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Magmatic plumbing systems of the monogenetic volcanic fields: A case study of Tolbachinsky Dol, Kamchatka (2018)
Kugaenko Yulia, Volynets Anna O. Magmatic plumbing systems of the monogenetic volcanic fields: A case study of Tolbachinsky Dol, Kamchatka // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2018.03.015.    Annotation
Clusters of small-volume volcanoes that individually may be defined as monogenetic, but have interlinked and
interconnected plumbing systems, are used to be categorized as monogenetic volcanic fields (MVF).We argue
that such volcanic clusters should be distinguished as separate type of volcanism, intermediate between monogenetic and polygenetic. The magma plumbing system structure of the MVF (its complexity and polymagmatic
character) is the key argument for the potential separation of themin a classification. To avoid confusion caused by geneticmeaning of the used words we suggest using a term “areal volcanism” or “areal volcanic fields” (AVF instead of MVF) as defining this special type of volcanic activity. Herewe provide a reviewof themain characteristic features of one of the largest Holocene AVF, which is active now – the Tolbachik field of cinder cones in the southern part of Klyuchevskaya volcano group (Kamchatka), known in the literature as Tolbachinsky Dol. This paper is focused on the research of magma plumbing system. We consider structural,morphological, geological, geochemical and petrological data on the erupted basalts and their genesis. Specially planned seismic experiments made in 2010–2015 (seismic tomography and microseismic sounding) allowedmodeling of the principal elements of the magma plumbing system of Tolbachik AVF. Analysis of the investigations made in this area shows that Tolbachik AVF has a complex, dynamic, variable magmatic feeding system, which can be visualized as a superposition of subvertical and sublateral magma conduits. The contrast composition of the erupted rocks is caused by their different, although genetically connected, magma sources and mixing processes. One of the long-lived eruptive centers of Tolbachik AVF is Plosky Tolbachik stratovolcano, which lost its independent activity and was captured by Tolbachik AVF in Holocene. The AVF formed rejuvenated volcanism using the feeding system of the stratovolcano like an “old anthill”. The magma plumbing system characteristics of Tolbachinsky Dol strongly support the idea of separation of AVF from monogenetic volcanism type in the classification.
Magnesian Basalts of Shiveluch Andesite Volcano, Kamchatka (1997)
Volynets O.N., Ponomareva V.V., Babansky A.D. Magnesian Basalts of Shiveluch Andesite Volcano, Kamchatka // Petrology. 1997. Vol. 5. № 2. P. 206-221.    Annotation
The eruptive history of the Shiveluch andesite volcano included two Holocene events, during which
the volcano erupted unusual rocks: medium-potassium, amphibole-bearing magnesian basalts (7600 years ago)
and high-potassium magnesian basalts with phlogopite and amphibole (3600 years ago). The volumes of tephra
were approximately 0.1 and 0.3 km3, respectively. Some of the mineralogical and geochemical features of the
Holocene basalts were inherited by the subsequent basaltic andesites and andesites. These are similar in Mg
variation ranges of olivine, clinopyroxene, and amphibole phenocrysts, high Mg contents, and high Cr and Ni
concentrations. This and the results of mass-balance calculations do not contradict the view that the Shiveluch
volcanic rocks originated during the crystal fractionation of Holocene basalt melts. However, the other
geochemical features of the Shiveluch rocks, e.g., their similar REE contents, cast doubt on the formation of
the magnesian basaltic andesites through fractional crystallization of magnesian basalt magma and suggest that
they originated as a result of interaction between magnesian basalt magma and a depleted mantle material at a
shallow depth. At the same time, the different mineral compositions of the Holocene medium- and high-potassium
basalts and the results of mass-balance calculations indicate that their parental magmas might be produced
by the melting of different rocks.

Андезитовый вулкан Шивелуч в голоценовое время дважды извергал необычные для него породы:
амфиболсодержащие магнезиальные умереннокалиевые базальты (7600 лет назад) и магнезиаль-
ные высококалиевые базальты с флогопитом и амфиболом (3600 лет назад). Объем тефры соста-
вил примерно 0.1 и 0.3 км3 соответственно. Некоторые минералогические и геохимические особен-
ности голоценовых базальтов, например близкий диапазон вариаций магнезиальное™ вкрапленни-
ков оливина, моноклинного пироксена и амфибола, повышенная магнезиальность пород и
повышенные содержания в них Сг и Ni, наследуются андезитобазальтами и андезитами вулкана Ши-
велуч. Эти обстоятельства, а также результаты масс-балансовых расчетов не противоречат гипоте-
зе о происхождении эффузивов вулкана Шивелуч в процессе кристаллизационной дифференциации
расплавов голоценовых базальтов. Однако другие геохимические особенности рассматриваемых
пород, например близкие содержания редкоземельных элементов в них, делают маловероятной воз-
можность образования магнезиальных андезитобазальтов путем фракционной кристаллизации рас-
плава магнезиального базальта, но позволяют предполагать их формирование в процессах взаимо-
действия таких расплавов с веществом деплетированной мантии на малых глубинах. В то же время
различие в минералогическом составе голоценовых умеренно- и высококалиевых базальтов и ре-
зультаты балансовых расчетов могут служить доказательством различных источников выплавле-
ния исходных расплавов для этих пород.
Magnetostratigraphy of Kamchatkan Holocene formations of soil and pyroclastics (1990)
Kochegura V.V., Zubov A.G., Braytseva O.A. Magnetostratigraphy of Kamchatkan Holocene formations of soil and pyroclastics // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 8. № 6. P. 825-849.    Annotation
An account is given of magnetostratigraphic studies of Kamchatkan Holocene formations: the cover of soil and pyroclastics and the rocks of the cinder cones from the flank eruptions of Klyuchevskoi Volcano. А study was made of seven sections of the soil and pyroclastics and of samples from 17 cinder cones. А detailed account is given of the data processing procedure. Consideration is given to the reasons for the established incompleteness of the paleomagnetic record in the sections and it is demonstrated that adequately detailed reconstruction of the history of the geomagnetic 1ield is possible only provided that а study is made of а series of рагаllеl sections. The trajесtory of the geomagnetic field vector over the last 4000 years is determined on the basis of the material on radiocarbon datings. Seven cycles of paleosecular variations are distinguished in the age range investigated; each of these cycles has individual features by which they can be recognised and used for stratigraphic correlation. The, features taken were the direction of rotation of the vector, the shape and size of its loops, and the length of the cycles. Correlation of the sections based on paleomagnetic data was found to be in good agreement with the tephrostratigraphic correlation and enabled corrections to be made to the age of some horizons, including the archeological layers of the primitive settlement at Zhupanovo and the cinder cones. The metachronous magnetization present in some tephra layers was found to be an obstacle to any improvement in the accuracy and detail of magnetochronological reconstructions.
Major and trace element zoning in plagioclase from Kizimen Volcano (Kamchatka): Insights into magma-chamber processes (2013)
Churikova T.G., Ivanov B.V., Eichelberger J., Wörner G., Browne B., Izbekov P. Major and trace element zoning in plagioclase from Kizimen Volcano (Kamchatka): Insights into magma-chamber processes // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2013. Vol. 7. № 2. P. 112-130. doi:10.1134/S0742046313020024.    Annotation
The data on the geochemistry of the rocks of Kizimen Volcano and results of microprobe studies of major and trace elements in plagioclase grains from acid lavas and basalt inclusions are presented. The characteristics of the Kizimen Volcano are the following: (1) basalt inclusions are abundant in acid lavas; (2) banded, mixed lavas occur; (3) the distribution curves of rare earth elements of acidic lavas and basalt inclusions intersect; (4) Sr–Nd isotope systematics of the rocks and inclusions do not indicate mixture with crustal material; (5) plagioclase phenocrysts are of direct and reverse zonation; (6) olivine and hornblende, as well as acid and mafic plagioclases, coexist in the rocks. The studies revealed that the rocks are of a hybrid nature and originated in the course of repeated mixture of acid and mafic melts either with chemical and ther mal interaction of melts or exclusively thermal ones. Study of the major and trace element distribution in zonal minerals provides an informative tool for understanding the history of the generation and evolution of melts in a magma chamber
Mantle and fluid sources below Klyuchevskoy-Kamen-Bezymianny line (Kamchatka) (2014)
Churikova T., Gordeychik B., Wörner G. Mantle and fluid sources below Klyuchevskoy-Kamen-Bezymianny line (Kamchatka) / Geofluid-3. Nature and Dynamics of fluids in Subduction Zones. Tokyo, Japan, February 28 - March 3, 2014. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Institute of Technology. 2014. P. 72    Annotation
Kamen volcano is an extinct volcanic complex located in the central part of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) between active Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes. Kamen volcano was mapped by V.A. Ermakov only in the 1970s. However the modern geochemical studies of Kamen volcano have not been previously carried out and its relationship and petrogenesis in comparison to other active neighbors are unknown. A modern geochemical study of Kamen volcano is needed because it will shed light not only on the history of the volcano itself and its closest neighbors, but also on the history and magmatic evolution of the KGV melts in general. The distance between the summits of Kamen and Klyuchevskoy is only 5 km, the same as between Kamen and Bezymianny. The close relationship in space and time of the KGV and the common zone of seismicity below them suggests a common source and a possible genetic relationship between their magmas. However, the Late-Pleistocene-Holocene lavas of all these neighboring volcanoes are very different: high-Mg and high-Al Ol-Cpx-Pl basalts and basaltic andesites occur at Klyuchevskoy volcano, and Hbl-bearing andesites and dаcites dominate at Bezymianny volcano. The rocks of Ploskie Sopky volcano, situated only 10 km NW of Kamen, are represented by medium-high-K subalkaline lavas.
Mass balance and thermal regime of a crater glacier at Ushkovskii volcano (1990)
Muravyev Y.D., Salamatin A.N. Mass balance and thermal regime of a crater glacier at Ushkovskii volcano // Volcanology and Seismology. 1990. Vol. 11. № 3. P. 411-424.    Annotation
A thermal model has been constructed for a steady-state glacier of Ushkovskii Volcano. Analysis of ice mass balance components has revealed elevated heat flow (mean valce 10 W/m2) in the summit crater wich has remained nearly constant over the last 40 years. The measured accumulation rate and temperature distribution in the snow and firn body in the middle of the Gorshkov crater suggest the existence of a considerable uplift (a small embedded crater) overlain by the glaciers. The formulas proposed in this paper can be used to evaluate critical state parameters for unsteady ice masses on the slopes of Klyuchevskoi Volcano.

Построена теплофизическая модель стационарного состояния ледника в активном кратере Ушковского вулкана. Анализ составляющих баланса массы льда показал повышенный геотермический поток (среднее значение 10 Вт/м¤) в пределах вершинного конуса и слабую его изменчивость за последние 40 лет. По измеренной скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежнофирновой скорости аккумуляции и распределению температуры в снежно-фирновой толще в центре кратера Горшкова предполагается существование значительного поднятия (вложенного малого кратера), перекрытого ледником.
Полученные расчетные формулы помогут оценить параметры критических состояний нестационарных ледяных масс на склонах Ключевского вулкана.
Mechanical properties of lava extruded in the 1983 Predskazanny eruption (Klyuchevskoi volcano) (1988)
Panov V.K., Slezin Yu.B., Storcheus A.V. Mechanical properties of lava extruded in the 1983 Predskazanny eruption (Klyuchevskoi volcano) // Volcanology and Seismology. 1988. Vol. 7. P. 25-37.
Mechanism of magma ascent and deep feeding channels of island arc volcanoes (1975)
Fedotov S.A. Mechanism of magma ascent and deep feeding channels of island arc volcanoes // Bulletin Volcanologique. 1975. Vol. 39. № 2. P. 241-254. doi: 10.1007/BF02597830.    Annotation
The paper discusses the mechanism of deep magma activity beneath island are volcanoes and similar structures on the basis of data from geophysical investigations in Kamchatka; the analyses of forces that cause the ascent of magma; and related phenomena that are due to hydrostatic forces.
It is shown that the ascent of magma through the astnenosphere occurs most likely in magma columns with a diameter of approximately 700–2,000 m and with a velocity of about 0.8–3 m/year. A regular line of such columns spaced in Kamchatka at a distance of about 30 km gives rise to a chain of separate Etrge volcanoes or volcanic centers.
Ultrabasic magmas are most likely accumulated near the M discontinuity, whereas the apparent place of andesitic magma accumulation is in the earth’s crust near the boundary between the basement and sediments.
Mechanism of the historical and the ongoing Vulcanian eruptions of Ebeko volcano, Northern Kuriles (2021)
Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Auer Andreas, Walter Thomas R., Kotenko Tatiana Mechanism of the historical and the ongoing Vulcanian eruptions of Ebeko volcano, Northern Kuriles // Bulletin of Volcanology. 2021. Vol. 83. № 4. P. 1-24. doi: 10.1007/s00445-020-01426-z.
Mercury (Hg) in the near-ground atmosphere of active volcanic edifices in Kamchatka (2008)
Ozerova N., Ozerov A. Mercury (Hg) in the near-ground atmosphere of active volcanic edifices in Kamchatka // 33rd International Geological Congress. Oslo, Norway. Abstracts. 2008.

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