolbachik fissure eruption we have measured SO2 emission repeatedly from January until August 2013. The intensive effusion of the lava flows (basaltic andesite by composition) and frequent explosions in the crater of the cinder cone were characteristic features of this eruption. The measured gas emission was from ~1500-2200 t/d in January until 600-800 t/d in August 2013. All measurements were made not permanently, but to the extent possible. Therefore, it is difficult to make detailed conclusions on the SO2 emission on these volcanoes. Nevertheless, this research may become a starting point for the development of the system of the constant monitoring of volcanic gases emission by the active volcanoes of Kamchatka.

Estimation of the sulfur dioxide emission by Kamchatka volcanoes using differential optical absorption spectroscopy.
Evidence for Superhydrous Primitive Arc Magmas from Mafic Enclaves at Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka (2020)
Goltz A.E., Krawczynsky M.J., Gavrilenko M.G, Gorbach N.V., Ruprecht Ph. Evidence for Superhydrous Primitive Arc Magmas from Mafic Enclaves at Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka // Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology. 2020. Vol. 175. P. 115 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-020-01746-5.    Annotation
Mafic enclaves preserve a record of deep differentiation of primitive magmas in arc settings. We analyze the petrology and geochemistry of mafic enclaves from Shiveluch volcano in the Kamchatka peninsula to determine the differentiation histories of primitive magmas and to estimate their pressures, temperatures, and water contents. Amphibole inclusions in high forsterite olivine suggest that the primitive melt was superhydrous (i.e. >8 wt% H2O) and was fractionating amphibole and olivine early on its liquid line of descent. We find that the hydrous primitive melt had liquidus temperatures of 1062±48°C and crystallized high Mg# amphibole at depths of 23.6-28.8 km and water contents of 10-14 wt% H2O. The major and trace element whole rock chemistry of enclaves and of published analyses of andesites suggest that they are related through fractionation of amphibole-bearing assemblages. Quantitative models fractionating olivine, clinopyroxene, and amphibole reproduce geochemical trends defined by enclaves and andesites in variation diagrams. These models estimate 0.2%-12.2% amphibole fractionated from the melt to reproduce the full range of enclave compositions, which overlaps with estimates of the amount of amphibole fractionated from parental melts based on whole rock dysprosium contents. This contribution extends the published model of shallow processes at Shiveluch to greater depths. It provides evidence that primitive magmas feeding arc volcanoes may be more hydrous than estimated from other methods, and that amphibole is an important early fractionating phase on the liquid line of descent of superhydrous, primitive mantle-derived melts.
Evolution Stages and Petrology of the Kekuknai Volcanic Massif as Reflecting the Magmatismin Backarc Zone of Kuril-Kamchatka Island Arc System. Part 1. Geological Position and Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks (2011)
Koloskov A.V., Flerov G.B., Perepelov A.B., Melekestsev I.V., Puzankov M.Yu., Filosofova T.M. Evolution Stages and Petrology of the Kekuknai Volcanic Massif as Reflecting the Magmatismin Backarc Zone of Kuril-Kamchatka Island Arc System. Part 1. Geological Position and Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2011. Vol. 5. № 5. P. 312-334. doi: 10.1134/S074204631104004X.    Annotation
The evolution of the Quaternary Kekuknai volcanic massif (the western flank of the Sredinnyi Range in Kamchatka) has been subdivided into five stages: (I) the pre-caldera trachybasalt- basaltic andes- ite, (2) the extrusive trachyandesite-trachydacite, (3) the early trachybasalt, (4) the middle hawaiite- mugearite (with occasional occurrences of basaltic andesites), and (5) the late trachybasalt-hawaiite- mugearite (with occasional andesites) of areal volcanism. On the basis of petrologic data we identified the island arc and the intraplate geochemical types of rocks in the massif. The leading part in petrogenesis was played by dynamics of the fluid phase with a subordinated role of fractional crystallization and hybridism. Successive saturation of rocks with the fluid phase in the course of melt evolution stopped at the time of caldera generation when most fluid mobile elements and silica had been extracted. The geological and petrologic data attest to the formation of the massif in the environment of a backarc volcanic basin during the beginning of rifting with active participation of mantle plume components.

Выделено пять стадий эволюции четвертичного Кекукнайского вулканического массива (западный фланг Срединного хребта Камчатки): 1) докальдерная трахибазальтовая-андезибазальтовая, 2) экструзивная трахиандезит-трахидацитовая, 3) ранняя трахибазальтовая, 4) средняя гавайит-муджиеритовая (с единичными проявлениями андезибазальтов) и 5) поздняя трахибазальт-гавайит-муджиеритовая (с единичными проявлениями андезитов) - ареального вулканизма. По петрологическим данным среди пород массива выделены островодужный и внутриплитный геохимические типы. Ведущую роль в пет-рогенезисе играла динамика флюидной фазы при подчиненной роли процессов фракционной кристаллизации и гибридизма. Последовательное насыщение пород флюидной фазой в ходе эволюции расплавов было прервано в период кальдерообразования, когда осуществилась экстракция большей части флюидомобильных элементов и кремнезема. Геологические и петрологические материалы свидетельствуют о том, что формирование массива произошло в обстановке задугового вулканического бассейна в условиях начавшегося рифтогенеза, при активном участии компонентов мантийного плюма.



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