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 2022
Иноземцев А.А., Попова Д.Д., Абрамчук Т.В., Гирина О.А., Рысин Л.С., Купцов С.В., Саженков А.Н., Сендюрев С.И., Челомбитько А.В., Галлямов М.Д., Двинских А.В. Исследование устойчивости авиационного двигателя ПД-14 к воздействию вулканического пепла // Вестник УГАТУ. 2022. Т. 26. Вып. 96. № 2. С. 60-70. https://doi.org/10.54708/19926502_2022_2629660.
   Annotation
Впервые представлены результаты испытаний российского авиационного двигателя типа ПД-14 при попадании в его газовоздушный тракт вулканического пепла. Испытания ПД-14 разработки АО «ОДК-Авиадвигатель» проводили в условиях закрытого наземного стенда Ц-17Т ФАУ «ЦИАМ им. П. И. Баранова» согласно требованиям европейского агентства по авиационной безопасности EASA. В качестве вулканического пепла использовали натуральный пепел современных извержений камчатского вулкана Шивелуч. Показано, что попадание пепла в двигатель ПД-14 с максимально допустимой в Европе концентрацией 4 мг/м3 в течение одного часа не приводит к изменению тяговых характеристик ПД-14 и возникновению нежелательных последствий. Особое внимание уделено воздействию вулканического пепла на камеру сгорания и турбину двигателя. Приведены данные рентгеноспектрального анализа стекловидных отложений пепла на элементах турбины. Проведен численный расчет модельной области генерации стекловидных отложений пепла Шивелучa в газовоздушном тракте двигателя ПД-14.
Калачева Е.Г. Морская экспедиция на Курильские острова летом 2022 г. // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2022. Вып. 55. № 3. С. 96-104. doi: 10.31431/1816-5524-2022-3-55-96-104.
   Annotation
This report presents a brief description of the expeditionary work performed by the staff of the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences as part of the research topic and the Russian Science Foundation project on the Kuril Islands in the summer of 2022. In order to study the chemical erosion of volcanic islands and to assess the hydrothermal removal of magmatic volatiles, in addition to the works carried out in 2020 and 2021, hydrological and hydrochemical studies were comducted on the rivers draining the slopes of the volcanic ridges of the Paramushir, Onekotan and Shiashkotan islands. For the first time, with the help of a quadrocopter, sampling of the endorheic Lake Koltsevoe, which occupies the caldera of the Tao-Rusyr volcano (Onekotan Island), was carried out. A detailed hydrochemical testing on the thermal fields of the active volcanoes Sinarka and Kuntomintar (Shiashkotan Island) was performed, a number of regime observations of the Upper Yuryevsk springs (Paramushir Island) were replenished. In order to construct orthophotomaps and determine the boundaries of thermal anomalies, aerial and infrared surveys were carried out at the main study sites in parallel with geochemical sampling. A large number of water and gas samples were taken for further analytical studies during the expedition and the collection of sediments was replenished.
Калачева Е.Г., Волошина Е.В. Геохимическая характеристика термальных источников привершинной части вулкана Эбеко (о. Парамушир, Курильские острова) // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2022. Вып. 54. № 2. С. 6-19. doi: 10.31431/1816-5524-2022-2-54-6-19.
   Annotation
The chemical and isotopic composition of hot springs at the apical part of the active Ebeko volcano (Paramushir Island, Kuril Islands) is characterized based on the data obtained from fieldwork in 2020–2021. Thermal waters discharging from one of the sources of the Kuzminka River are ultra-acid (рН<2) Al-Ca-SO4-Cl type with mineralization up to 5 g/l and temperature up to 70°С. The anionic composition of waters is formed due to the dissolution in groundwater of acidic volcanic gases, partially «purified» in the main reservoir of the volcano's hydrothermal system. The cationic composition of waters, including rare-earth elements, is formed by isochemical dissolution of host rocks in the equivalent of 5 g per 1 liter of water. Differences in the isotopic composition and ratios of macrocomponents (SO4 /Cl, Al+Fe/Ca+Mg/Na+K) of waters of the near the summit  prings and the northwestern slope suggest the presence of different-level aquifers in the hydrothermal system confined to the edifice of the Ebeko volcano.
Калачева Е.Г., Котенко Т.А., Волошина Е.В., Эрдниева Д.Ю. Береговые термальные источники центральной части о. Итуруп: макро- и микроэлементный составы // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2022. Вып. 55. № 3. С. 31-44. doi: 10.31431/1816-5524-2022-3-55-31-44.
   Annotation
Based on the results of expeditionary studies (July 2021), geochemical features of thermal waters (natural manifestations and borehole waters) discharging near or directly on the Sea of Okhotsk and Pacific coasts of the central part of Iturup Island were considered: Reidovskie, Lososevye, Cape Konakov, Goryachie Klyuchi, Dachnye, water-recreational complex «Vannochki». The springs (with the exception of Lososevye) belong to subneutral Cl(Cl-HCO3)-Na waters with salinity less than 10 g/l. The Lososevye springs are of the weakly acidic HCO3-SO4-Ca-Na type with salinity of 3 g/l. The spontaneous gas is dominated by CO2 (Dachnye and Vannochki), N2 (Reidovskie and Cape Konakov) and CH4 (Goryachie Klyuchi). Against the background of a general extremely low content of microelements,  thermal waters are enriched with boron and lithium. The springs are characterized by small (0.1 l/s) to insignificant (0.02–0.05 l/s) flow rates, while wells drilled nearby uncover horizons of pressurized waters.
Калачева Е.Г., Мельников Д.В., Волошина Е.В., Карпов Г.А. Геохимия вод кратерного озера вулкана Малый Семячик // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2022. № 3. С. 28-42. doi: 10.31857/S0203030622030026.
   Annotation
Based on the data of field studies in different years, the macro- and microcomponent composition of the waters of the Zelenoe Lake in the crater of the Troitsky active volcano Maly Semyachik were considered. It is shown that the lake contains ultra-acidic (pH < 1) water of sulfate-chloride composition with mineralization from 8 to 42 g/L, depending on the state of the volcano. The anion composition of the lake is formed by the inflow and subsequent dissolution of acidic volcanic gases in the aquifer located directly under the lake. The cation composition of water is formed by the almost congruent dissolution of the host rocks. After a long period of dormancy, in 2008 a new stage of hydrothermal activation of the volcano began. The activity is ongoing. Against the background of a constantly increasing volume, there is an increase in the concentrations of the main macro components (SO4, Cl, Al, Fe) and in the salinity of water in general.
Колосков А.В., Пузанков М.Ю., Ананьев В.В., Коваленко Д.В. Вулкан Большой Паялпан (Cрединный хребет, Камчатка). К проблеме конвергентности «островодужных» и «внутриплитных» петролого-геохимических признаков в магматической системе // Тихоокеанская геология. 2022. Т. 41. № 2. С. 3-24. doi:10.30911/0207-4028-2022-41-2-3-24.
   Annotation
The paper presents the data on age, mineralogy, geochemistry, and isotope composition of rocks from the
Bolshoi Payalpan Volcano (Sredinny Range, Kamchatka). We compared these data with those on the Nosichan
and Belogolovsky volcanoes, located within the Belogolovsky volcanic center. The basalts of the neck and the
upper lava complex of Bolshoi Payalpan are compositionally similar to the intraplate-type trachybasalts of the
Belogolovsky Volcano, and the basaltic andesites of the lower lava and the cone complex are similar to the
island arc rocks of the Nosichan Volcano. Analysis of the data obtained evidences that spatial and temporal
manifestations of intraplate and island-arc volcanism at the Bolshoi Payalpan Volcano are not accidental, but may
be a consequence of a change in the degree and depth of melting of the same deep source with the involvement
of a mantle diapir. The Belogolovsky volcanic center formed in a setting of the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene
rifting. Its evolution, right up to its extinction, proceeded in the same geodynamic setting with an increase in
depth of the mantle source and a decrease in the degree of its melting. Rock compositions of the Lower-Middle
Pliocene Nosichan Volcano remain of the island-arc type under conditions of rifting, since they are associated
with the mantle reservoir located at a shallower depth, which has experienced a higher degree of melting. There
is good reason for considering large volcanic centers as spontaneously-developing geological entities. As the
endogenous activity dies down, the degree of melting decreases and the depth of melting increases with the
replacement of island-arc volcanism by intraplate volcanism. The volcanic center becomes extinct.
Котенко Т.А., Котенко Л.В. Новое озеро в кратере Корбута вулкана Эбеко (о. Парамушир, Курильские острова) // Вестник КРАУНЦ. Серия: Науки о Земле. 2022. Вып. 53. № 1. С. 5-11. doi: 10.31431/1816-5524-2022-1-53-5-11.
   Annotation
The paper reports the appearance of a new crater lake on the Ebeko volcano. There has been no thermal lake within the Northern Crater since mid-2006. The last eruption began on October 19, 2016 and ended on November 19, 2021. The pyroclastic cone of the new crater, which was named Korbut Crater, rose within the Northern Crater. There was strong fumarolic activity in the Korbut crater, which persists today. The lake in the still erupting Korbut crater was first recorded by the authors on a satellite image from September 17, 2021; already on a satellite image from September 25, the crater was dry again. After the end of the Ebeko eruption, due to the intensive flow of fluid with bottom fumaroles and due to a large amount of meteoric precipitation, a lake was formed in the Korbut crater (Sentinel 2 satellite data of December 11, 2021). In January 2022, the authors examined the Korbut crater: the diameters of the lake were 61 and 80 m (latitude and meridian, respectively), the mirror area was 4.5 thousand m2, and water temperature was 43°C. A brief literature review of the existence of thermal lakes on the northern flank of the Ebeko volcano is given.
Котенко Т.А., Мельников Д.В., Тарасов К.В. Газовая эмиссия вулкана Эбеко (Курильские острова) в 2003–2021 гг.: геохимия, потоки и индикаторы активности // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2022. № 4. С. 31-46. doi: 10.31857/S0203030622040058.
   Annotation
This article reports new data on the chemical and isotopic composition of volcanic gases and the SO2 flux and the soil CO2 flux from the active Ebeko volcano. Within the time interval of 2003–2021 the volcano erupted in 2009, 2010, 2011, October 2016–November 2021. Volcanic gas composition for 2003–2016, 2021 were obtained by direct sampling from fumaroles. The high-temperature gas (420–529°C) has a composition typical of magmatic gases with C/S atomic ratios <1, HCl content 5–7 mmol/mol; isotopic composition of the volcanic vapor δD ~ –24, δ18O = 2.6–4.9. Geochemical precursors of eruptions have been established: an increase in concentrations of CO2, H2, SO2, HCl; a drop in the C/S ratio up to values of <1, which is characteristic of magmatic gases of the Kuriles; an increase in temperature; heavier values of δD and δ18O in the gas condensates; increasing of the total gas output. А high soil CO2 flux was measured using the accumulation chamber method at two thermal fields (up to 10442 g/m2/day), exceeding the visible discharge (~50 t/day versus ~40 t/day). SO2 flux from the active crater was measured by DOAS instruments in 2020 and 2021: they were 99 ± 28 and 9 ± 2.7 t/day in gas plumes, and 747 ± 220 and 450 ± 130 t/day in ash plumes, respectively. A decrease of SO2 output is associated with the rise of degassed magma before the end of the eruption.
Лупян Е.А., Гирина О.А., Сорокин А.А., Мельников Д.В., Уваров И.А., Кашницкий А.В., Бриль А.А., Константинова А.М., Марченков В.В., Бурцев М.А., Маневич А.Г., Крамарева Л.С., Мальковский С.И., Королев С.П., Гордеев Е.И. Построение и текущие возможности информационной системы «Дистанционный мониторинг активности вулканов Камчатки и Курил» (VolSatView). История создания и 10 лет развития // Материалы 20-й Международной конференции «Современные проблемы дистанционного зондирования Земли из космоса». Электронный сборник материалов конференции. М.: ИКИ РАН. 2022. С. 103 https://doi.org/10.21046/20DZZconf-2022a.
Хубаева О.Р., Бергаль-Кувикас О.В., Сидоров М.Д. Проблема формирования и питания Верхне-Юрьевских термальных источников (о.Парамушир, Курильские острова) // Вулканология и сейсмология. 2022. № 3. С. 43-49. doi: 10.31857/S0203030622030038.