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Origin of spatial compositional variations of volcanic rocks from Northern Kurile Islands: Geochemical studies of active volcanoes on Paramushir, Atlasova, Antsiferova islands and submarine volcanoes (2013)
Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Nakagawa Mitsuhiro, Avdeiko Gennady Origin of spatial compositional variations of volcanic rocks from Northern Kurile Islands: Geochemical studies of active volcanoes on Paramushir, Atlasova, Antsiferova islands and submarine volcanoes // International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI). 2013, Kagoshima. Japan.. 2013.
Overview of the precursors and dynamics of the 2012–13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia (2015)
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Edwards Benjamin, Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry Overview of the precursors and dynamics of the 2012–13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 22 - 37. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.06.013.    Аннотация
Abstract We present a broad overview of the 2012–13 flank fissure eruption of Plosky Tolbachik Volcano in the central Kamchatka Peninsula. The eruption lasted more than nine months and produced approximately 0.55 km3 {DRE} (volume recalculated to a density of 2.8 g/cm3) of basaltic trachyandesite magma. The 2012–13 eruption of Tolbachik is one of the most voluminous historical eruptions of mafic magma at subduction related volcanoes globally, and it is the second largest at Kamchatka. The eruption was preceded by five months of elevated seismicity and ground inflation, both of which peaked a day before the eruption commenced on 27 November 2012. The batch of high-Al magma ascended from depths of 5–10 km; its apical part contained 54–55 wt. SiO2, and the main body 52–53 wt. SiO2. The eruption started by the opening of a 6 km-long radial fissure on the southwestern slope of the volcano that fed multi-vent phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive activity, as well as intensive effusion of lava with an initial discharge of > 440 m3/s. After 10 days the eruption continued only at the lower part of the fissure, where explosive and effusive activity of Hawaiian–Strombolian type occurred from a lava pond in the crater of the main growing scoria cone. The discharge rate for the nine month long, effusion-dominated eruption gradually declined from 140 to 18 m3/s and formed a compound lava field with a total area of ~ 36 km2; the effusive activity evolved from high-discharge channel-fed 'a'a lavas to dominantly low-discharge tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. On 23 August, the effusion of lava ceased and the intra-crater lava pond drained. Weak Strombolian-type explosions continued for several more days on the crater bottom until the end of the eruption around 5 September 2013. Based on a broad array of new data collected during this eruption, we develop a model for the magma storage and transport system of Plosky Tolbachik that links the storage zones of the two main genetically related magma types of the volcano (high-Al and high-Mg basalts) with the clusters of local seismicity. The model explains why precursory seismicity and dynamics of the 2012–13 eruption was drastically different from those of the previous eruption of the volcano in 1975–76.
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Paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy of young eruptive series (1982)
Kochegura V.V., Zubov A.G. Paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy of young eruptive series // Abstracts: generation of major basalt types. August 15-22, 1982. Reykjavik, Island: IAVCEI-IAGC Scientific Assembly. 1982. V. 81.
Parasitic eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano (Predskazanny eruption, 1983) (1988)
Khrenov A.P., Ozerov A.Yu., Litasov N.E., Slezin Yu.B., Murav’ev Ya.D., Zharinov N.A. Parasitic eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano (Predskazanny eruption, 1983) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1988. V. 7. P. 1-24.
Pb isotope composition of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka and North Pacific sediments: Implications for magma genesis and crustal recycling in the Kamchatkan arc (1995)
Kersting Annie B., Arculus Richard J. Pb isotope composition of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka and North Pacific sediments: Implications for magma genesis and crustal recycling in the Kamchatkan arc // Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 1995. V. 136. № 3–4. P. 133 - 148. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(95)00196-J.    Аннотация
Pb isotope data are used to constrain the chemical contribution of the subducted components in the recycling beneath Klyuchevskoy volcano, the most active volcano in the Kamchatkan arc. The Pb isotope ratios of Klyuchevskoy basalts (206Pb/204Pb= 18.26–18.30, 207/Pb204Pb= 15.45–15.48, 208/Pb204Pb= 37.83–37.91) define a narrow range that falls within the Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) field and are among the least radiogenic island arc basalts measured to date. These data are similar to data from three other Quaternary Kamchatkan volcanoes: Tolbachik, Kumroch-Shish, and Maly Semiachik. In contrast, North Pacific sediments (primarily siliceous oozes) collected parallel to the Kamchatkan trench during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 145, have Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb= 18.51–18.78, 207Pb/204Pb= 15.56–15.64, 208Pb/204Pb= 38.49–38.75) that are more radiogenic than either the Klyuchevskoy basalts or Pacific MORB. Incorporation of even a small amount of sediment in the source of the Klyuchevskoy magmas would shift the Pb isotope ratios of the erupted basalts from the MORB field to more radiogenic values. The absence of 10Be and elevated Pb isotope ratios in the Kamchatkan volcanic lavas, despite the presence of distinctively radiogenic Pb in the North Pacific sediments makes it unlikely that sediments or sediment-derived fluids are involved in the source magmas beneath Kamchatka. The Kamchatkan arc thus represents an “end-member” whereby little or no sediment is involved in terms of elemental recycling and arc magma genesis. The major and trace elements, Pb, Sr and Nd isotope data of the Kamchatkan basalts are most consistently explained if derived from a fluid-fluxed, peridotitic mantle wedge source, wherein the fluid composition is dominantly controlled by dehydration of altered oceanic crust, imparting a radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, and MORB-like Pb isotope signature to the mantle source. The erupted Klyuchevskoy lavas preserve a slab signature derived from incompatible elements that are strongly partitioned into the fluid. The 30 km of arc crust through which the Klyuchevskoy magmas traverse prior to eruption is not composed of older crust, but must be juvenile, similar in isotopic composition to MORB.
Periodic volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoy and Ushkovsky volcanoes during the early Holocene inferred from tephra study (2009)
Krasheninnikov Stepan, Portnyagin Maxim, Ponomareva V.V., Bergal-Kuvikas Olga, Mironov Nikita Periodic volcanic activity of Klyuchevskoy and Ushkovsky volcanoes during the early Holocene inferred from tephra study 2009.
Petrochemical features of volcanism in relation to the types of the Earth's crust (1962)
Gorshkov G.S. Petrochemical features of volcanism in relation to the types of the Earth's crust // The Crust of the Pacific Basin // Geoph. Monograph. 1962. V. 6. P. 110-115.
Petrochemistry of volcanic rocks in relation to the formation of island arcs (1961)
Gorshkov G.S. Petrochemistry of volcanic rocks in relation to the formation of island arcs // Annali di Geofisica. 1961. V. 14. № 2.
Petrochemistry of volcanic rocks in the Kurile Islands arc with some generalizations on volcanism (1973)
Gorshkov G.S. Petrochemistry of volcanic rocks in the Kurile Islands arc with some generalizations on volcanism // The Western Pacific: Island Arcs, Marginal Seas, Geochemistry. 1973. P. 459-467.
Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia (2015)
Churikova Tatiana G., Gordeychik Boris N., Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Ishizuka Osamu, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Miyazaki Takashi, Vaglarov Bogdan S. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 156 - 181. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.026.    Аннотация
Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle–Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene–historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P–T–H2O–fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K–Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3 of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975–1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within the Tolbachik volcanic massif. Sr–Nd isotopes are consistent with 2–4 crustal assimilation during formation of the pedestal and stratovolcanoes, while the young lava fields do not show evidence of crustal assimilation. Major and trace element data coupled with K–Ar dating provide strong evidence that Mount Povorotnaya, located in 8 km northeast of Plosky Tolbachik, is an old block of the Tolbachik massif pedestal and for the moment it is the oldest (306 ka) known object in Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes.
Petrological constraints on the mechanisms of catastrophic explosive eruptions of andesitic and acid magmas (2011)
Maximov A.P. Petrological constraints on the mechanisms of catastrophic explosive eruptions of andesitic and acid magmas // 7 th Biennual Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes: Mitigating Risk Through International Volcano, Earthquake, and Tsunami Science (JKASP-2011). August 25-30, 2011, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. 2011. P. 257-258.
Petrology and geochemistry of the New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption volcanic rocks and their evolution during the first two weeks of eruption (2013)
Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Yakushev Anton, Tolstykh Maria Petrology and geochemistry of the New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption volcanic rocks and their evolution during the first two weeks of eruption // IAVCEI 2013 Scientific Assembly. July 20 - 24, Kagoshima, Japan. 2013. P. 743
Petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik stratovolcano (2014)
Churikova Tatiana, Gordeychik Boris, Iwamori Hikaru, Nakamura Hitomi, Nishizawa Tatsuji, Haraguchi Satoru, Yasukawa Kazatuka, Ishizuka Osamu Petrology and geochemistry of the Tolbachik stratovolcano // 8th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes. Finding clues for science and disaster mitigation from international collaboration (JKASP-2014). 22-26 September 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014. P. 1-3.    Аннотация
The numerous of national and international publications were dedicated to Plosky Tolbachik volcano eruptions and adjacent monogenetic cones, which were erupted repeatedly during Holocene, including historical time [i.e. Vlodavets, 1937; Popkov, 1946; Peep, 1946, 1954; Menyailov, 1953; Sirin and Farberov, 1963; Kirsanov et al., 1974; Ivanov and Khrenov, 1979; Fedotov, 1984; Krivenko, 1990; Kersting, 1995; Tatsumi et al., 1995; Hochstaedter et al., 1996; Kepezhinskas et al., 1997; Turner et al., 1998; Pineau et al., 1999; Volynets et al., 2000; Churikova et al., 2001; Münker et al., 2004; Portnyagin et al., 2007; Volynets et al., 2013]. However, all these data mainly relates to monogenetic cones, but the information on stratovolcanoes itself practically absent. There are only few papers on Ostry and Plosky Tolbachik stratovolcanoes focusing on geology [Ermakov and Vazheevskaya, 1973], petrography and some petrochemistry of the rocks [Ermakov, 1977; Flerov and Melekestsev, 2013]. The modern geochemical and isotope studies of the stratovolcanoes were never achieved. In this report we present geological, petrographical, petrochemical, geochemical and some K-Ar data on the rocks of Tolbachik massif. The present report based on representative collection of 154 samples from stratovolcanoes, dikes, monogenetic cones of different ages, including last 2012-2013 eruption. Additionally our study included samples separately standing edifice of Povorotnaya mount, which age according to K-Ar dating is 0.306±0.01 Ма.
Petrology and volatile content of magmas erupted from Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, 2012–13 (2015)
Plechov Pavel, Blundy Jon, Nekrylov Nikolay, Melekhova Elena, Shcherbakov Vasily, Tikhonova Margarita S. Petrology and volatile content of magmas erupted from Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, 2012–13 // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2015. V. 307. P. 182 - 199. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.08.011.    Аннотация
Abstract We report petrography, and bulk rock, mineral and glass analyses of eruptive products of the 2012–13 eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Central Kamchatka Depression, Russia. Magmas are shoshonitic in composition, with phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase; clinopyroxene phenocrysts are scarce. Samples collected as bombs from the active vent, from liquid lava at the active lava front, and as naturally solidified “toothpaste” lava allow us to quantify changes in porosity and crystallinity that took place during 5.25 km of lava flow and during solidification. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from rapidly-cooled, mm-size tephra have near-constant {H2O} contents (1.19 ± 0.1 wt) over a wide range of {CO2} contents (< 900 ppm), consistent with degassing. The groundmass glasses from tephras lie at the shallow end of this degassing trend with 0.3 wt {H2O} and 50 ppm CO2. The presence of small saturation, rather than shrinkage, bubbles testifies to volatile saturation at the time of entrapment. Calculated saturation pressures are 0.3 to 1.7 kbar, in agreement with the depths of earthquake swarms during November 2012 (0.6 to 7.5 km below the volcano). Melt inclusions from slowly-cooled and hot-collected lavas have {H2O} contents that are lower by an order of magnitude than tephras, despite comparable {CO2} contents. We ascribe this to diffusive {H2O} loss through olivine host crystals during cooling. The absence of shrinkage bubbles in the inclusions accounts for the lack of reduction in dissolved {CO2} (and S and Cl). Melt inclusions from tephras experienced < 3 wt post-entrapment crystallisation. Melt inclusion entrapment temperatures are around 1080 °C. Compared to magmas erupted elsewhere in the Kluchevskoy Group, the 2012–13 Tolbachik magmas appear to derive from an unusually H2O-poor and K2O-rich basaltic parent.
Petrology of Alaid volcano, north Kurile (1935)
Kuno H. Petrology of Alaid volcano, north Kurile // Japanese journal of geology and geography. 1935. V. 12. P. 153-162.
Petrophysical features of lava flows from Bezymyannyi volcano, Kamchatka (2012)
Ladygin V.М., Girina O.A., Frolova Yu.V. Petrophysical features of lava flows from Bezymyannyi volcano, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2012. V. 6. № 6. P. 341-351. doi: 10.1134/S074204631206005X.    Аннотация
This paper presents results from a study of lava flows that were discharged by Bezymyannyi Volcano at different times, from old (about 3500 years ago) to recent ones (1985–1989). We provide detailed descriptions of the composition, structure, and petrophysical properties for the main types of constituent rocks, which are andesites and basaltic andesites. It was found that porosity is the leading factor that controls rock properties, while the effects of structural and mineralogical features are less prominent. We demonstrate the variation in the properties of rocks that compose the lava flows in relation to their ages: the older a rock is, the higher its density and strength and the lower its porosity is.
Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia (2013)
Shcherbakov Vasily D., Neill Owen K., Izbekov Pavel E., Plechov Pavel Yu. Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2013. V. 263. P. 132-140. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.02.010.
Physicochemical mechanism of the deep degassing of aqueous magmas (2001)
Maximov A.P. Physicochemical mechanism of the deep degassing of aqueous magmas // Experiment in Geosciences. 2001. V. 10. № 1. P. 122-123.
Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption (2014)
Volynets Anna, Melnikov Dmitry, Griboedova Irina Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption // 8-th Biennial Workshop on Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes, JKASP 2014. 22-26 September, 2014, Sapporo, Japan. 2014.    Аннотация
The 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption started from lava gushing and effusion in the Menyailov vent on November 27 th , 2012; after three days the activity of this vent ceased and the eruption continued from the Naboko vent until its end in September 2013. The eruption produced about 0.7 km 3 of high-Al basaltic trachyandesites (Dvigalo et al., 2014). At Menyailov vent SiO2 concentrations were as high as 55.35 wt.% and K2O -2.67 wt.% -higher than in any previously erupted rocks in Tolbachik monogenetic area. From the beginning of December, SiO 2 concentration in lavas dropped by 2 wt.% and remained at this level until the end of eruption. MgO, TiO2, Mg# increased, K2O, Na2O decreased slightly. Most prominent change we observe in K2O/MgO ratio, which was about 0.7 in the Menyailov vent rocks and became 0.5 in the Naboko vent rocks. Details of the geochemical composition of the volcanic rocks produced by this eruption are reported elsewhere (Volynets et al., 2013, Volynets et al., 2014 a, b); here we present the results of the geochemical study of the main phenocrysts in the lavas – plagioclase. For the detailed geochemical study of the plagioclase we selected two samples from the Naboko vent (Pl-phyric lavas, erupted in February and August) and five crystal lapilli (two of them were erupted in December 2012, and three – during 2013, when the new cone has been already built). Plagioclases in these lavas are represented by two generations of labradorite and bytownite. Pl phenocrysts of the 1 st generation are large (up to 2 cm on the long axis) strongly resorbed at the edges and sometimes in the cores as well, containing lots of glass inclusions. Pl subphenocrysts of the 2 nd generation are smaller (less than 500 µm), usually nonresorbed and clean, having euhedral facets. Normal, reversed and patchy zoning are typical for all studied crystals (fig.1, I and II). Maximum concentrations of An (up to 83% at compositional variation between An50 and 74) has been measured in the patchy zones. Crystal lapilli are characterized by the oscillatory zoning with An fluctuations around An57-63 (fig. 1, III and IV). This kind of zoning is the result of the diffusion control of Pl growth at low growth rates (Sibley et al., 1976). The edges of lapilli are usually rich of glassy inclusions, tunnel-like dissolution structures, Ol, Px, Mt inclusions (fig. 1, III and IV). There are abundant resorption zones in lapilli, with plenty of glassy inclusions. These zones are characterized by the patchy zoning with An concentration jumps up to An74; usually these high-An areas are observed near the inclusions of glass. At the edges of lapilli there are zones with An gradual decrease towards the rim from An 74 to An61.

Plagioclase lapilli and phenocrysts in the lavas of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption.
Plinian basaltic andesite eruptions of Avachinsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: chronology, dynamics and deposits (2007)
Bazanova L.I., Puzankov M.Yu., Maksimov A.P. Plinian basaltic andesite eruptions of Avachinsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: chronology, dynamics and deposits // European Geosciences Union 2007. 2007. V. 9. P. 05012





 

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