The 2001–2004 dome-forming eruption of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka: Observation, petrological investigation and numerical modelling (2006)
Dirksen O., Humphreys M.C.S., Pletchov P., Melnik O., Demyanchuk Y., Sparks R.S.J., Mahony S. The 2001–2004 dome-forming eruption of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka: Observation, petrological investigation and numerical modelling // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2006. Vol. 155. № 3–4. P. 201 - 226. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.03.029.
There have been three episodes of lava dome growth at Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka since the Plinian explosive eruption in 1964. The episodes in 1980–1981, 1993–1995 and 2001–2004 have discharged at least 0.27 km3 of silicic andesite magma. A time-averaged mean extrusion rate of 0.2 m3/s is thus estimated for the last 40 years. Here the 2001–2004 activity is described and compared with the earlier episodes. The recent activity involved three pulses in extrusion rate and a transition to ongoing lava extrusion. Estimated magma temperatures are in the range 830 to 900 °C, with 850 °C as the best estimate, using the plagioclase−amphibole phenocryst assemblage and Fe−Ti oxides. Melt inclusions in amphibole and plagioclase have maximum water contents of 5.1 wt.%, implying a minimum pressure of ∼ 155 MPa for water-saturated conditions. The magma chamber depth is estimated to be about 5–6 km or more, a result consistent with geophysical data. The thicknesses of opx–mt–amph reaction rims on olivine xenocrysts are used to estimate the residence time of olivine crystals in the shallow chamber in the range 2 months to 4 years, suggesting replenishment of deeper magma into the shallow chamber contemporaneous with eruption. The absence of decompression-driven breakdown rims around amphiboles indicates ascent times of less than 7 days. Volcanological observations of the start of the 2001–2004 episode suggest approximately 16 days for the ascent time and a conduit equivalent to a cylinder of diameter approximately 53–71 m. Application of a conduit flow model indicates that the magma chamber was replenished during the 2001–2004 eruption, consistent with the results of olivine reaction rims, and that the chamber has an estimated volume of order 7 km3.
The 2012 Fissure Tolbachik Eruption: Preliminary Results of Petrological Investigation (2014)
Izbekov P., Koloskov A., Maximov A., Khabunaya S. The 2012 Fissure Tolbachik Eruption: Preliminary Results of Petrological Investigation // Geophysical Research Abstracts. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 2014. Vienna, Austria: EGU General Assembly 2014. 2014. Vol. 16. P. 11710
The 2016 Eruptions in Kamchatka and on the North Kuril Islands: The Hazard to Aviation (2019)
Girina O.A., Manevich A.G., Melnikov D.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E.G. The 2016 Eruptions in Kamchatka and on the North Kuril Islands: The Hazard to Aviation // Journal of Volcanology and Seismology. 2019. Vol. 13. № 3. P. 157-171. doi: 10.1134/S07420 46319 0300 47.
Large explosive eruptions of volcanoes pose the highest hazard to modern jet f lights, because such eruptions can eject as much as several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosol into the atmosphere during a few hours or days. The year 2016 saw eruptions on 5 of the 30 active Kamchatka volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Karymsky, and Zhupanovsky) and on 3 of the 6 active volcanoes that exist on the North Kuril Islands (Alaid, Ebeko, and Chikurachki). Effusive activity was observed on Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Alaid. All volcanoes showed explosive activity. The large explosive events mostly occurred from September through December (Sheveluch), a moderate ash emission accompanied the entire Klyuchevskoy eruption in March–November, and explosive activity of Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, Alaid, and Chikurachki was mostly observed in the earlie r half of the year. The ash ejected in 2016 covered a total area of 600 000 km2, with 460 000 km2 of this being due to Kamchatka volcanoes and 140 000 km2 to the eruptions of the North Kuril volcanoes. The activity of Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, and Zhupanovsky was dangerous to international and local f lights, because the explosions sent ash to heights of 10–12 km above sea level, while the eruptions of Bezymianny, Karymsky, Alaid, Ebeko, and Chikurachki were dangerous for local flights, since the ash did not rise higher than 5 km above sea level.
The 2019 Activity of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation (2020)
Girina O.A., Melnikov D.V., Manevich A.G., Nuzhdaev A.A., Petrova E.G. The 2019 Activity of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands Volcanoes and Danger to Aviation // Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2020. Japan, Chiba: JpGU. 2020. № HDS10-P01.
The 2019 Eruption Dynamics and Morphology at Ebeko Volcano Monitored by Unoccupied Aircraft Systems (UAS) and Field Stations (2020)
Walter Thomas, Belousov Alexander, Belousova Marina, Kotenko Tatiana, Auer Andreas The 2019 Eruption Dynamics and Morphology at Ebeko Volcano Monitored by Unoccupied Aircraft Systems (UAS) and Field Stations // Remote Sensing. 2020. Vol. 12. № 12(1961). doi: 10.3390/rs12121961.
The 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 sector collapse and debris avalanche at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat (2002)
Voight B., Komorowski J-C., Norton G. E., Belousov A. B., Belousova M., Boudon G., Francis P. W., Franz W., Heinrich P., Sparks R. S. J., Young S. R. The 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 sector collapse and debris avalanche at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat // Geological Society, London, Memoirs. 2002. Vol. 21. № 1. P. 363-407. doi:10.1144/GSL.MEM.2002.021.01.17.